GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
21¿N EPR Hydrothermal Vents 11 Na       430 510     Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids from the East Pacific Rise Hot Springs. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 350¿C. Temperature at this depth is taken according to adiabatic cooling and using silica concentrations in the fluids as a geobarometer. Bowers & Taylor 1985
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 11 Na 6.42             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 11 Na 3.3           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Ademellites 11 Na 3.47         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 11 Na 3.37           wt%ox Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
Alaska Trench 11 Na 3.64           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Basalts 11 Na 2.39         66 wt% Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 11 Na 3.61           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 11 Na 0.35   0.06         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 11 Na 0.1   0.02         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 11 Na 0.51             Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 11 Na 0.183             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 11 Na 0.174             Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 11 Na 7.52             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 11 Na 3.4             Concentratons of elements in the Allende chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Allende Meteorite 11 Na 0.46           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Amazon River Particulates 11 Na 7850           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 11 Na 2.46         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 11 Na 2.57           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 11 Na 4           wt%ox Major element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Ewart 1982. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. Major element data was taken from the average values of the Andean andesite from Ewart 1982. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 11 Na 2.97         56 wt% Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 11 Na 3.26         50 wt%ox Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 11 Na 3.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 3.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 3.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 3.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 11 Na 3.48         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Andesites 11 Na 3.64         47 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 11 Na 3.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 11 Na 0.223             Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 11 Na 0.174             Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Anorthosites 11 Na 3.15         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Archean Amphibolites 11 Na 4.9           wt%ox Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 11 Na 4           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Goodwin 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Goodwin 1978
Archean Canadian Shield 11 Na 4.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Canadian Shield 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 11 Na 4.12           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Cameron et al. 1979. Shaw et al. 1986 Cameron et al. 1979
Archean Lower Crust 11 Na 4.4           wt%ox Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 11 Na 4.6           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Rogers 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Rogers 1978
Archean Terrains 11 Na 3.4           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Archean Terrains 11 Na 2.23           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 11 Na 2.45           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 11 Na 1.71         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 11 Na 1.64         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 11 Na 4.56         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Atmosphere   22Na 1.9             Global inventory of 22Na isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Aubres Aubrite 11 Na 0.706             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 11 Na 3.16         1074 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 11 Na 3.63         6 wt% Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 11 Na 3.91         13 wt% Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite 11 Na 2.51         704 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 11 Na 3.98         8 wt% Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 11 Na 3.94           wt% Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 11 Na 1329   114     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 11 Na 1187   336     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Barea Mesosiderite 11 Na 1.54             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basaltic Glass at ODP/DSDP Site 504 11 Na 2   0.15     51 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 51 basaltic glass analyses excluding anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 2.7         10   Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 1.42         16   Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.64         5   Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.47         23   Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 6.45         7   Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.27         7   Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.19         3   Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.18         12   Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.39         3   Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.63         9   Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.27         44   Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.48         4   Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.34         16   Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.36         8   Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.41         8   Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 1.12         6   Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 1.2         27   Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 1         13   Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.43         6   Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 11 Na 3.86         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 11 Na 3.41         6 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 11 Na 3.54         6 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 11 Na 3.62         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 11 Na 2.37         16 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 11 Na 3.61         23 wt% Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 11 Na 3.38         7 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 11 Na 2.74         9 wt% Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 11 Na 4.27         44 wt% Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 11 Na 2.78         4 wt% Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 11 Na 2.79         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 11 Na 2.73         13 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 11 Na 2.91         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basalts 11 Na 3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 2.9           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 2.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 2.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 2.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 2.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 11 Na 3.15         12 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 11 Na 2.93         27 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 11 Na 3.82         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 11 Na 3.3         16 wt% Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 11 Na 1.16         7 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 11 Na 3.94         5 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 11 Na 1.84         10 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basanites 11 Na 3.55         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Basic Precambrian Granulites 11 Na 2.23         25 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Binda Eucrite 11 Na 1.93             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 11 Na 2.02         348 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 11 Na 4.94             Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Clay 11 Na 5.18         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 11 Na 2.63         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 11 Na 4.33           wt%ox Average values of coarse grained CAI's in ordinary chondrites as given in McSween 1977. Values in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 McSween 1977
