GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 12 Mg 153.8             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 12 Mg 4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 12 Mg 6           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Ademellites 12 Mg 1.14         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 12 Mg 7.1           wt%ox Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 12 Mg 56.66             Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
Alaska Trench 12 Mg 2.87           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Basalts 12 Mg 9.22         66 wt% Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Basalts   Mg# 64.96         66   Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 12 Mg 2.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 12 Mg 17   0.8         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 12 Mg 15.1   0.5         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 12 Mg 184             Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 12 Mg 239.1             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 12 Mg 215             Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 12 Mg 157             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 12 Mg 24.63           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Amazon River Particulates 12 Mg 11200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 12 Mg 6.68         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 12 Mg 1.96           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Major element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Ewart 1982. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. Major element data was taken from the average values of the Andean andesite from Ewart 1982. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 12 Mg 8.28         56 wt% Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andes Basalt   Mg# 64.12         56   Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 12 Mg 4.66         50 wt%ox Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 12 Mg 3.9           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 4.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 4.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 3.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 3.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 12 Mg 5.65         47 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 12 Mg 3.33         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Andesites   Mg# 65.62         47   Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 12 Mg 65.1             Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 12 Mg 117             Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Anorthosites 12 Mg 2.12         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Archean Amphibolites 12 Mg 1.4           wt%ox Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 12 Mg 1.38           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Cameron et al. 1979. Shaw et al. 1986 Cameron et al. 1979
Archean Canadian Shield 12 Mg 5.2           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 12 Mg 2.2           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Goodwin 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Goodwin 1978
Archean Canadian Shield 12 Mg 2.3           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Lower Crust 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 12 Mg 3.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Rogers 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Rogers 1978
Archean Terrains 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Archean Terrains 12 Mg 4.9           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 12 Mg 2.83           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 12 Mg 3.56           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 12 Mg 2.01         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 12 Mg 1.38         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 12 Mg 4.39         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aubres Aubrite 12 Mg 232.7             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 12 Mg 0.12         6 wt% Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 12 Mg 0.17         13 wt% Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite 12 Mg 1.24         704 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 12 Mg 0.4           wt% Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 12 Mg 1.29         8 wt% Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 12 Mg 1.38         1074 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite   Mg# 9.7         6   Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite   Mg# 25.2         13   Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite   Mg# 34.8         8   Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite   Mg# 44.1         1074   Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite   Mg# 41.9         704   Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite   Mg# 19.5             Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Barea Mesosiderite 12 Mg 91.7             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basaltic Glass at ODP/DSDP Site 504 12 Mg 8.2   0.34     51 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 51 basaltic glass analyses excluding anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Basalts 12 Mg 9.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 7.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6.9           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6.7           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 12 Mg 6.73         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basalts 12 Mg 9.1         16 wt% Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 12 Mg 11.9         27 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 12 Mg 6.6         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 12 Mg 6.8         7 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 6.2         5 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 8.1         13 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 12 Mg 11.3         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 8.7         4 wt% Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 12 Mg 7.2         44 wt% Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 8.1         9 wt% Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 12 Mg 7.7         12 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 12 Mg 7.8         7 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 8         23 wt% Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 12 Mg 7.7         16 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 12 Mg 8.9         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 12 Mg 7.7         6 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 12 Mg 8.2         6 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 12 Mg 7.2         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 12 Mg 15.3         10 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basanites 12 Mg 8.54         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Basic Precambrian Granulites 12 Mg 7.79         25 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Binda Eucrite 12 Mg 107             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 12 Mg 10.64         348 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Boninites   Mg# 69.5         348   Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brown Clay 12 Mg 3.36         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 12 Mg 3.26         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 12 Mg 11.82           wt%ox Average values of coarse grained CAI's in ordinary chondrites as given in McSween 1977. Values in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 McSween 1977
