GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
21¿N EPR Hydrothermal Vents 17 Cl       490 580     Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids from the East Pacific Rise Hot Springs. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 350¿C. Temperature at this depth is taken according to adiabatic cooling and using silica concentrations in the fluids as a geobarometer. Bowers & Taylor 1985
ALH 77005 Meteorite 17 Cl 14           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 17 Cl 8   4.5       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amphibolites 17 Cl 296         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andesites 17 Cl       1500 5000   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Andesites. Note that it is particularly difficult to quantify pre-eruptive volatile abundances for Andesites because most are erupted subaerially after significant degassing has taken place and contain abundant phenocrysts such that liquid compositions are more silicic than bulk rock. Mineral disequilibria also hamper experimental work. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Arenaceous Rocks 17 Cl 180         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 17 Cl 68         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Atmosphere   36Cl 15             Global inventory of 36Cl isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons.  Includes a rough estimate of 36Cl produced by the capture of neutrons at the Earth's surface. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Atmosphere 17 Cl 98           ppt Mole fraction of CCl4: Carbon tetrachloride gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 17 Cl         5 14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 17 Cl         5 18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Carbonates 17 Cl 99         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 17 Cl 123         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 182           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 134           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 174           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 171           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 149           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 179           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 142           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 17 Cl 216           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Weighted average of the southern margin of the North China craton, the entire Qinling belt and the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 9.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 10.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 16.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 14             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 11.3             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 17 Cl 34           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 704           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 704   106     10 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 698   104.7       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 680           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 698   104.7       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 5.26   0.06         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 680           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 17 Cl 678           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
Continental Crust 17 Cl 244           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 17 Cl 472           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 17 Cl 179           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 17 Cl 244           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 17 Cl 130           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 17 Cl 472           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Wedepohl (1987) in the proportions of Figure 2; LCC = averages of granulites and gabbro. Wedepohl 1995
Core 17 Cl 200           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 17 Cl 200           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Depleted Mantle 17 Cl 0.51   0.0918       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Cl/K is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 17 Cl 144         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 17 Cl 179           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 17 Cl 30         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 17 Cl       20 50   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of MORB settings.  The values reported are generally for the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 17 Cl 45           ppm Edmond et al. 1979
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 17 Cl       34.41 34.74     Edmond et al. 1979
Granites 17 Cl 174         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 17 Cl 34         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intra Stellar Medium 17 Cl 5.27   3.162         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Lower Continental Crust 17 Cl 278           ppm LCC = averages of granulites and gabbro. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 17 Cl 216           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 17 Cl 278           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 17 Cl 250           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Mafic Granulites 17 Cl 341         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 17 Cl 154         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Marine Organisms 17 Cl 4700           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 17 Cl 21000           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Shales 17 Cl 180           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.32   0.048       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.41   0.0615       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.37   0.0555       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.38   0.057       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.41   0.0615       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 17 Cl 0.5   0.075       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.8     0.3 2.3   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.9     0.4 2.4   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.9     0.4 2.4   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.6     0.1 2.1   wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.57   0.0855       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.55   0.0825       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.53   0.0795       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 17 Cl 0.54   0.081       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 17 Cl 78         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 17 Cl 93         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 17 Cl 182           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 17 Cl 182           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 17 Cl 80           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 70           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 72           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 70           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 51           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Ocean Island Basalts 17 Cl 90           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of OIB setting. The values reported are typically that of the melt phase (dissolved). These volatile abundances are taken from Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oceans Surface water 17 Cl 19.353           g/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Chloride. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wilson 1975
Millero & Leung 1976
Orgueil Chondrite 17 Cl 698         8 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 17 Cl 698         8 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 17 Cl 720           µg/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 17 Cl 1100           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Dacites and Rhyolites. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). This particular value is taken from volatile abundances from Mount Pinatubo 1991. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 17 Cl       600 2700   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Metaluminous Dacites and Rhyolites. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 17 Cl 6700           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Trachytes. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 17 Cl 9000           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Peralkaline Rhyolites (pantellerites). The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Pelites 17 Cl 57         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 17 Cl 92         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Precambrian Canadian Shield 17 Cl 0.01           wt% Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 17 Cl 30   12       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Mass balance Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jambon et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 17 Cl 17           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 17 Cl 590           µg/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 17 Cl 91           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Rivers 17 Cl 7800           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Brewer 1975

Rivers 17 Cl 220             Edmond et al. 1979
Seawater 17 Cl 19.353           g/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Chloride. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wilson 1975
Millero & Leung 1976
Seawater 17 Cl 550000             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 17 Cl 0.546             Conservative distribution type. Cl[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 17 Cl 540             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 17 Cl 18800000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 17 Cl 18800000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 17 Cl 550             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. I von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Shergotty Meteorite 17 Cl 108           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 17 Cl 17           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 17 Cl 17           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 17 Cl 17           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solar Corona 17 Cl 4.93   0.14         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 17 Cl 4.93   0.14         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Photosphere 17 Cl 5.5   0.3         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Abundances are not derived from the photosphere. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 17 Cl 5.5   0.3         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 17 Cl 5.26   4.734         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 17 Cl 4740             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 17 Cl 5240   786     10   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 17 Cl 5240   786     10   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 17 Cl 76           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 17 Cl 76           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 17 Cl 249           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 17 Cl 289           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 17 Cl 179           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 17 Cl 179           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 17 Cl 228           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 77           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 45           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 42           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 17 Cl 72           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 17 Cl 53 75 45     15 ppm McDonough 1990
Stony Meteorites 17 Cl 22             Typical activity of selected cosmogenic radionuclides in stony meteorites in the metal phase. Herzog 2004
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 17 Cl 69         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 17 Cl 111         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 640           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 640           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Wedepohl (1987) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 142           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 100           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 370   382       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 17 Cl 370           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Vega 2 17 Cl 0.3           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Vega 2 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1986
Venera 13 Rocks 17 Cl 0.3           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 13 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venera 14 Rocks 17 Cl 0.4           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 14 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venus Atmosphere   35Cl/37Cl 2.9   0.3         Isotopic composition of Venus' atmosphere as obtained by IR spectroscopy. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Yangtze Craton 17 Cl 130           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 17 Cl 144           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 17 Cl 148           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 17 Cl 169           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 17 Cl 145           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
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