GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Seawater   187Os/186Os 6.3   3.1         Koide et al. 1996
Seawater   234U/238U 625800   600     9   Chen et al. 1986
Seawater   238U/235U 137.89   0.075     21   The 238U/235U ratio for natural U is 137.88. Chen et al. 1986
Seawater   87Sr/86Sr 0.70916             Global isotopic strontium content in seawater which has been found in this study to not be in a steady state as was previously believed. Hydrothermal flux and riverine input have caused the concentration to vary greatly. Palmer & Edmond 1989
Seawater 38 87Sr/86Sr 0.70907   4e-05     42   Average 87Sr/86Sr value measured from Pelecypods, Gastropods, Worms, Barnacles, Echinoderms, Shark and Ray teeth and Carbonate sediments. Burke et al. 1992
Seawater 47 Ag 25     0.5 35     Nutrient distribution type. AgCl2[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 47 Ag 2.5             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 47 Ag 0.022     0.001       Assumed average value. Martin et al. 1983
Seawater 47 Ag 2.5e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 47 Ag 0.04           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 47 Ag 3           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
Seawater 13 Al 300             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 13 Al 0.03             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 13 Al 2             Orians & Bruland 1985
Seawater 13 Al 1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Hydes 1979
Seawater 13 Al 1           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Hydes 1979
Seawater 13 Al 20     5 40     Mid-depth minima. Al(OH)4[1-] and Al(OH)3[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 13 Al 2e-05             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 18 Ar 15             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 33 As 23     15 25     Nutrient distribution type. HAsO4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 33 As 0.023             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 33 As 2           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = As(V). Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Andreae 1979
Seawater 33 As 1.8           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Andreae 1977
Andreae 1979
Seawater 33 As 5.2             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 3. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 33 As 1700             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 5. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 79 Au 0.004           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 79 Au 0.03             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1987

Seawater 79 Au 11           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
Seawater 79 Au 2.5e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 79 Au 5e-05             Falkner & Edmond 1990
Seawater 79 Au 25             Unknown distribution type. AuCl2[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 5 B 4.4           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Inorganic Boron. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Noakes & Hood 1961
Seawater 5 B 420             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 5 B 0.416             Conservative distribution type. H3BO3 is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 5 B 4.5           ppm Boron concentrations (in ppm) as found in seawater. Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Seawater 5 B 4440           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 5 B 4500000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 56 Ba 100     32 150     Nutrient distribution type. Ba[2+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 56 Ba 20           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Seawater 56 Ba 15000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 56 Ba 0.1             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 56 Ba 11.7           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Chan et al. 1976
Seawater 4 Be 6.5e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 4 Be 0.0002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Measures & Edmond 1982
Seawater 4 Be 20     4 30     Nutrient and scavenging distribution type. BeOH[1+] and Be(OH)2[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 4 Be 0.2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Measures & Edmond 1982
Seawater 4 Be 0.21             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 83 Bi 4e-05           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 83 Bi 0.0001             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 83 Bi 10           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brooks 1960
Seawater 83 Bi       0.015 0.24     Depletion at depth. BiO[1+] and Bi(OH)2[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 83 Bi 0.0042             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 35 Br 67           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Bromide. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris & Riley 1966
Seawater 35 Br 67000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 35 Br 0.85             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Jaenicke 1988
Seawater 35 Br 0.84             Conservative distribution type. Br[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 35 Br 840             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 35 Br 67000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 6 C 2200             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Total CO2. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Broecker & Takahashi 1978
Seawater 6 C 2300             C (inorganic). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 6 C 4             Organic. Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 6 C 2.3     2 2.5     Nutrient distribution type. HCO3[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 6 C 28000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 6 C 2             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 20 Ca 420000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 20 Ca 415           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = C.A. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
Seawater 20 Ca 10.2             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 20 Ca 448000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 20 Ca 10300             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 20 Ca 10             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 20 Ca 412           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
Seawater 20 Ca 10.3             Slight surface depletion. Ca[2+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 48 Cd 0.0007             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 48 Cd 79             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 48 Cd 0.07           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 48 Cd 70           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Seawater 48 Cd 0.7     0.001 1.1     Nutrient distribution type. CdCl2[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 58 Ce 2e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 58 Ce 1.7             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 58 Ce 20     16 26     Surface depletion. CeCO3[1+], Ce[3+] and CeCl[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 58 Ce 4           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 58 Ce 0.001           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 17 Cl 540             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 17 Cl 18800000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 17 Cl 18800000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 17 Cl 19.353           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Chloride. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wilson 1975