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 12 Mg 10           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of irregularly shaped inclusions in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Al/Mg 0.105   0.01         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Fe/Mg 1.68   0.12         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Mg/Cr 39   2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Mg/Si 0.91   0.04         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Mg/V 0.157   0.009         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 12 Mg 1.31         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 12 Mg 2.9         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 12 Mg 10.58         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 12 Mg 12.79   0.26     162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Carbonates 12 Mg 14.89         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 12 Mg 9.12         60 wt% Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascade Basalt   Mg# 67.17         60   Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 12 Mg 2.96           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 12 Mg 1.52           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 12 Mg 10.63         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central American Basalts   Mg# 64.49         78   Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.86           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.73           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.38           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 5.05           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.6           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 4.33           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.02           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.42           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 2.52           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 12 Mg 3.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 12 Mg 30.2   0.6       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Meteorite 12 Mg 19.2   0.5         Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 12 Mg 48.4             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 12 Mg 0.9         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 12 Mg 0.7         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 12 Mg 0.86           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 12 Mg 1.015             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 12 Mg 0.824             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondrule Silicates   Si/Mg 0.03             Siderophile element ratios in silicate fractions of Chondrule Sils. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Chondrules 12 Mg 16.6           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of Ca-Al rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
CI Chondrites   Al/Mg 0.0891             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Fe/Mg 1.88             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.89           wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 1.04             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 0.92             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CI Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.61   0.2883       wt% Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.89   0.376     15 wt% Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.61   0.2883       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 53.6             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 7.56   0.01         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 15.17           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.7           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.4           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 12 Mg 9.65           wt% Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Mg/Cr 36.4             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Mg/Si 0.906             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Mg/V 0.172             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   MgO/Ni 14.5             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
CI Chondrites   Si/Mg 0.014             Siderophile element ratios in silicate fractions of C1 Chondrites. Grossman & Wasson 1985 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1984
Clastic Turbidites 12 Mg 2.96         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CM Chondrites 12 Mg 0.957             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CM Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CM Chondrites 12 Mg 1.023             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
CO Chondrites 12 Mg 15.8   0.8     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 12 Mg 10.1   3     6 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 12 Mg 8.3   1.7     8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 12 Mg 16.7   1.5     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 12 Mg 1.203             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Colombia Trench 12 Mg 0.55           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colorado River Particulates 12 Mg 10400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Comet Halley 12 Mg -7.58             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Delsemme 1988. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Delsemme 1988
Comet Halley 12 Mg -7.58             Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Congo River Particulates 12 Mg 5800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 12 Mg 9.48         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 12 Mg 6.56         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite   Mg# 65.18         142   Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite   Mg# 65.24         497   Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths 12 Mg 41.14 40.72 2.8     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths   Mg# 0.895 0.898 0.018     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.2 1.17 0.1     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 12 Mg 5.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 12 Mg 7.7           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.66           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.7           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 12 Mg 5.3           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.66           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 12 Mg 2.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Crust 12 Mg 2.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.9           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.2           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.2           wt% Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.2           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 2.2           wt% UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.15           wt%ox Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 12 Mg 2.8           wt%ox In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 12 Mg 23790           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.7           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 53.4             Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Goldschmidt 1933
Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Vinogradov 1962
Continental Crust   Mg# 47             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust   Mg# 50.9             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust   Mg# 48.7             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust   Mg# 48.3             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust   Mg# 54.3             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust   Mg# 54.3             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   Mg# 50.9             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust   Mg# 50.1             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust   Mg# 55.3             Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust   Mg# 50.5             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust   Mg# 49             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Crust   Mg# 55.3             Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust   Mg# 44.8             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 20.77           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 20.91           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 21.47           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 20.97           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 15.52           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 18.92           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 20.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 18.55           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 34.64           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 20.13           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 34           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 32.51           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 33.21           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 16.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a Clinopyroxene mineral in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 32.94           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 32.94           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 15.3           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxne mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 15.43           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 16.08           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 12 Mg 15.41           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 12 Mg 41.84 41.7 2.96     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Mg# 0.899 0.9 0.014     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.17 1.2 0.26     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths 12 Mg 41.17 41.21 3.43     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths   Mg# 0.902 0.903 0.008     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.19 1.19 0.11     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Shields & Platforms 12 Mg 4.