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 11 Na 5.3           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of irregularly shaped inclusions in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Na/K 10.7   2.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 11 Na 0.44         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 11 Na 0.9         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 11 Na 0.03   1.32     162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Carbonates 11 Na 0.37         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 11 Na 0.17         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 11 Na 2.93         60 wt% Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 11 Na 2.85           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 11 Na 0.83           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 11 Na 2.31         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 11 Na 3.02           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.92           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.86           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 3.04           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.57           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.94           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 3.37           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.96           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 3.31           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.75           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 11 Na 2.91           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 11 Na 0.114   0.002       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Meteorite 11 Na 0.09   0.01         Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 11 Na 2             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 11 Na 0.81           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chert 11 Na 0.85         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 11 Na 0.49         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 11 Na 0.056             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 11 Na 0.051             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondrules 11 Na 2.4           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of Ca-Al rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
CI Chondrites 11 Na 0.057             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 11 Na 0.016             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CI Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CI Chondrites 11 Na 4982   249.1       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 11 Na 5000   355     20 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 11 Na 5100           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 11 Na 5           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 11 Na 5.02           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 11 Na 4900           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 11 Na 0.674           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 11 Na 6.3   0.02         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 11 Na 4982   249.1       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites   Na/K 9.3             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Clastic Turbidites 11 Na 2.85         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CM Chondrites 11 Na 0.038             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CM Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CM Chondrites 11 Na 0.029             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
CO Chondrites 11 Na 0.7         6 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 11 Na 0.25   0.06     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 11 Na 0.32   0.06     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 11 Na 0.043             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Colombia Trench 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colorado River Particulates 11 Na 4800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Comet Halley 11 Na 6.58             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Delsemme 1988. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Delsemme 1988
Comet Halley 11 Na 6.58   0.2         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Congo River Particulates 11 Na 2100           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 11 Na 2.61         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 11 Na 3.31         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 11 Na 2.5           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 23000           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.07           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.4           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.4           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Vinogradov 1962
Continental Crust 11 Na 2.2           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Goldschmidt 1933
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 23120           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 11 Na 4.2           wt%ox In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.29           wt%ox Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 11 Na 2.36           wt% UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 2.3           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 4.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 11 Na 4           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.07           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 11 Na 2.3             Elemental data on selected ore metals of Halite deposit type. All values are taken from Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 11 Na   40         wt% Elemental data on selected ore metals of Halite deposit type. These values are consistent with median crustal abundance values given by Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.4           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 56           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.3           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.3           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust 11 Na 3.4           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 0.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 0.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.01           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a Clinopyroxene mineral in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 0.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 0.17           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.47           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.92           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.99           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 0.11           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 2.19           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a plagioclase sample in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.57           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxne mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 11 Na 1.87           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Shields & Platforms 11 Na 2.7           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 11 Na 0           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 11 Na 0           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.06           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 1.23           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 1.74           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.33           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 1.52           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.16           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 11 Na 0.75           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
D'Orbigny Angrite 11 Na 0.109             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Dacites 11 Na 3.79         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Danube River Particulates 11 Na 17400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts 11 Na 0.13           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted D-MORB basalts 11 Na 0.28           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. P2O5 value calculated by extracting 3% primary N-MORB (shown here) from PUM (Primitive Upper Mantle). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 11 Na 0.29   0.029       wt%ox Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  MMM is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 11 Na 0.89           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 11 Na 0.05           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Diabases 11 Na 2.91         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diatom Oozes & Clay 11 Na 2.58         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 11 Na 3.5         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 11 Na 2.08         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 11 Na 4.75         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 11 Na 4.38         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diorites 11 Na 3.54         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 11 Na 2.56         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 800 11 Na 1.12           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 11 Na 1.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 11 Na 1.13           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Dunites 11 Na 0.2         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
E-MORB 11 Na 3.08           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.73             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 11 Na 3.36           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 11 Na 3.59           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.97             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.31           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.29           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Earth 11 Na 0.16           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
East China Craton 11 Na 2.94           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 11 Na 2.96           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 11 Na 1.28           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 11 Na 1.45             Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 11 Na 10.5             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enstatite Chondrites   Na/K 8.4   0.8         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Estherville Mesosiderite 11 Na 1.83             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Eucrites 11 Na 0.03           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
