GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 16 S 21.1             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
ALH 77005 Meteorite 16 S 510   200       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 16 S 110           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Altered Gabbro   d34S 0.1             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Excludes unusually high-S and high-Fe gabbros. Alt 1995
Altered Gabbro 16 S 620   180       ppm Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Excludes unusually high-S and high-Fe gabbros. Alt 1995
Andesites 16 S       200 400   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Andesites. Note that it is particularly difficult to quantify pre-eruptive volatile abundances for Andesites because most are erupted subaerially after significant degassing has taken place and contain abundant phenocrysts such that liquid compositions are more silicic than bulk rock. Mineral disequilibria also hamper experimental work. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Andesites 16 S         1000   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Andesites. Note that it is particularly difficult to quantify pre-eruptive volatile abundances for Andesites because most are erupted subaerially after significant degassing has taken place and contain abundant phenocrysts such that liquid compositions are more silicic than bulk rock. Mineral disequilibria also hamper experimental work. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Atmosphere   36S 4.5             Global inventory of 36S isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Atmosphere 16 S       0.1 10   ppb Mole fraction of H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 16 S       0.001 10000   ppm Mole fraction of SO2: Sulfur dioxide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 16 S       10 100   ppt Mole fraction of CH3SCH3: Dimethyl sulfide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 16 S       1 300   ppt Mole fraction of CS2: Carbon disulfide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 16 S 500           ppt Mole fraction of OCS: Carbonyl sulfide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 16 S       5 500   ppt Mole fraction of H2S: Hydrogen sulfide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Aubres Aubrite 16 S 2.83             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 16 S 144   27     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 16 S 232   114     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Barea Mesosiderite 16 S 13.6             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Brachina Brachinite 16 S 5.17             Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Carbonates 16 S         0.01 162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.04           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.04           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 1700             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 2100             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 4100             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 2100             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 3900             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   S/Se 3600             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 16 S 260   130       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 16 S 39.4             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 16 S 0.417             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 16 S 0.341             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
CI Chondrites 16 S 5.8           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 16 S 5.4           wt% Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 16 S 6.25   0.813     5 wt% Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 16 S 6.25           wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 16 S 54100   2705       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 16 S 0.129             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CI Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CI Chondrites 16 S 0.444             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 16 S 5.41   0.2705       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Dreibus et al. 1995
CI Chondrites 16 S 7.19   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 16 S 5.9           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CM Chondrites 16 S 0.201             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
CM Chondrites 16 S 0.194             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CM Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CO Chondrites 16 S 4.5   2.8     8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 16 S 4   2     6 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 16 S 3.4   0.8     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 16 S 3   0.6     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 16 S 0.231             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Comet Halley 16 S 7.44   0.12         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Comet Halley 16 S 7.73             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Delsemme 1988. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Delsemme 1988
Continental Arc Basalt 16 S 0.5             Compositional analyses of Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Momotombo Volcano 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Continental Arc Basalt 16 S 0.0003             Compositional analyses of Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Momotombo Volcano 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as S2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Continental Crust 16 S 697           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 16 S 930           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 16 S 260           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 16 S 283           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 16 S 404           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 16 S 697           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 16 S 404           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Core 16 S 2.3   0.2       wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Core 16 S         2   wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 Dreibus & Palme 1995
Core 16 S       1.8 4.1   wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 Kargel & Lewis 1993
Core 16 S 2.3           wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Core 16 S 1.9           wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 16 S 1.9           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 16 S 1.9           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 16 S 1.9           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Core 16 S 1.9           wt% Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 16 S 19000           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Dacites 16 S 0.2089             Compositional analyses of Dacite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Mt. St. Helens 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Dacites 16 S 0.0039             Compositional analyses of Dacite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Mt. St. Helens 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as S2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Depleted Mantle 16 S 119   29.75       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  S/Dy is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 16 S 800           ppm Edmond et al. 1979
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 16 S 0.21             Compositional analyses of Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Erta 'Ale Volcano 1974. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as S2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 16 S 8.34             Compositional analyses of Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Erta 'Ale Volcano 1974. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 16 S       800 1500   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of MORB settings.  The values reported are generally for the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Gabbro   d34S 0.4             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Excludes unusually high-S and high-Fe gabbros. Alt 1995
Gabbro 16 S 230   190       ppm Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Excludes unusually high-S and high-Fe gabbros. Alt 1995