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 12 Mg 7.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 12 Mg 0           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 12 Mg 0           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 21.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 36.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 35.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 22.3           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 19.9           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 20.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 13.4           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 17.3           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 16.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 21.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 20.9           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 20.3           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 32.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 12 Mg 35           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Xenoliths 12 Mg 46.19 46.52 2.94     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Mg# 0.919 0.921 0.014     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.38 1.39 0.11     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
D'Orbigny Angrite 12 Mg 39.6             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Dacites 12 Mg 1.78         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Danube River Particulates 12 Mg 21000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts 12 Mg 89.4             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted D-MORB basalts 12 Mg 38.73           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 12 Mg 38.22   0.3822       wt%ox Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  MMM is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 12 Mg 90.8             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 12 Mg 16.19           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Olivine 12 Mg 89.5             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+ Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Olivine 12 Mg 48.59           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Olivine. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 12 Mg 89.7             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 12 Mg 30.55           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Spinel 12 Mg 73.2             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Spinel 12 Mg 19.27           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Spinel. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Diabases 12 Mg 6.4         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diatom Oozes & Clay 12 Mg 1.73         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 12 Mg 2.2         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 12 Mg 2.2         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 12 Mg 2.18         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 12 Mg 3.74         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diorites 12 Mg 3.71         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 12 Mg 6.78         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 800 12 Mg 4.13           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 12 Mg 3.05           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 12 Mg 2.49           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Dunites 12 Mg 37.94         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
E-MORB 12 Mg 7.43           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust 12 Mg 4.06           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 1.95           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.23           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Earth 12 Mg 13.2           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
East China Craton 12 Mg 3.48           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 12 Mg 3.77           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 12 Mg 2.45           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 12 Mg 210             Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 12 Mg 210             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enstatite Chondrites   Al/Mg 0.075   0.003         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Fe/Mg 1.6   0.2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. This average represents the low-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Fe/Mg 2.6   0.2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. This average represents the high-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Mg/Cr 35   4         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. This average represents the low-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Mg/Cr 45   8         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. This average represents the high-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Mg/Si 0.7   0.07         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Mg/V 0.204   0.025         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Estherville Mesosiderite 12 Mg 102.4             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Eucrites 12 Mg 15           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
Felsic Archean Granulites 12 Mg 1.1 0.88       378 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 12 Mg 2.44         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 12 Mg 1.3 1.2       223 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 1.36         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.74           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.81           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 12 Mg 0.99           wt%ox Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 12 Mg 1.61         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 12 Mg 126.3             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 12 Mg 36.77           wt% Composition of the Earth's Mantle as based on bulk composition of upper mantle rocks. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 12 Mg 5             Magnesium concentration of Basalts. All values determined via EGTA/EDTA titration, electrometric endpoint, Hg electrode at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 12 Mg 8.57         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Mg# 63.23         203   Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 12 Mg 8.85           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Gabbros 12 Mg 7.59         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 12 Mg 7.6           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 12 Mg       51.1 52.7     Magnesium concentration range as observed during this study of hydrothermal ridge activity. All values determined via EGTA/EDTA titration, electrometric endpoint, Hg electrode at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Ganges River Particulates 12 Mg 12400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg   44.2         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg   91.6           McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg 91.1             Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. Mg-value is the molar ratios of 100 Mg/(Mg + SFe). McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg 42.6           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg 90.6             Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. Mg-value is the molar ratios of 100 Mg/(Mg + SFe). McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garnet Peridotites 12 Mg 43.55           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Garnet Peridotites   MgO/Ni 199   44         McDonough 1991
Garonne River Particulates 12 Mg 17300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 12 Mg 188             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 12 Mg 26.1   0.8       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 12 Mg 0.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 12 Mg 0.42           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 12 Mg 0.37           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 12 Mg 1.06         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 12 Mg 0.62         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 12 Mg 0.29         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 12 Mg 0.84           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 12 Mg 0.71         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 12 Mg 0.57           wt%ox I and S type felsic Granites that comprise the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995 Whalen et al. 1987