Felsic Archean Granulites 11 Na 3.8 3.8       379 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 11 Na 3.62         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 11 Na 3.4 3.5       224 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.76         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 4.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 4.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 11 Na 1.91         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 11 Na 1.01             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 11 Na 2.57         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 11 Na 3.17           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Gabbros 11 Na 2.39         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 11 Na 2.4           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Ganges River Particulates 11 Na 10700           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 11 Na   0.08         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 11 Na 0.14           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Garnet Peridotites 11 Na 0.11           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garonne River Particulates 11 Na 5600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 11 Na 2.8             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 11 Na 0.018   0.004       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 11 Na 3.16           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 11 Na 2.84         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 11 Na 3.71         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 11 Na 3.03         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 11 Na 3.89           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 11 Na 3.68         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox I and S type felsic Granites that comprise the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995 Whalen et al. 1987
Granodiorites 11 Na 3.75           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 11 Na 3.75         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Granulites 11 Na 4.4           wt%ox Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 11 Na 2.92 2.81       592 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 11 Na 3.42 3.58       654 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 11 Na 2.39 2.45       350 wt%ox Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 11 Na 2.9           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 11 Na 3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 11 Na 2.5         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 11 Na 2.34         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 11 Na 3           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 11 Na 0.64         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rock samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 11 Na 0.51         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 11 Na 0.49         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 11 Na 0.39         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
H Ordinary Chondrites 11 Na 0.64           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Harzburgites 11 Na 0.31         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Havero Urelite 11 Na 0.242             Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Hawaiites 11 Na 3.97         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Honshu Basalt 11 Na 2.53         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 11 Na 3.06         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 11 Na 8.8             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Landes 11 Na 9.57             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 11 Na 5.25             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 11 Na 1.56             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 11 Na 3070           ppm Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Igneous Rocks 11 Na 2770           ppm Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Tera et al. 1970
Igneous Rocks 11 Na 3.5         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 11 Na 0.58           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). Na2O in Blake samples probably contains significant NaCl. Manheim et al. 1980
Interior North China Craton 11 Na 3.22           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 11 Na 2.83           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 11 Na 2.41           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 11 Na 2.26           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 11 Na 3.03           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 11 Na 2.5         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 11 Na 0.47         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 11 Na 3.52         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 11 Na 3.81         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 11 Na 4 4.1       106 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 11 Na 3.6 3.8       48 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 11 Na 3.4 3.4       132 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 11 Na 3.75         26 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Interplanetary Dust Particles 11 Na 0.052             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 11 Na 5.36   1.34         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 11 Na 2.35         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 11 Na 2.95         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 11 Na 3.62         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Island Arcs 11 Na 2.6           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Izu-Bonin Trench 11 Na 0.67           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 11 Na 2.98           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 11 Na 2.14           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 11 Na 0.15             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Juvinas Eucrite 11 Na 3350           ppm Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Tera et al. 1970
Juvinas Eucrite 11 Na 2300           ppm Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Wanke et al. 1972
Kamchatka Basalt 11 Na 2.73         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 11 Na 2.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 11 Na 2.05             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 11 Na 0.033   0.001       ppm Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kerm Trench 11 Na 3.24           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 11 Na 2.27         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite   K2O/Na2O 6.2         22   Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite   K2O/Na2O 17         32   Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite   K2O/Na2O 3.3         35   Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 11 Na 0.3         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 11 Na 0.26         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 11 Na 0.2         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 11 Na 0.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 11 Na 2.98           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
L Ordinary Chondrites 11 Na 0.046             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Late Archean Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.68             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.71             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 11 Na 3.72           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 11 Na 3.55           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.92             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.99             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.32           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.31           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Latites 11 Na 3.71         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 11 Na 2.19   0.3     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Lesser Antilles Basalt 11 Na 2.01         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Leucitic Basalt 11 Na 2.36           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Lherzolites 11 Na 0.55         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
LL Ordinary Chondrites 11 Na 6.6             Concentratons of elements in mean LL chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Low Si-Mg Mantle 11 Na 0.33           wt% LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 3.43           wt%ox Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 3.9           wt%ox Balance of residual rocks after 30% partial melting of the felsic lower crust, assuming that I and S type felsic granites represent the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 21200           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.6           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.08           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.79           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 3           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.91           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.65           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.58           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.65           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.61           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 4.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.65           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 2.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 1.43           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 11 Na 3.19           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lujavrites 11 Na 9.48         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Lunar Anothosites 11 Na 0.3           wt%ox Recalcuated measurements of the chemical composition of the 'most common anorthosite type' that was originally calculated according to Wood et al. 1970b. Compston et al. 1970 Wood et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 11 Na 0.47         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 11 Na 0.63         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Crystalline Rocks 11 Na 0.45           wt%ox Mean of Crystalline Rock sample (group 1 and group 2) averages from table 4 of Compston et al. 1970. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 11 Na 0.45         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Luzon Basalt 11 Na 2.24         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 11 Na 0.29             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 11 Na 3.2             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