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 16 S       27.39 28.55     Edmond et al. 1979
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 16 S 0.23         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 16 S 0.23         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 16 S 0.16         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 16 S 0.17         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
IIAB Iron Meteorites 16 S 17           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IIIAB Iron Meteorites 16 S 12           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IIIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 16 S 1.52           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). A sample of phosphatized bone (Gosnold Station 2538), is distinguished from above marine phosphorite by higher organic carbon (1.0%), lower CO2 (3-5%), and higher total S as SO3 = 1.7 - 2.2. Manheim et al. 1980
Interplanetary Dust Particles 16 S 0.356             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 16 S 7.45   6.705         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 16 S 0.006             Compositional analyses of Andesite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Mt. St. Augustine 1979. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any island arc.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
IVA Iron Meteorites 16 S 3           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IVA meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Johnstown Diogenite 16 S 2.2             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
L Ordinary Chondrites 16 S 0.099             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Leucitic Basalt 16 S 0.09           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 16 S 408           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 16 S 231           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 16 S 345           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 16 S 850           ppm Lower continental crust concentration of Sulfur as based on Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Lower Continental Crust 16 S 408           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Dike Section   d34S 2             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Comprises 300 m of 90% dark gray and 10% light gray basalts. Trace of pyrite veins. Alt 1995
Lower Volcanic Section   d34S -1.9             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Comprises 300 m of 99.9% dark gray basalts and 0.1% pyrite veins. Alt 1995
Lunar Breccias 16 S 0.15         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 16 S 0.15         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 16 S 0.13         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Malvern Howardites 16 S 1.53             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 16 S 4700           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 16 S 0.03           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Marine Apatites 16 S       0.3 3.1   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 16 S 8300           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 16 S 1300           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 16 S 2000           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Baturin 1988
Marine Shales 16 S 2400           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Rocks 16 S 3.11   0.622       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 16 S 1.88   0.376       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 16 S 3.29   0.658       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 16 S 4.89   0.978       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 16 S 2.77   0.554       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 16 S 0.3   0.06       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 16 S 6.38   1.276       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 16 S 7.09   1.418       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 16 S 6.09   1.218       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 16 S 7.5     5.5 13.5   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 16 S 7.58   1.516       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 16 S 7.2     5.2 13.2   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 16 S 7.2     5.2 13.2   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 16 S 10     8 16   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mature Oceanic Crust   d34S 0.9             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Excludes unusually high-S and high-Fe gabbros. Total average of the altered oceanic crust (AOC) as weighted by the height (i.e. mass) of the upper and lower volcanic sections, upper and lower dikes, transition zone and plutonic gabbro section. d34S[AOC] = S (m[i]/m[total]) x d34S[i]. Alt 1995
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 16 S 1.8         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Middle Continental Crust 16 S 20           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 16 S 20           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 16 S 260   80       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 16 S 0.38         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. A sample of phosphatized bone (Gosnold Station 2538), is distinguished from above marine phosphorite by higher organic carbon (1.0%), lower CO2 (3-5%), and higher total S as SO3 = 1.7 - 2.2. Manheim et al. 1980
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S       200 1900   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of OIB setting. The values reported are typically that of the melt phase (dissolved). These values are taken from Hawaiian Ocean Island Basalt. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S 0.309             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1983. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type II Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as S2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S 14.9             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1983. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type II Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S 0.02             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1918. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type I Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as S2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S 11.84             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1918. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type I Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Ocean Island Basalts 16 S         3000   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of OIB setting. The values reported are typically that of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oceanic Crust 16 S 900           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1988 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Oceans Surface water 16 S 2.712           g/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Sulfate. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris & Riley 1966
ODP/DSDP Site 504B   d34S 3             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Comprises 300 m of 10.0% mineralized basalt, 89.9% transition zone basalts and 0.1% pyrite veins. Alt 1995
Oldoinyo Lengai Carbonatite 16 S 0.0197             Compositional analyses of Carbonatite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano 1999. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Sulfur in this particular case is given as SO2 gas. Oppenheimer 2004 Oppenheimer et al. 2002
Orgueil Chondrite 16 S 5.25         2   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 16 S 5.25         2 wt% Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 16 S         200   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Dacites and Rhyolites. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 16 S 75           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Dacites and Rhyolites. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). This value is for volatiles from Mount Pinatubo 1991. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 16 S 2.6             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Petersburg Eucrites 16 S 2.7             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phosphoria Formation 16 S 1.8         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 16 S 0.06           wt% Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 16 S 200   80       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: versus MgO, komatiites Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Niell 1991