Granites   Mg# 29.7         8   Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites   Mg# 35.5             Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granodiorites 12 Mg 1.74         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 12 Mg 1.74           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Granulites 12 Mg 3.73 2.66       592 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 12 Mg 3.47 1.73       655 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Mg# 52.3 41.7           Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Mg# 49.5 42.9           Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 12 Mg 7.68 7.32       350 wt%ox Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites   Mg# 60.4 59.8           Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 12 Mg 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 12 Mg 2.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 12 Mg 2.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 12 Mg 2.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 12 Mg 2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 12 Mg 3.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 12 Mg 10.57         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Greater Antilles Basalt   Mg# 67.64         21   Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 12 Mg 3.15         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 12 Mg 2.3           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 12 Mg 7.6         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 12 Mg 7.5         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 12 Mg 6.66         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 12 Mg 7.17         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
H Ordinary Chondrites 12 Mg 14.3           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 11.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 11.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 12             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   H/Mg 25200             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   H/Mg 31             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   H/Mg 39             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   N/Mg       0.4 0.8     Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   N/Mg 2.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   N/Mg 0.7             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 18.5             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 15             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 22.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Harzburgites 12 Mg 33.18         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Havero Urelite 12 Mg 224             Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Hawaiites 12 Mg 5.58         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Honshu Basalt 12 Mg 9.29         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Honshu Basalt   Mg# 65         137   Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 12 Mg 2.35         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 12 Mg 159             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Landes 12 Mg 153             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 12 Mg 197             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 12 Mg 43.9             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 12 Mg 5.06         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 12 Mg 1.02           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). Manheim et al. 1980
Interior North China Craton 12 Mg 3.47           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 12 Mg 4.77           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 12 Mg 2.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 12 Mg 3.72           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 12 Mg 3.76           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 12 Mg 0.44         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 12 Mg 0.81         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 12 Mg 2.41         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 12 Mg 3.66         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 12 Mg 3.6 3.3       106 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 12 Mg 5.5 5.3       48 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 12 Mg 3.8 3.6       132 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 12 Mg 3.18         26 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Interplanetary Dust Particles 12 Mg 0.98             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 12 Mg 6.33   0.3165         Abundance of elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. Elements used were Mg-silicates and metallic FeNi. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 12 Mg 9.84         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 12 Mg 7.95         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite   Mg# 66.29         32   Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite   Mg# 66.29         503   Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 12 Mg 2.11           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 12 Mg 2.15         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Island Arcs   Mg# 38.7         323   Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 12 Mg 0.92           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 12 Mg 1.67           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 12 Mg 2.72           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 12 Mg 153.6             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kamchatka Basalt 12 Mg 9.39         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Basalt   Mg# 65.09         78   Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 12 Mg 0.74           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 12 Mg 95             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 12 Mg 33.1   0.7       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kerm Trench 12 Mg 2.87           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 12 Mg 9.07         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kermadec Basalts   Mg# 64.48         36   Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 12 Mg 29.1         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 12 Mg 26.7         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 12 Mg 27.8         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 12 Mg 26           wt%ox Condie 1993
Komatiites   MgO/Ni 210             McDonough 1991
Kuriles Trench 12 Mg 1.67           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
L Ordinary Chondrites 12 Mg 0.928             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Late Archean Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.89           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.57           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 1.82           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.07           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Latites 12 Mg 2.22         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 12 Mg 8.44   0.38     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Lesser Antilles Basalt 12 Mg 13.69         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lesser Antilles Basalt   Mg# 70.97         84   Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Leucitic Basalt 12 Mg 8.36           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Lherzolites 12 Mg 28.37         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Low Si-Mg Mantle 12 Mg 37.78           wt% LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Low Si-Mg Mantle   Mg# 89.8             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Low Si-Mg Mantle   MgO/SiO2 0.82             LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.1           wt%ox Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.9           wt%ox Balance of residual rocks after 30% partial melting of the felsic lower crust, assuming that I and S type felsic granites represent the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.1           wt%ox Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 31550           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 7.