MacKenzie River Particulates 11 Na 2200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Archean Granulites 11 Na 2.56 2.59       100 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 11 Na 2.65         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 11 Na 2.45 2.51       269 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 11 Na 2.93         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 11 Na 2.39 2.51       94 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Magdalena River Particulates 11 Na 7700           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Makran Trench 11 Na 1.52           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 11 Na 2.73             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 11 Na 17000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 11 Na 0.27           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mantle 11 Na 0.24     0.22 0.28   wt% Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle 11 Na 0.24           wt% Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 11 Na 0.24           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 11 Na 2.62         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 11 Na 1.23           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Apatites 11 Na       0.2 1.2   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 11 Na 33000           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 11 Na 28000           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 11 Na 40000           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Shales 11 Na 9600           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Mantle 11 Na 0.98           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Mantle 11 Na 1.2           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Mantle 11 Na 0.5           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mars Rocks 11 Na 1.19   0.476       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 11 Na 1.6   0.64       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 11 Na 2.46   0.984       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 11 Na 1.78   0.712       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 11 Na 2.03   0.812       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 11 Na 2.3   0.92       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 11 Na 0.97   0.388       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 11 Na 1.32   0.528       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 11 Na 1.05   0.42       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 11 Na 1   0.4       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 11 Na 2.88         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 11 Na 0.68         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 11 Na 5200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 11 Na 0.38     0.11 0.92 10 wt%ox Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na 0           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury as give by the refractory end member from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na 0           wt% Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na 0.08           wt% Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na 0.1           wt% Model of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury as given by Goettel 1988 values for the refractory end member and various other studies of the bulk silicate earth to yield FeO of 3 wt% (61% refractory end member, 39% bulk silicate earth). Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Jagoutz et al. 1979
Taylor & McLennan 1985
McDonough & Sun 1995
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na       0.2 1   wt% Preferred model for the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na 0.3           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Morgan & Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 11 Na         0.04   wt% Models of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt%. These values are derived from the average of skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 11 Na 3           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 11 Na 3.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 11 Na 3           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.91             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.84             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.42           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.4           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 11 Na 0.58             Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 11 Na 3.56         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 11 Na 4.75         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metamorphic Rocks 11 Na 2.87           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to fig. 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 11 Na 2.4 2.49       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 11 Na 2.5           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.48           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.3           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.55           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 5           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.39   0.1       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.39           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.92             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.99             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.27           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.29           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 11 Na 39             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 11 Na 32.3             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 11 Na 0.79             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Monzonites 11 Na 3.73         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Moon 11 Na 0.09           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Moore County Eucrite 11 Na 3.34             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
MORB Basaltic Glass 11 Na 2.54           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 11 Na 3.2           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 11 Na 2.71           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 11 Na 2.59           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 11 Na 2.47           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Mugearites 11 Na 4.73         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
N-MORB 11 Na 2.679   0.3563     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 11 Na 3.56           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 11 Na 2.76           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 11 Na 1.5           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 11 Na 2.52           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 11 Na 2.18           wt% Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
N-MORB 11 Na 2.526   0.384     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). MgO = 8.0% Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 11 Na 2.679           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 11 Na 0.34   0.05         Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 11 Na 1.4           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 11 Na 3.58         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 11 Na 3.7         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 11 Na 8.23         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 11 Na 4.79         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
New Hebrides Islands 11 Na 2.06         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 11 Na 900           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Nile River Particulates 11 Na 7300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Norites 11 Na 2.26         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 11 Na 1440           ppm Element concentrations of the Ibitira eucrite as found by Wanke et al. 1974 which in this case is the only other source that has comparative data on this sample. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke & Palme 1974
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 11 Na 1.14           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 11 Na 1370           ppm Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Antilles Trench 11 Na 1.85           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 3.12           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 2.51           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 2.85           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 3.3           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 3.3           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 11 Na 0.6         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Na2O in Blake samples probably contains significant NaCl. Manheim et al. 1980
Novo-Urei Ureilite 11 Na 0.047   0.002       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 11 Na 3.76             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ob River Particulates 11 Na 10900           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ocean Island Peridotite 11 Na 0.92           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 11 Na 1.22           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 11 Na 0.22           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 11 Na 0.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Oceanic Crust 11 Na 17800           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1983 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceans Surface water 11 Na 10.781           g/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Millero & Leung 1976
