GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 15 P 1.6             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 15 P 0.3           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Ademellites 15 P 0.19         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
Alaska Trench 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Basalts 15 P 0.14         66 wt% Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 15 P 1750   150       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 15 P 61           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALHA 77257 Urelite 15 P 0.3             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
Amazon River Particulates 15 P 1650           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 15 P 0.16         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 15 P 0.27           wt%ox Major element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Ewart 1982. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. Major element data was taken from the average values of the Andean andesite from Ewart 1982. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 15 P 0.21         56 wt% Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 15 P 0.205         50 wt%ox Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 15 P 0.2         47 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 15 P 0.21         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Anorthosites 15 P 0.09         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Archean Amphibolites 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Goodwin 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Goodwin 1978
Archean Canadian Shield 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Cameron et al. 1979. Shaw et al. 1986 Cameron et al. 1979
Archean Canadian Shield 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Lower Crust 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Archean Terrains 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 15 P 0.12         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 15 P 0.09         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 15 P 0.329         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Atmosphere   32P 0.4             Global inventory of 32P isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Atmosphere   33P 0.6             Global inventory of 33P isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Aubres Aubrite 15 P 2             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 15 P 0.11         1074 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 15 P 0.02         6 wt% Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 15 P 0.17         13 wt% Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite 15 P 0.15         704 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 15 P 0.09         8 wt% Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 15 P 0.09           wt% Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 15 P 26   12     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 15 P 39   10     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Barea Mesosiderite 15 P 5.28             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basaltic Glass at ODP/DSDP Site 504 15 P 0.08   0.01     51 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 51 basaltic glass analyses excluding anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Basalts 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.26           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.28           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.24           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 15 P 0.63         13 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 15 P 1.13         27 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 15 P 0.83         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 15 P 0.76         16 wt% Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 15 P 0.55         7 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 15 P 0.61         5 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 15 P 1.58         10 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 15 P 0.35         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basalts 15 P 0.64         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 15 P 0.56         4 wt% Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 15 P 0.62         44 wt% Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 15 P 0.57         9 wt% Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 15 P 0.18         12 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 15 P 0.34         7 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 15 P 0.56         23 wt% Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 15 P 0.56         16 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 15 P 0.76         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 15 P 1.04         6 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 15 P 0.97         6 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 15 P 0.72         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basanites 15 P 0.74         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Basic Precambrian Granulites 15 P 0.2         25 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Binda Eucrite 15 P 0.17             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 15 P 0.06         348 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 15 P 1.31             Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Clay 15 P 0.357         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 15 P 0.617         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 15 P 0.227         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 15 P 0.13         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 15 P         0.01 162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Carbonates 15 P 0.08         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 15 P 0.05         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 15 P 0.18         60 wt% Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 15 P 0.23         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.25           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 15 P 275   35       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 15 P 8.16             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 15 P 0.09         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 15 P 0.201         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 15 P 0.09           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
CI Chondrites 15 P 926   64.82       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 15 P 1220           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 15 P 926   64.82       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Wolf & Palme 2001
CI Chondrites 15 P 5.44   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 15 P 0.28           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 15 P 1020           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 15 P 1.01           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 15 P 1220   122     4 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 15 P 1080           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
Clastic Turbidites 15 P 0.164         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CO Chondrites 15 P 0.32   0.09     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 15 P 0.25   0.09     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 15 P 3.6   2.1     8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Colombia Trench 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colorado River Particulates 15 P 540           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Congo River Particulates 15 P 1500           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 15 P 0.22         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 15 P 0.22         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 0.18           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 15 P 0.24           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 15 P 0.13           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 15 P 0.19           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 757           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 15 P 0.19           wt%ox In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 15 P 779           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 15 P 0.3           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 15 P 0.13           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 15 P 0.14           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core   Ni/P       10 11     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 15 P 0.2           wt% Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 15 P 0.2           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Core 15 P 0.2           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 15 P 3690           ppm Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in ppm. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Core 15 P 0.2           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 15 P       0.5 0.5   wt% Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 15 P 3200           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
D'Orbigny Angrite 15 P 0.7             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Dacites 15 P 0.15         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Danube River Particulates 15 P 680           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Ce/P 0.19             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts 15 P 0.019           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. P2O5 value calculated by extracting 3% primary N-MORB (shown here) from PUM (Primitive Upper Mantle). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 15 P 0.058             Phosphorus abundances in the upper mantle normalized to the C1 Chondrite value of 1180 ppm taken from Orgueil Chondrite values in Anders & Ebihara 1982. Jones & Drake 1986 Newsom & Drake 1983