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.8           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 6.28           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.46           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 5.32           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 7.24           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 9.79           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.53           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 6.04           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 8.72           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 4.36           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 7.24           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 7.21           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 12 Mg 7.24           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 52.3             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 55.9             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 45.6             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 60.1             Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 58.6             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 76.2             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 53.4             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 51.4             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 60.1             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 56.5             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 50.5             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust   Mg# 46.1             Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lujavrites 12 Mg 1.35         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Lunar Anothosites 12 Mg 7.6           wt%ox Recalcuated measurements of the chemical composition of the 'most common anorthosite type' that was originally calculated according to Wood et al. 1970b. Compston et al. 1970 Wood et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 12 Mg 7.81         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 12 Mg 7.47         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Crystalline Rocks 12 Mg 7.13           wt%ox Mean of Crystalline Rock sample (group 1 and group 2) averages from table 4 of Compston et al. 1970. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 12 Mg 7.87         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Luzon Basalt 12 Mg 10.86         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Luzon Basalt   Mg# 66.05         24   Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 12 Mg 221             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 12 Mg 50.5             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
MacKenzie River Particulates 12 Mg 4000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Archean Granulites 12 Mg 8.53 7.25       100 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 12 Mg 6.14         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 12 Mg 8.56 8.24       269 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 12 Mg 7.29         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 12 Mg 8.14 7.3       95 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 12 Mg 3.49           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 12 Mg 72.6             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 12 Mg 16000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 12 Mg 38.59     37.46 39.25   wt% Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle 12 Mg 38.59           wt% Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle 12 Mg 35.8           wt% Composition of the Mantle of the Earth assuming average solar system elemental ratios for the whole Earth. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Mantle 12 Mg 22.8           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mantle   Mg# 89.28     88.91 89.49     Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle   Mg# 89.3             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004
Mantle   MgO/SiO2 0.86             Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 12 Mg 41.4           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Mantle Xenoliths   Mg# 0.9             Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Mantle Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.21             Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 12 Mg 8.57         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Basalt   Mg# 65.05         168   Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 12 Mg 3.59           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Organisms 12 Mg 94000           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 21000           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 21000           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 12 Mg 15000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Mantle 12 Mg 29.7           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Mantle 12 Mg 30.1           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mars Mantle 12 Mg 27.3           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 1.51   0.151       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 3.91   0.391       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 4.56   0.456       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 6.71   0.671       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 3.5   0.35       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 12 Mg 3.2   0.32       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 12 Mg 6.4     3.4 11.4   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 12 Mg 7.3     4.3 12.3   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 12 Mg 6.4     3.4 11.4   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 12 Mg 5.3     2.3 10.3   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 12 Mg 8.16   0.816       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 12 Mg 9.95   0.995       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 12 Mg 9.2   0.92       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 12 Mg 7.46   0.746       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 12 Mg 5.6         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 12 Mg 0.36         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 12 Mg 13500           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 12 Mg 9.9     6.9 12.6 10 wt%ox Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 10.8           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Morgan & Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 18.9           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Krot et al. 2001 using skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 19.1           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. Experimental partial melt of the Indarch enstatite chondrite at 1,425¿C (29% partial melt). Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 37.4           wt% Models of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt%. These values are derived from the average of skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 36.1           wt% Model of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury as given by Goettel 1988 values for the refractory end member and various other studies of the bulk silicate earth to yield FeO of 3 wt% (61% refractory end member, 39% bulk silicate earth). Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Jagoutz et al. 1979
Taylor & McLennan 1985
McDonough & Sun 1995
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 33.7           wt% Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg       32 38   wt% Preferred model for the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 34.6           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury as give by the refractory end member from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 12 Mg 50           wt% Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 12 Mg 4.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 12 Mg 2.6           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 12 Mg 4.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 12 Mg 3.3           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.21           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 1.94           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 12 Mg 210             Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 12 Mg 2.23         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 12 Mg 3.23         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metamorphic Rocks 12 Mg 2.91           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to fig. 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 12 Mg 3.12 3.03       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 12 Mg 2.87           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.59           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 1.27           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.67           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.5           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 1.43           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 12 Mg 3.59   0.1       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 48.6             Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 43.8             Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 54.5             Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 51.5             Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 45.5             Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust   Mg# 51.5             Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 1.87           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.14           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 12 Mg 65.1             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 12 Mg 42             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 12 Mg 124             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Monzonites 12 Mg 2.02         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Moon 12 Mg 17.4           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Moore County Eucrite 12 Mg 56.7             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