Millero & Leung 1976
Seawater 17 Cl 550             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. I von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 17 Cl 0.546             Conservative distribution type. Cl[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 17 Cl 550000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 27 Co 0.02     0.01 0.1     Surface depletion and depletion at depth. Co[2+], CoCO3[0+] and CoCL[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 27 Co 3e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 27 Co 2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Knauer & Martin 1973
Seawater 27 Co 15.6             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Craig et al. 1967
Seawater 27 Co 0.002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Knauer et al. 1982
Seawater 27 Co 1.2             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 24 Cr 350           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Cranston 1979
Seawater 24 Cr 330           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Cr(tot) and Si. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Cranston 1979
Seawater 24 Cr 250             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 6. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 24 Cr 2.6             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 3. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 24 Cr 0.004             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 24 Cr 2.3     3 5     Value from Cr/Si ratio and deep water concentration because the surface is depleted (~0.5 nmol/kg). Jeandel & Minster 1987
Seawater 24 Cr 4     2 5     Nutrient distribution type. CrO4[2-] and NaCrO4[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 24 Cr 0.3           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 24 Cr 330           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Cranston 1979
Seawater 55 Cs 0.0022             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 55 Cs 306             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 55 Cs 0.3           ppb Initial alkali and Uranium seawater concentrations in the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Seawater 55 Cs 2.2             Conservative distribution type. Cs[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 55 Cs 2             Cesium concentrations in hydrothermal vent waters measured according to isotope dilution and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Palmer & Edmond 1989
Seawater 55 Cs 0.4           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 55 Cs 0.3           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brass & Turekian 1974
Seawater 29 Cu 0.2           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 29 Cu 4     0.5 6     Nutrient and scavenging distribution type. CuCO3[0+], CuOH[1+] and Cu[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 29 Cu 0.004             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 29 Cu 210             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 29 Cu 120           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Seawater 5 d11B 39.52   0.36         Boron isotopic concentrations (in ¿) as found in seawater. Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Seawater   d18O 0             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater   d234U 144   1     9   Chen et al. 1986
Seawater   d6Li -32.3     -32.8 -31.8     Chan et al. 1992
Seawater   dD 0             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 66 Dy 1.5             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 66 Dy 6e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 66 Dy 1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 66 Dy 6     4.8 6.1     Surface depletion. DyCO3[1+], Dy[3+] and DyOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 68 Er 5e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 68 Er 0.9           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 68 Er 1.3             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 68 Er 5     4.1 5.8     Surface depletion. ErCO3[1+], ErOH[2+] and Er[3+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 68 Er 0.0008           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 63 Eu 0.0001           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Seawater 63 Eu 0.21             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 63 Eu 9e-07             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 63 Eu 0.1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 63 Eu 0.9     0.6 1     Surface depletion. EuCO3[1+], Eu[3+] and EuOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 9 F 1.3           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bewers et al. 1973
Seawater 9 F 68             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 9 F 68             Conservative distribution type. F[1-] and MgF[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 9 F 1300           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 9 F 1300000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 26 Fe 40           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Gordon et al. 1982
Seawater 26 Fe 0.001             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 26 Fe 2           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 26 Fe 1.5e-06             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 26 Fe 250             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 26 Fe 1     0.1 2.5     Surface depletion and depletion at depth. Fe(OH)3[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 31 Ga 0.3             Unknown distribution type. Ga(OH)4[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 31 Ga 0.03           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 31 Ga       10 20   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Burton et al. 1959
Ishibashi 1961
Seawater 31 Ga 1.7             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Orians & Bruland 1988
Orians & Bruland 1988
Shiller 1988
Orians et al. 1990
Seawater 31 Ga 0.0003             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 6e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 0.8           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 0.0007           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 1.3             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 64 Gd 6     3.4 7.2     Surface depletion. GdCO3[+] and Gd[3+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 32 Ge 5           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Froelich & Andreae 1981
Seawater 32 Ge 0.007           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Froelich & Andreae 1980
Seawater 32 Ge 4.3             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 32 Ge 70     7 115     Nutrient distribution type. H4GeO4[0+] and H3GeO4[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 32 Ge 7e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 1 H 54000000             H (as H20). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 2 He 1.9             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Clarke et al. 1970
Seawater 2 He 0.0018             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 72 Hf         8   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
Seawater 72 Hf 0.007           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 72 Hf 3.4             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Boswell & Elderfield 1988
Seawater 72 Hf         40     Unknown distribution type. Hf(OH)4[0+] and Hf(OH)5[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 72 Hf 0.0008     0.0004 0.02     Assumed average value. Godfrey et al. 1996