Depleted Mantle 15 P 40.7   10.175       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Ce/P is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diabases 15 P 0.25         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diatom Oozes & Clay 15 P 0.1         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 15 P 0.093         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 15 P 0.123         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 15 P 0.134         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 15 P 0.25         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diorites 15 P 0.29         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 15 P 0.27         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 800 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dunites 15 P 0.2         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
E-MORB 15 P 0.26           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
East China Craton 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 15 P 0.126           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Estherville Mesosiderite 15 P 2.4             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Felsic Archean Granulites 15 P 0.11 0.09       358 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 15 P 0.19         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 15 P 0.11 0.09       186 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.13         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.06           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.05           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.06           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.08           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.09           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 15 P 0.08         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 15 P 0.15             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Ce/P 0.19             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 15 P 0.14         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 15 P 0.13           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Gabbros 15 P 0.24         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 15 P 0.24           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Ganges River Particulates 15 P 560           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 15 P   0.02         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 15 P 1300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Granites 15 P 0.1         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 15 P 0.11         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 15 P 0.105         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 15 P 0.17           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 15 P 0.12         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 15 P 0.1           wt%ox I and S type felsic Granites that comprise the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995 Whalen et al. 1987
Granites 15 P 0.09           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 15 P 0.08           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 15 P 0.08           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granodiorites 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 15 P 0.18         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Granulites 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 15 P 0.15 0.11       618 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 15 P 0.21 0.15       469 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 15 P 0.23 0.13       330 wt%ox Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 15 P 0.23         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 15 P 0.142         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 15 P 0.18         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 15 P 0.19         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 15 P 0.11         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 15 P 0.1         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Harzburgites 15 P 0.13         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Hawaiites 15 P 0.74         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Honshu Basalt 15 P 0.26         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 15 P 1.17         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ibitira Eucrite 15 P 0.44             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 15 P 0.26         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 15 P 25.8           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). P2O5 concentrations have been reported for many bottom sediments taken during the Gill cruises from the southeastern continental margin of the United States (Moore and Gorsline, 1960). These have been used in several subsequent works (e.g. Gorsline, 1963; Uchupi, 1963; Goodell, 1967). Both our analytical values and petrographic estimates for phosphate in shelf areas are much lower than the Gill values. For example, much of the inner Florida shelf is indicated to contain more than 3% P2O5, whereas our data fail to indicate more than a few tenths of a percent (carbonate background values). Since our data are in general agreement with control analyses performed by the U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Washington, we have not used the Gill data for quantitative purposes. Manheim et al. 1980
Interior North China Craton 15 P 0.24           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 15 P 0.17           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 15 P 0.345         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 15 P 0.084         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 15 P 0.897         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 15 P 0.26         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 15 P 0.27 0.23       105 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 15 P 0.19 0.16       46 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 15 P 0.26 0.24       120 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 15 P 0.2         26 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Intra Stellar Medium 15 P 5.07   3.8025         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 15 P 0.14         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 15 P 0.15         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 15 P 0.13         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 15 P 0.27           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 15 P 0.186           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 15 P 0.18             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Jupiter Atmosphere 15 P       0.2       Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Jupiter with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Phosphorus is given as Phosphine PH3. Lunine 2004 Atreya et al. 1999b
Gautier et al. 2001
Noll et al. 1989
Fink et al. 1978
Kamchatka Basalt 15 P 0.19         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kerm Trench 15 P 0.45           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 15 P 0.12         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 15 P 1         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 15 P 0.7         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 15 P 0.59         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 15 P 0.02           wt%ox Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Late Archean Upper Crust 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Latites 15 P 0.33         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 15 P 0.07   0.01     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Lesser Antilles Basalt 15 P 0.15         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lherzolites 15 P 0.11         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 872           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Fig 2 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.21           wt%ox Balance of residual rocks after 30% partial melting of the felsic lower crust, assuming that I and S type felsic granites represent the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.13           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.19           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.24           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.21           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.16           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.13           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 15 P 0.21           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lujavrites 15 P 0.14         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Lunar Breccias 15 P 0.15         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 15 P 0.12         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 15 P 0.1         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Luzon Basalt 15 P 0.22         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Macibini Eucrites 15 P 0.48             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 15 P 0.19 0.12       98 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 15 P 0.3         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 15 P 0.2 0.12       258 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 15 P 0.32         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 15 P 0.3 0.22       87 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 15 P 0.305             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 15 P 25000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 15 P 0.009           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 15 P 0.06           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 15 P 0.13         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Apatites 15 P       36.5 40.5   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 15 P 2800           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 15 P 1500           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 15 P 1500           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 15 P 700           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Mantle 15 P             wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Mantle 15 P 0.17           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Mantle 15 P 0.17           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mars Rocks 15 P 0.99   0.198       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 15 P 1.42   0.284       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 15 P 1   0.2       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 15 P 0.98   0.196       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 15 P 0.97   0.194       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 15 P 0.95   0.19       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 15 P 0.95   0.19       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 15 P 1.55   0.31       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 15 P 1.01   0.202       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 15 P 1.89   0.378       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 15 P 0.4         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 15 P 29.79         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 15 P 2000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Metafelsic Volcanics 15 P 0.21         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 15 P 1.661         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metamorphic Rocks 15 P 0.22           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to fig. 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 15 P 0.12 0.09       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 15 P 0.36           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.14           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.1           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.19           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.15   0.06       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mincy Mesosiderite 15 P 6.07             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Monzonites 15 P 0.25         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Moore County Eucrite 15 P 0.16             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