MORB Basaltic Glass 12 Mg 8.37           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 12 Mg 7.85           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 12 Mg 7.21           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 12 Mg 6.87           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 12 Mg 5.62           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass   Mg# 58.6             MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass   Mg# 62.6             MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass   Mg# 43.3             MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass   Mg# 55.2             MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass   Mg# 52.5             MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Mugearites 12 Mg 3.2         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
N-MORB 12 Mg 7.23           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 12 Mg 7.576   0.9243     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 12 Mg 8.53           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 12 Mg 8.67           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 12 Mg 7.58           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 12 Mg 56.4           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 12 Mg 7.576           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 12 Mg 9.74           wt% Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
N-MORB 12 Mg 70.6           ng/g Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
Nakhla Meteorite 12 Mg 7.3   0.2         Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 12 Mg 2.22           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 12 Mg 1.59         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 12 Mg 10.63         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 12 Mg 0.77         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 12 Mg 6.39         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
New Hebrides Islands 12 Mg 11.33         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
New Hebrides Islands   Mg# 69.53         65   Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 12 Mg 9300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Nile River Particulates 12 Mg 18500           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Norites 12 Mg 8.73         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 12 Mg 2.86           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 12 Mg 2.77           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 12 Mg 3.2           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 12 Mg 3.94           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 12 Mg 3.38           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 12 Mg 4.24           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 12 Mg 3.01           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 12 Mg 1.2         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Novo-Urei Ureilite 12 Mg 34.5   0.7       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 12 Mg 34             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 12 Mg 44.61 44.66 1.87     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Arc Xenoliths   Mg# 0.905 0.906 0.007     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Arc Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.3 1.29 0.09     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 16.61           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 16.05           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 33.6           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 33.4           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 19.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 12 Mg 17.04           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Oceanic Crust 12 Mg 49600           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1984 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 12 Mg 44.25 44.73 234     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Island Xenoliths   Mg# 0.895 0.908 0.022     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Island Xenoliths   Mg/Si 1.31 1.3 0.11     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceans Surface water 12 Mg 1.284           g/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Carpenter & Mannella 1973
ODP Site 735 12 Mg 8.837 8.34       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   Mg# 64.54 66.15       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 12 Mg 6.66           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Olivine Chondrules 12 Mg 31.8     23.5 36.6 3 wt%ox Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite 12 Mg 22.1         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Al/Mg 0.081   0.002         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Fe/Mg 1.4   0.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. This average represents the low-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Fe/Mg 1.9   0.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. This average represents the high-Fe group of chondrites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Mg/Cr 39   1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Mg/Si 0.81   0.03         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Mg/V 0.195   0.006         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 12 Mg 9.55         10   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 12 Mg 105             Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 12 Mg 9.53         11 wt% Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orinoco River Particulates 12 Mg 5800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Paleozoic Orogens 12 Mg 3.9           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 12 Mg 6           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 2.24           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 12 Mg 1.96           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Pallasite Olivine   Si/Mg 0.06             Siderophile element ratios in silicate fractions of Pallasite olivine. Grossman & Wasson 1985 Scott 1977
Parana River Particulates 12 Mg 10900           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 3.13           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 3.1         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 2.33         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 3.64         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 3.07         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 2.22         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 3.13         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 12 Mg 2.33         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 12 Mg 2.56         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 12 Mg 1.97         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 12 Mg 238.4             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 12 Mg 0.48           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peninsular Range Batholith   Mg# 34.1             Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peridotites 12 Mg 31.24         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Periodotite Massifs 12 Mg 38           wt% Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Massifs   Mg# 88.7             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Massifs   MgO/SiO2 0.85             Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 12 Mg   40.2         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Mg#   89.9           McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   MgO/Ni 196   17         McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 12 Mg 1.81           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 12 Mg 67.78             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 4.2         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 6.9         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 5.7         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 6.8         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 13         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 6.1         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 4.3         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 12 Mg 8         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Philip Trench 12 Mg 3.19           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phonolites 12 Mg 1.07         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Phosphoria Formation 12 Mg 0.3         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.   Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 12 Mg 2.