ODP Site 735 11 Na 3.193 3.205       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 11 Na 2.07           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Olivine Chondrules 11 Na 1.5     0.45 2.7 3 wt%ox Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite   K2O/Na2O 22         114   Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orangeite 11 Na 0.11         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Na/K 8.2   0.6         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 11 Na 4.7             Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 11 Na 4900         14 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 11 Na 4830         12 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Paleozoic Orogens 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.93             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.85             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.35           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 11 Na 3.32           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Parana River Particulates 11 Na 6700           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 1.4         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 3.64           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 3.01         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 3.06         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 1.67         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 1.25         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 1.25         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 11 Na 1.96         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 11 Na 1         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 11 Na 2.05         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 11 Na 3.16             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 11 Na 4.45           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peridotites 11 Na 0.49         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Periodotite Massifs 11 Na 0.34           wt% Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 11 Na   0.2         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 11 Na 1.28           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 11 Na 2.87             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.66         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.47         36   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.16         6   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.14         18   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.57         9   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.18         7   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.21         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   K2O/Na2O 0.21         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.55         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 3.06         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.57         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.44         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.51         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.51         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.12         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 11 Na 2.37         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Philip Trench 11 Na 3.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phonolites 11 Na 7.79         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Phosphoria Formation 11 Na 0.6         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 11 Na 3.46           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 11 Na 3.12         88 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 2590   129.5       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: versus MgO Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 2670   401       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.36           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 13           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 1610           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 2730           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 2460           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 1770           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.33           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.4           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.34           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.36           wt%ox Minor oxides of the primitive mantle (in wt.%) that comprise the remnant portions of the Earth's mantle. In this particular study the sum of the minor oxides is taken and normalized to 100% in an effort to obtain the absolute values of each element, which are then used for comparison to prior studies conducted of the Earth's mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.34           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.275           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.4           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.34           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.34           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 11 Na   0.34         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.4           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.39           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.39           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.332           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.332           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.332           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  MgO = 8.0% Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.36           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 2590           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.33           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.33           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.4           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.36           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.36           wt% PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 11 Na 0.35           wt% Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 11 Na 2.79         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pyrolites 11 Na 0.4           wt% Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 11 Na 0.36           wt% Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyroxenites 11 Na 0.92         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 11 Na 5.9             Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 11 Na 1.17   0.19         Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 11 Na 3.92         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 11 Na 3.92         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 11 Na 1.87         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 11 Na 3.36         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 11 Na 0.71         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 11 Na 0.42         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 11 Na 0.26           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 11 Na 3.1     0.39 4.7 5 wt%ox Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 11 Na 1.6     1.3 1.8 2 wt%ox CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 11 Na 0.45         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rhyodacites 11 Na 3.67         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyolites 11 Na 3.55         554 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyolite consolidated from 116 references and 554 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 88.37, Crystallization index equal to 5.45. Le Maitre 1976
Rifted Continental Margins 11 Na 2.5           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 11 Na 3.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 11 Na 7100           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 11 Na 6300           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 11 Na 4.06           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 11 Na 0.42           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 11 Na 0.51           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 11 Na 0.32           wt%ox Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 11 Na 2.72         41 wt% Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 11 Na 470000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 11 Na 463             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 11 Na 0.468             Conservative distribution type. Na[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 11 Na 10800000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 11 Na 10800000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 11 Na 470             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 11 Na 10.781           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Millero & Leung 1976
Sediments 11 Na 1.65           wt%ox Sedimentary Rock proportions according to fig. 2: 44.0% Shales, Siltstones; 20.9% Sandstones, Greywackes; 20.3% Mafic etc. Volcanics; 14.6% Carbonates (0.8% Evaporites). Wedepohl 1995 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Sera de Mage Eucrite 11 Na 2370           ppm Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Sera de Mage Eucrite 11 Na 3380           ppm Element abundances of the Serra de Mage eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  These values are placed against the values found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to INAA. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Serra De Mage Eucrite 11 Na 1.85             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 11 Na 1.06           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 11 Na 1.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 11 Na 0.68           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shalka Diogenite 11 Na 0.024             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 11 Na 3.236             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 11 Na 1.03   0.14         Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.36           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 11 Na 2670   400.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.27           wt% Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.34           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.4           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.33           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 11 Na 0.27           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 11 Na 3.55         23 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 11 Na 3.65           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 11 Na 2.42         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 11 Na 3.3             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Corona 11 Na 6.38   0.06         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 11 Na 6.38   0.04         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 11 Na 6.4   0.23         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Photosphere 11 Na 6.33   0.03         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 11 Na 6.33   0.03         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Holweger 2001