MORB Basaltic Glass 15 P 0.11           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 15 P 0.18           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 15 P 0.1           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 15 P 0.25           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 15 P 0.22           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Mugearites 15 P 0.75         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
N-MORB 15 P 0.22           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 15 P 0.13           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 15 P 0.095           wt% Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
N-MORB 15 P 0.08           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 15 P 0.06           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Nakhla Meteorite 15 P 500   45       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 15 P 0.27           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 15 P 0.126         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 15 P 0.89         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 15 P 0.13         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 15 P 1.07         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
New Hebrides Islands 15 P 0.18         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 15 P 1600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Norites 15 P 0.15         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 15 P 0.09           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.4           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.23           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.17           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 15 P 22.2         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. P2O5 concentrations have been reported for many bottom sediments taken during the Gill cruises from the southeastern continental margin of the United States (Moore and Gorsline, 1960). These have been used in several subsequent works (e.g. Gorsline, 1963; Uchupi, 1963; Goodell, 1967). Both our analytical values and petrographic estimates for phosphate in shelf areas are much lower than the Gill values. For example, much of the inner Florida shelf is indicated to contain more than 3% P2O5, whereas our data fail to indicate more than a few tenths of a percent (carbonate background values). Since our data are in general agreement with control analyses performed by the U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Washington, we have not used the Gill data for quantitative purposes. Manheim et al. 1980
Oceanic Crust 15 P 500           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1987 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceans Deep water 15 P 2.84             Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Reactive phosphate. Depth = 891 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Oceans Surface water 15 P 0.08             Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Reactive phosphate. Depth = 22 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
ODP Site 735 15 P 0.092 0.045       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 15 P 0.11           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Orangeite 15 P 0.74         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 15 P 1180         3 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 15 P 1180         3 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Paleozoic Orogens 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Parana River Particulates 15 P 1300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelagic Clay 15 P 1.01         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 1.01           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 15 P 0.274         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 0.267         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 0.125         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 1.865         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 0.257         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 15 P 0.125         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 15 P 0.14         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 15 P 0.15         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Peninsular Range Batholith 15 P 0.08           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peridotites 15 P 0.1         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 15 P   0.02         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 15 P 0.19           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.58         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.16         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.16         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.15         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.14         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.39         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.23         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 15 P 0.35         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Philip Trench 15 P 0.44           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phonolites 15 P 0.18         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Phosphoria Formation 15 P 30.5         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 15 P 0.19           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 15 P 0.13         88 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle   Ni/P 22             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.021           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.021           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.02           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.02             Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 15 P 86   12.9       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: P/Nd = 65 ¿ 10 Palme & O'Neill 2004 McDonough et al. 1985
Langmuir et al. 1992
Primitive Mantle 15 P 90   13.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 15 P 58           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.019           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.015           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.022           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.02           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 15 P   0.022         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.022           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.013           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 15 P 0.022           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 15 P 60           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 15 P 83           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hart & Zindler 1986
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 15 P 0.04         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pyroxenites 15 P 0.38         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Radiolarian Clay 15 P 0.137         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 15 P 0.09         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 15 P 0.137         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 15 P 0.325         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 15 P 0.064         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 15 P 0.136         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 15 P 0.04           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 15 P 31.95         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rhyodacites 15 P 0.25         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyolites 15 P 0.07         554 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyolite consolidated from 116 references and 554 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 88.37, Crystallization index equal to 5.45. Le Maitre 1976
Rifted Continental Margins 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 15 P 0.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 15 P 1150           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
River Particulates 15 P 530             Average river contents of particulate Phosphorus via Natural Transport. Value represents the total amount of dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus (both from Atmospheric and Carbonate Weathering origins). Meybeck 1982
Rivers 15 P 25             Average total river concentrations of dissolved Phosphorus according to Natural Transportation given in migrograms per liter.  Value represents the total amount of dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus (both from Atmospheric and Carbonate Weathering origins). Meybeck 1982