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 12 Mg 2.24           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 12 Mg 4.06         88 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle   Fe/Mg 0.255   0.005         Primitive mantle ratios (in wt. %) of lithophile elements used to attempt to estimate the composition of the Earth. Values are obtained by using the same approach as were utilized by a number of previous references. However, in this study the difference is that siderophile elements (or all elements suspected of entering the Earth's core) are omitted, therein retaining only the major lithophile elements. The idea behind the omission of the siderophile elements in this study is that the ratios of the elements which do not enter the core (lithophile) are the same in the bluk Earth as in the mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 36.85           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.6             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.78           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.9             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.78           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.71           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.3             Mg #= Molar ratio of Mg/(Mg+Fe^2+); Mg # of N-MORB uses 90% total FeO as Fe2+. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 36.77   0.44       wt% Major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle, measurements by Palme & O'Neill 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.1           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Ringwood 1979. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.78           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 22.17           wt% Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.3           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Jagoutz et al. 1979. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 36.8           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Wanke et al. 1984. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 35.5           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Palme & Nickel 1985. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.8           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Hart & Zindler 1986. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.8           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from McDonough & Sun 1995. Palme & O'Neill 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.3           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 35.5           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.8           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.77           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Allegre et al. 1995. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.77           wt% PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 36.78           wt% Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 22.17   0.2217       wt% Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Major element Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 22.8   2.28       wt% Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.8           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 229060           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.3           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.8           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 35.15           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.77           wt%ox Major oxides of the primitive mantle that are estimated to comprise the bulk of the Earth's mantle (measured in wt.%). Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 35.1           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 88.7             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 34.02           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 88.5             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 35.5           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.1             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.2           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.2             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 37.2           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 88.8             Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. Mg-value is the molar ratios of 100 Mg/(Mg + SFe). McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 22.5           wt% Concentration of the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. Values given are placed next to average concentrations of Continental lithospheric mantle in an effort to calculate the proportional contribution to the Primitive mantle. This calculation assumes that the Continental lithospheric mantle is 1.45% the mass of the Primitive mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg   37.2         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg   88.8           McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38.1           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.5           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 38           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 12 Mg 89.2             Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 0.89             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 89.8             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 0.89             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 89             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 0.9             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle   Mg# 0.9             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Al 10.52   0.1         Primitive mantle ratios (in wt. %) of lithophile elements used to attempt to estimate the composition of the Earth. Values are obtained by using the same approach as were utilized by a number of previous references. However, in this study the difference is that siderophile elements (or all elements suspected of entering the Earth's core) are omitted, therein retaining only the major lithophile elements. The idea behind the omission of the siderophile elements in this study is that the ratios of the elements which do not enter the core (lithophile) are the same in the bluk Earth as in the mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Al 9.7             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Si 0.99             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Si 1.09             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Si 1.09             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Mg/Si 1.06             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle   MgO/Ni 196             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   MgO/Ni 197             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle   MgO/SiO2 0.82             PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle   MgO/SiO2 0.81             Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle   Si/Mg 0.945   0.002         Primitive mantle ratios (in wt. %) of lithophile elements used to attempt to estimate the composition of the Earth. Values are obtained by using the same approach as were utilized by a number of previous references. However, in this study the difference is that siderophile elements (or all elements suspected of entering the Earth's core) are omitted, therein retaining only the major lithophile elements. The idea behind the omission of the siderophile elements in this study is that the ratios of the elements which do not enter the core (lithophile) are the same in the bluk Earth as in the mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 12 Mg 8.83         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735   Mg# 62.9         8   Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pyrolites 12 Mg 38.1           wt% Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 12 Mg 38.1           wt%ox Major oxide values for Pyrolites studied by Ringwood, given in wt.%. These oxide values are used as a model for Primitive mantle oxide values obtained in this study, the idea being that Ringwood's pyrolite oxide values should resemble PRIMA oxide values given. Allegre et al. 1995 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 12 Mg 37.8           wt% Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyrolites   Mg# 89.3             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites   Mg# 89.2             Mg# of all the above models pertaning to fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Pyrolites   MgO/SiO2 0.85             Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites   MgO/SiO2 0.84             Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyroxenites 12 Mg 16.04         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 12 Mg 125             Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 12 Mg 3.77   0.04         Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 12 Mg 3.37         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 12 Mg 3.5         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 12 Mg 3.37         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 12 Mg 2.24         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 12 Mg 0.74         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 12 Mg 0.47           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 12 Mg 1.16         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height.