Primitive Mantle 16 S 200           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Morgan et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 16 S 262           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 16 S 250   50       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 16 S 251           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 16 S 1.07         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rivers 16 S 3700           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Livingstone 1973
Rivers 16 S 117             Edmond et al. 1979
Seawater 16 S 2.712           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Sulfate. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris & Riley 1966
Seawater 16 S 28000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 16 S 28.2             Conservative distribution type. SO4[2-], NaSO4[1-] and MgSO4[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 16 S 905000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 16 S 898000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 16 S 28             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Shallowater Aubrite 16 S 3.2             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 16 S 1270   760       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 16 S 250   50       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 16 S 250           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 16 S 250           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Solar Corona 16 S 6.93   0.02         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 16 S 6.93   0.02         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 16 S 6.89   0.23         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Photosphere 16 S 7.33   0.11         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 16 S 7.21   0.06         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 16 S 515000   66950     5   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 16 S 500000             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 16 S 7.19   2.157         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 16 S 515000   66950     5   Average of mean values for individual meteorites. Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 16 S 0.64           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 16 S 6345           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 16 S 0.64           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 16 S 6350           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 16 S 0.64           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core. All values given in wt%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 16 S 0.701           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
South Margin of North China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.02           wt% Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 16 S 157 152 77     22 ppm McDonough 1990
Troodos Ophiolite   d34S 3.6             Total average of the altered oceanic crust (AOC) as weighted by the height (i.e. mass) of the upper and lower volcanic sections (750 m), upper and lower dikes (1101 m), plutonic gabbro section (1100 m) and websterites (513 m). d34S[AOC] = S (m[i]/m[total]) x d34S[i]. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Altered Gabbros   d34S 6.6             Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Altered Gabbros 16 S 470           ppm Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Basal Volcanics   d34S -18.7             Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Basal Volcanics 16 S 1900           ppm Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Extrusives   d34S -14.9             Total average of the altered oceanic crust (AOC) as weighted by the height (i.e. mass) of the upper and lower volcanic sections, the upper and lower dikes, the transition zone and the plutonic gabbro section. d34S[AOC] = S (m[i]/m[total]) x d34S[i]. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Lower Dikes   d34S 5.1             Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Lower Dikes 16 S 250           ppm Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Lower Gabbros   d34S 2             Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Lower Gabbros 16 S 260           ppm Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Mineralized Dikes   d34S 6.1             Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Mineralized Dikes 16 S 12600           ppm Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Dikes   d34S 4.8             Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Dikes 16 S 1150           ppm Drill hole CY1A. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Gabbros   d34S 2.5             Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Gabbros 16 S 40           ppm Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Volcanics   d34S -1.8             Drill hole CY1A+CY2. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Upper Volcanics 16 S 40           ppm Drill hole CY1A+CY2. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Websterites   d34S 1.5             Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Troodos Ophiolite Websterites 16 S 100           ppm Drill hole CY4. Alt 1994
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 953           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 621           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 309           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 1037           ppm Upper continental crust concentration for Sulfur as based on Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 953           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 16 S 62   33       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 16 S 600           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Dike Section   d34S 0.6             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Comprises 300 m of 83% dark gray and 17% light gray basalts. Trace of pyrite veins. Alt 1995
Upper Volcanic Section   d34S -1.8             Mean calculated based on work of Alt et al. (1989; 1995) and Alt & Anderson (1991). Comprises 300 m of 27% red halo and 73% dark gray basalts. Alt 1995
Vega 2 16 S 4.7   1.5       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Vega 2 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1986
Venera 13 Rocks 16 S 1.62   1       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 13 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venera 14 Rocks 16 S 0.88   0.77       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 14 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venus Atmosphere 16 S 20   10       ppb Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Sulfur in this instance is given as SO, Sulfur Monoxide. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere 16 S 4.4   1       ppm Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Sulfur in this instance is given as OCS (Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide). Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere 16 S       25 150   ppm Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Sulfur given as SO2 in this instance. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere 16 S 150   30       ppm Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Sulfur given as SO2 in this instance. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere 16 S 20           ppb Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Core 16 S 5.1           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Core 16 S 4.9           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation given by the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Watson IIE Iron 16 S 3.1             Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 16 S 70.4             Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Y-74450 Eucrites 16 S 2.36             Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Yangtze Craton 16 S 0.04           wt% Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 16 S 0.04           wt% Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 16 S 0.03           wt% Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 16 S 0.05           wt% Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 16 S 0.05           wt% Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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