Rivers 15 P 20           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 15 P 1.25           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 15 P 0.02           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 15 P 0.02           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 15 P 0.03           wt%ox Condie 1993
Saturn Atmosphere 15 P 6             Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Saturn with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Phosphorus is given as Phosphine, PH3. Lunine 2004 Atreya et al. 1999b
Gautier et al. 2001
Noll et al. 1989
Fink et al. 1978
Scotia Island Basalt 15 P 0.15         41 wt% Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 15 P 2             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Reactive phosphate. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 15 P 2.3             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 15 P 65000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 15 P 60           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 15 P 2.3     1 3.5     Nutrient distribution type. HPO4[2-], NaHPO4[1-] and MgHPO4[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Sediments 15 P 0.18           wt%ox Sedimentary Rock proportions according to fig. 2: 44.0% Shales, Siltstones; 20.9% Sandstones, Greywackes; 20.3% Mafic etc. Volcanics; 14.6% Carbonates (0.8% Evaporites). Wedepohl 1995 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Serra De Mage Eucrite 15 P 0.25             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shalka Diogenite 15 P 0.01             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 15 P 22             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 15 P 3230   230       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   Ni/P 22             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 15 P 90           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 15 P 0.021           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 15 P 90   13.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 15 P 90           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 15 P 0.08         23 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 15 P 0.25           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 15 P 0.2         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 15 P 0.39             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Corona 15 P 5.24   0.08         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 15 P 5.24   0.06         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Photosphere 15 P 5.45   0.04         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 15 P 5.45   0.04         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain standard deviation. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 15 P 10400   1040     4   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 15 P 10400   1040     4   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 15 P 0.29           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Solar System 15 P 5.44   0.544         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 15 P 6500             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solid Earth   Ni/P       10 11     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 15 P       0.17 0.17   wt% Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 15 P 0.07           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 15 P 715           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 15 P 0.07           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 15 P 1100           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 15 P 1240           ppm Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in ppm. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Solid Earth 15 P 0.07           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core. All values given in wt%. McDonough 2004
South African Garnet Peridotites 15 P 0.01           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
South Antilles Trench 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 15 P 0.16           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 15 P 0.1           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 15 P 0.056 0.03 0.11     233 wt%ox McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 15 P 0.02           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites 15 P   0.03         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 15 P 0.445             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 15 P 0.19   0.05       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 15 P 0.15           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Syenites 15 P 0.29         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.14   0.013     7 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.08   0.001     95 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.18   0.001     114 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.07   0.019     6 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.13   0.003     28 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 15 P 0.01   0     17 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tephrites 15 P 0.63         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Tholeiites 15 P 0.24         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 15 P 0.2         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites 15 P 0.26           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK, Portugal, with equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995 Wedepohl 1991
Arth et al. 1978
Ermanovics et al. 1979
Tarney et al. 1979
Schermerhorn 1987
Paradis et al. 1988
Pohl & Emmermann 1991
Tepper et al. 1993
Tonalites 15 P 0.26           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites 15 P 0.25         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.17         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.14         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 15 P 0.13         355 wt% Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonga Trench 15 P 0.981           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 15 P 0.16         70 wt% Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Trachyandesites 15 P 0.41         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 15 P 0.59         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachytes 15 P 0.21         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 15 P 0.16           wt% Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 15 P 0.11         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. P2O5 was calculated from Sm/34 as depicted in Figure 6a. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 15 P 0.145         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 15 P 0.17         14 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.31             Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke & Washington 1924. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke & Washington 1924
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.17           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.17           wt%ox Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.16           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Fahrig and Eade 1968. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Fahrig & Eade 1968
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.16           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Ronov and Yaroshevskiy 1976. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1976
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.23           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Goldschmidt 1933. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Goldschmidt 1933
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Shaw et al. 1967. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.12           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Condie 1993. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.16           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Gao et al. 1998a. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Borodin 1998. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Borodin 1998
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.15   0.02       wt% Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text









Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.2           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Taylor and McLennan 1985.Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from derivative compositions of Taylor and McLennan 1985. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Wedepohl 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.15           wt% Reccomended values for major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from Rudnick and Gao 2004. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 0.23             Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke 1889. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke 1889
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 665           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 15 P 700           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Vanuatu Trench 15 P 0.143           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Veramin Mesosiderite 15 P 3.2             Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Sediment 15 P 0.127         15 wt%ox Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 15 P 0.24           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 15 P 0.24         43 wt%ox Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 15 P 0.285         13 wt%ox Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Watson IIE Iron 15 P 2.6             Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Websterites 15 P 0.16         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Websterite consolidated from 10 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 9.51, Crystallization index equal to 60.27. Le Maitre 1976
Winonaite Pontlyfni 15 P 0.48             Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 15 P 1.2             Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Yangtze Craton 15 P 0.12           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 15 P 0.13           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 15 P 0.17           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 15 P 0.14           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 15 P 0.11           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Zeolite Clay 15 P 0.1         3 wt%ox This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
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