Solar System 11 Na 6.3   0.315         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 11 Na 57000   4161     17   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 11 Na 60000             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 11 Na 57400   40750     20   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Solid Earth 11 Na 0.18           wt% Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 11 Na 0.18           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 11 Na       1800 1800   ppm Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 11 Na 0.18           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 11 Na 0.249           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Solid Mars 11 Na 2.8   0.4       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-1 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Solid Mars 11 Na 2.7   0.4       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-2 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
South African Garnet Peridotites 11 Na 0.09           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
South Antilles Trench 11 Na 2.51           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 11 Na 3.07           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 11 Na 2.92           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 11 Na 2.8           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 11 Na 2.83           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 11 Na 2.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 3.24           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 2.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 2.9           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 11 Na 3.3           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 11 Na 2.58           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 11 Na 0.24 0.21 0.16     341 wt%ox McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 11 Na 0.18           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites 11 Na   0.21         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
St. Lawrence River Particulates 11 Na 25000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Stannern Eucrite 11 Na 4.6             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 11 Na 2.43   0.2       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 11 Na 2.46           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Syenites 11 Na 5.24         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 1.08   0.081     6 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 0.22   0.006     17 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 4.38   0.025     28 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 2.51   0.111     7 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 3.82   0.011     114 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 11 Na 1.82   0.009     95 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tephrites 11 Na 3.69         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Tholeiites 11 Na 2.37         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 11 Na 8.1         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites 11 Na 3.9           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites 11 Na 3.9           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK, Portugal, with equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995 Wedepohl 1991
Arth et al. 1978
Ermanovics et al. 1979
Tarney et al. 1979
Schermerhorn 1987
Paradis et al. 1988
Pohl & Emmermann 1991
Tepper et al. 1993
Tonalites 11 Na 3.63         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 4.53         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 4.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 3.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 4.34         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 11 Na 4.88         355 wt% Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonga Trench 11 Na 3.96           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 11 Na 2.16         70 wt% Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Trachyandesites 11 Na 4.35         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 11 Na 3.96         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachytes 11 Na 5.47         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 11 Na 2.89           wt% Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 11 Na 3.66         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 11 Na 2.51         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Type F Aggregates 11 Na 4.5           wt%ox Avergae values of type F aggregates in ordinary chondrites according to Wark 1979 and given in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 Wark 1979
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 11 Na 1.25         14 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.83             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   K2O/Na2O 0.78             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.51           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.9           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.1           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.43           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.92           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke & Washington 1924. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke & Washington 1924
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 25670           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.89           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.07           wt%ox Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.8           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of present day Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.8           wt%ox Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.27           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.9           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Fahrig and Eade 1968. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Fahrig & Eade 1968
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.81           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Ronov and Yaroshevskiy 1976. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1976
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.15           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Goldschmidt 1933. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Goldschmidt 1933
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.56           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Shaw et al. 1967. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.55           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Condie 1993. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 2.86           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Gao et al. 1998a. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.21           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Borodin 1998. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Borodin 1998
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.89           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Taylor and McLennan 1985.Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from derivative compositions of Taylor and McLennan 1985. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.27   0.48       wt% Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text









Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.56           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Wedepohl 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.27           wt% Reccomended values for major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from Rudnick and Gao 2004. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 11 Na 3.29           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke 1889. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke 1889
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 11 Na       0.03 0.05   wt%ox Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Vanuatu Trench 11 Na 4.21           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Vega 2 11 Na 2           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Vega 2 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1986
Venera 13 Rocks 11 Na 2   0.5       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 13 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venera 14 Rocks 11 Na 2.4   0.4       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 14 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venus Mantle 11 Na 0.15           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Pyrolites in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 11 Na 1.6           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 1, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 11 Na 0.28           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus N-MORB 11 Na 2.43           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from N-MORB (samples that very closely resemble those of N-MORB) samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Wilson 1989
Veramin Mesosiderite 11 Na 0.292             Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Sediment 11 Na 4.29         15 wt%ox Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 11 Na 2.12         13 wt%ox Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 11 Na 1.8           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 11 Na 1.8         43 wt%ox Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height.