Seawater 72 Hf         4e-05     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 80 Hg 0.42             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 80 Hg 5e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 80 Hg 0.005           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Matsunaga et al. 1975
Mukherji & Kester 1979
Seawater 80 Hg 6           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Mukherji & Kester 1979
Seawater 80 Hg 5     2 10     Unknown distribution type. HgCl4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 67 Ho 0.0002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 67 Ho 0.2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 67 Ho 2e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 67 Ho 0.45             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 67 Ho 1.9             Surface depletion. HoCO3[1+], Ho[3+] and HoOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 53 I 59           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = PO4 corrected. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Seawater 53 I 60           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Seawater 53 I 0.44             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 53 I 0.4     0.2 0.5     Nutrient distribution type. IO3[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 53 I 58000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 4. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 53 I 4.4             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = -1. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 53 I 60           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 53 I 0.01             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Jaenicke 1988
Seawater 49 In 0.2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Matthews & Riley 1970
Seawater 49 In 1e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 49 In 1             Unknown distribution type. In(OH)3[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 49 In 0.1             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Bruland 1983
Seawater 49 In 0.0001           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 77 Ir 0.002             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Goldberg et al. 1986
Seawater 77 Ir 0.18           ng/kg Average of water column. Goldberg et al. 1986
Seawater 19 K 399           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Culkin & Cox 1966
Seawater 19 K 10200             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 19 K 10.2             Conservative distribution type. K[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 19 K 392           ppb Initial alkali and Uranium seawater concentrations in the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Seawater 19 K 10.2             Potassium concentrations in hydrothermal vent waters measured according to isotope dilution and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Palmer & Edmond 1989
Seawater 19 K 9.8             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 19 K 390000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 19 K 380000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 19 K 10             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 36 Kr 0.0034             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 36 Kr 3.7             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bieri et al. 1968
Seawater 57 La 30     13 37     Surface depletion. La[3+], LaCO3[1+] and LaCl[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 57 La 0.003           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 57 La 5.6             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 57 La 4           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Spell & McDougall 2003
Seawater 57 La 3e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 3 Li 25             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 3 Li 178           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Fabricand et al. 1967
Seawater 3 Li 25             Conservative distribution type. Li[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 3 Li 180000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 3 Li 180           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 71 Lu 0.2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 71 Lu 0.0002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 71 Lu 0.32             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 71 Lu 0.9             Surface depletion. LuCO3[1+] and LuOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 71 Lu 9e-07             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 12 Mg 52.6             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 12 Mg 53.2             Conservative distribution type. Mg[2+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 12 Mg 1290000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 12 Mg 53000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 12 Mg 53             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 12 Mg 1290000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 12 Mg 1.28           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Carpenter & Mannella 1973
Seawater 25 Mn 0.5     0.2 3     Depletion at depth. Mn[2+] and MnCl[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 25 Mn 0.005             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 25 Mn 10           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Dissolved Mn. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Landing & Bruland 1980
Seawater 25 Mn 0.04           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Klinkhammer & Bender 1980
Martin & Knauer 1980
Seawater 25 Mn 72             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 42 Mo 10000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 42 Mo 0.11             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 42 Mo 10           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 42 Mo 11           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Cranston 1979
Seawater 42 Mo 0.11             Conservative distribution type. MoO4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 7 N 590             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = N2. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Craig et al. 1967
Seawater 7 N 30             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = NO3. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 7 N 580             N (dissolved N2). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 7 N 30             N03. Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 7 N 30     0.1 45     Nutrient distribution type. NO3[1-] and also N2 are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 7 N 420000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 11 Na 10.781           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Millero & Leung 1976
Seawater 11 Na 470             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 11 Na 10800000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 11 Na 10800000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 11 Na 463             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 11 Na 0.468             Conservative distribution type. Na[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 11 Na 470000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 41 Nb         5e-05     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 41 Nb 1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Carlisle & Hummerstone 1958
Seawater 41 Nb         50     Unknown distribution type. Nb(OH)6[1-] and Nb(OH)5[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 41 Nb 0.01           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 41 Nb 10             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Brewer 1975
Seawater 60 Nd 20     12 25     Surface depletion. NdCO3[1+], Nd[3+] and NdSO4[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 60 Nd 4.2             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 60 Nd 0.003           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 60 Nd 2e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 60 Nd 4           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 10 Ne 8             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Craig et al. 1967
Seawater 10 Ne 0.0075             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 28 Ni 0.008             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 28 Ni 530             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 28 Ni 8     2 12     Nutrient distribution type. Ni[2+], NiCO3[0+] and NiCl[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 28 Ni 0.5           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 28 Ni 480           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Seawater 8 O 150             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Dissolved 02. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 8 O 54000000             O (as H20). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 8 O 220             Dissolved 02. Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 8 O       0 300     Mirror image of nutrient distribution type. O2 and also as H2O is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 76 Os 0.0017   0.00085       ng/kg Koide et al. 1996
Seawater 15 P 2             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Reactive phosphate. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 15 P 2.3             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 15 P 2.3     1 3.5     Nutrient distribution type. HPO4[2-], NaHPO4[1-] and MgHPO4[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 15 P 65000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 15 P 60           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 82 Pb 2.7             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 82 Pb 10     5 175     High in surface waters and depleted at depth. PbCO3[0+], Pb(CO3)2[2-] and PbCl[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 82 Pb 1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schaule & Patterson 1981
Seawater 82 Pb 1e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 82 Pb 0.002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Schaule & Patterson 1981
Seawater 46 Pd       0.00018 0.00066     Limits of Pd in total oceanic profile. Lee 1983
Seawater 46 Pd 0.07             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 59 Pr 4e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 59 Pr 0.6           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 59 Pr 4             Surface depletion. PrCO3[1+], Pr[3+] and PrSO4[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 59 Pr 0.0006           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 59 Pr 0.87             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 78 Pt 0.002           ng/kg Average of water column. Goldberg et al. 1986
Seawater 78 Pt 0.27             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 88 Ra 0.00013             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 37 Rb 120           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 37 Rb 120000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 37 Rb 1.3             Rubidium concentrations in hydrothermal vent waters measured according to isotope dilution and thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Palmer & Edmond 1989
Seawater 37 Rb 0.11           ppb Initial alkali and Uranium seawater concentrations in the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Seawater 37 Rb 1.4             Conservative distribution type. Rb[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 37 Rb 124           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Spencer et al. 1970
Seawater 37 Rb 1.4             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 75 Re 8             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1987

Seawater 75 Re 0.004           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 75 Re 20     14 30     Unknown distribution type. ReO4[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 75 Re 2e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 75 Re 4           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Olafsson & Riley 1972
Seawater 75 Re 8.19   0.185       ng/kg Average values of rhenium in Atlantic seawater as given by Colodner 1991. Samples that yield values given are from more than one location and are given on a salinity normalized basis. Uncertainties are reported at 1s, yet to compare values, uncertaintes were recalculated to 2s. Anbar et al. 1992 Colodner 1991
Seawater 44 Ru 0.5           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Dixon et al. 1966
Seawater 44 Ru         0.005     Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1987

Seawater 16 S 2.712           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Sulfate. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris & Riley 1966
Seawater 16 S 28000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 16 S 28.2             Conservative distribution type. SO4[2-], NaSO4[1-] and MgSO4[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 16 S 898000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 16 S 905000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 16 S 28             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 51 Sb 150             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Bruland 1983
Seawater 51 Sb 0.15           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Andreae et al. 1981
Seawater 51 Sb 0.0012             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 51 Sb 0.2           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Seawater 51 Sb 1.2             Unknown distribution type. Sb(OH)6[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 21 Sc 1.5e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 21 Sc 0.86             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 21 Sc 0.0006           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 21 Sc         1   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brewer et al. 1972
Seawater 21 Sc 15     8 20     Surface depletion. Sc(OH)3[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 34 Se 1.7     0.5 2.3     Nutrient distribution type. SeO4[2-], SeO3[2-] and HSeO3[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 34 Se 0.1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Sugimura et al. 1976
Measures & Burton 1980
Seawater 34 Se 170           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Se(tot). Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Measures & Burton 1980
Seawater 34 Se 100             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 6. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Measures et al. 1983
Seawater 34 Se 0.0017             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 34 Se 55             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 4. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Measures et al. 1983
Seawater 14 Si 100     1 180     Nutrient distribution type. H4SiO4 is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 14 Si 2500000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 14 Si 100             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 14 Si 110             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Silicate. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 14 Si 2000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Seawater 14 Si 0.18             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 62 Sm 4e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 62 Sm 0.6           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 62 Sm 4     2.7 4.8     Surface depletion. SmCO3[1+], Sm[3+] and SmSO4[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 62 Sm 0.0005           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Seawater 62 Sm 0.84             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 50 Sn 4e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 50 Sn 0.01           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 50 Sn 4   1 12       High in surface waters. SnO(OH)3[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 50 Sn 0.5           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Byrd & Andreae 1982
Seawater 50 Sn 0.6             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 38 Sr 90             Global strontium content in seawater which has been found in this study to not be in a steady state as was previously believed. Hydrothermal flux and riverine input have caused the concentration to vary greatly. Palmer & Edmond 1989
Seawater 38 Sr 90             Slight surface depletion. Sr[2+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 38 Sr 7.7           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brass & Turekian 1974
Seawater 38 Sr 7800000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 38 Sr 8000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Seawater 38 Sr 7.8           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = PO4. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brass & Turekian 1974
Seawater 38 Sr 87             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 73 Ta         2.5     Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Bruland 1983
Seawater 73 Ta         1.4e-05     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 73 Ta         2.5   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
Seawater 73 Ta         14     Unknown distribution type. Ta(OH)5[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 73 Ta 0.002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 65 Tb 9e-07             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 65 Tb 0.9             Surface depletion. TbCO3[1+], Tb[3+] and TbOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 65 Tb 0.21             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 65 Tb 0.001           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 65 Tb 0.1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 52 Te 0.02             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 4. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 52 Te 0.05             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 6. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 90 Th 6e-05           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Anderson 1981
Moore 1981
Seawater 90 Th 0.05             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Cochran et al. 1987
Huh et al. 1989
Seawater 90 Th         3e-06     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 90 Th         0.7   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Turekian & Chan 1971
Seawater 22 Ti         20     Unknown distribution type. Ti(OH)4[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 22 Ti 1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 22 Ti         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Seawater 22 Ti         0.02     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 22 Ti 10             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Orians & Bruland 1988
Orians & Bruland 1988
Shiller 1988
Orians et al. 1990
Seawater 81 Tl 14             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 81 Tl 60             Conservative distribution type. Tl[1+], TlCl[0+] and Tl(OH)3[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 81 Tl       12 16   ng/kg Range for numerous locations. Flegal & Patterson 1985
Seawater 81 Tl 6e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 81 Tl 12           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983
Seawater 81 Tl 0.01           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 69 Tm 0.8             Surface depletion. TmCO3[1+], TmOH[2+] and Tm[3+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 69 Tm 0.0002           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 69 Tm 8e-07             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 69 Tm 0.2           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 69 Tm 0.25             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 92 U 3.2           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Turekian & Chan 1971
Seawater 92 U 0.013             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 92 U 3.238         21 ng/g Normalized to 35¿ salinity. Chen et al. 1986
Seawater 92 U 3.3           ppb Initial alkali and Uranium seawater concentrations in the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Seawater 92 U 3.2           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 92 U 3200             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 23 V         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris 1975
Seawater 23 V 0.023             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 23 V 30     20 35     Slight surface depletion. HVO4[2-], H2VO4[1-] and NaHVO4[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 23 V 2150             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Jeandel et al. 1987
Seawater 23 V 2.5           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 74 W         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Ishibashi 1953
Chan & Riley 1967
Seawater 74 W 6e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 74 W 0.5             Unknown distribution type. WO4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 74 W 100             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 74 W 0.1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 54 Xe 0.0005             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 54 Xe 0.5             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Mazor et al. 1964
Seawater 39 Y 13           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Hogdahl et al. 1968
Seawater 39 Y 0.00015             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 39 Y 0.15             Unknown distribution type. YCO3[1+], YOH[2+] and Y[3+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 39 Y 13             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 39 Y 0.0013           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 70 Yb 0.9           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 70 Yb 5e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 70 Yb 0.0008           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 70 Yb 1.5             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 70 Yb 5     3.5 5.4     Surface depletion. YbCO3[1+] and YbOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 30 Zn 6     0.05 9     Nutrient distribution type. Zn[2+], ZnOH[1+], ZnCO3[0+] and ZnCl[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 30 Zn 320             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 30 Zn 0.3           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 30 Zn 0.006             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 30 Zn 390           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Seawater 40 Zr 0.03           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 40 Zr       0.012 0.3     Limits of Zr in total oceanic profile. McKelvey & Orians 1993
Seawater 40 Zr 0.0003             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 40 Zr 17             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Boswell & Elderfield 1988
Seawater 40 Zr 0.3             Unknown distribution type. Zr(OH)4[0+] and Zr(OH)5[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 40 Zr         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
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