GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
21¿N EPR Hydrothermal Vents 20 Ca       11 20     Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids from the East Pacific Rise Hot Springs. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 350¿C. Temperature at this depth is taken according to adiabatic cooling and using silica concentrations in the fluids as a geobarometer. Bowers & Taylor 1985
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 20 Ca 9.8             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 20 Ca 8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 20 Ca 6           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Ademellites 20 Ca 2.68         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 20 Ca 10.2           wt%ox Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
Alaska Trench 20 Ca 4.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Basalts 20 Ca 11.09         66 wt% Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 20 Ca 3.41           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 20 Ca 2.26   0.23         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 20 Ca 1.3   0.27         Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 20 Ca 18             Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 20 Ca 7.3             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 20 Ca 6.9             Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 20 Ca 5.9             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 20 Ca 2.59           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Amazon River Particulates 20 Ca 16000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 20 Ca 9.07         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 20 Ca 3.92           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 20 Ca 5.9           wt%ox Major element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Ewart 1982. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. Major element data was taken from the average values of the Andean andesite from Ewart 1982. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 20 Ca 8.8         56 wt% Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 20 Ca 6.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 7.35         47 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 20 Ca 8.98         50 wt%ox Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 20 Ca 6.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 7.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 7.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 6.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 6.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 6.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 20 Ca 6.79         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 20 Ca 163.7             Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 20 Ca 77.2             Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Anorthosites 20 Ca 12.48         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Archean Amphibolites 20 Ca 3.2           wt%ox Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 20 Ca 7.3           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 20 Ca 2.75           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Cameron et al. 1979. Shaw et al. 1986 Cameron et al. 1979
Archean Canadian Shield 20 Ca 3.8           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Goodwin 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Goodwin 1978
Archean Canadian Shield 20 Ca 3.4           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Lower Crust 20 Ca 5.6           wt%ox Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 20 Ca 3.9           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Rogers 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Rogers 1978
Archean Terrains 20 Ca 6.9           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 20 Ca 4.43           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 20 Ca 5.22           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 20 Ca 5.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Arenaceous Rocks 20 Ca 1.02         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 20 Ca 1.98         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 20 Ca 4.68         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aubres Aubrite 20 Ca 2.769             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 20 Ca 0.93           wt% Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 20 Ca 0.7         13 wt% Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite 20 Ca 1.88         704 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 20 Ca 4.36         8 wt% Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 20 Ca 3.07         1074 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 20 Ca 0.4         6 wt% Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Barea Mesosiderite 20 Ca 41.8             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basaltic Glass at ODP/DSDP Site 504 20 Ca 12.78   0.24     51 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 51 basaltic glass analyses excluding anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Basalts 20 Ca 9.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 9.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 9.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 9.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 9.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 10.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 10           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 20 Ca 10.15         13 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 20 Ca 9.5         27 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 20 Ca 8.15         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 20 Ca 11.6         16 wt% Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 20 Ca 11.1         7 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 9.09         5 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 7.28         10 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 20 Ca 10         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 10.1         6 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 20 Ca 9.47         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basalts 20 Ca 9.98         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 9.68         4 wt% Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 20 Ca 8.74         44 wt% Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 8.88         9 wt% Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 20 Ca 9.06         12 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 20 Ca 8.48         7 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 20 Ca 10.2         23 wt% Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 20 Ca 10.3         16 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 20 Ca 10         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 20 Ca 10.2         6 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basanites 20 Ca 10.19         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Basic Precambrian Granulites 20 Ca 8.91         25 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Beaulieu River 20 Ca 13             Beaulieu Estuary concentrations of dissolved calcium given as a ratio of C/S. Measures & Burton 1978
Beaulieu River 20 Ca 28             Beaulieu Estuary concentrations of dissolved calcium given as a ratio of C/S. Measures & Burton 1978
Beaulieu River 20 Ca 10             Beaulieu Estuary concentrations of dissolved calcium given as a ratio of C/S. Measures & Burton 1978
Binda Eucrite 20 Ca 41.6             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 20 Ca 8.35         348 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brown Clay 20 Ca 2.31         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 20 Ca 2.02         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 20 Ca 11.27           wt%ox Average values of coarse grained CAI's in ordinary chondrites as given in McSween 1977. Values in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 McSween 1977
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 20 Ca 8.7           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of irregularly shaped inclusions in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Al 1.07   0.06         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.16   0.009         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21.1   1.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Yb 5.86   0.27         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 20 Ca 44.5         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 20 Ca 32.2         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 20 Ca 21.98   0.23     162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Carbonates 20 Ca 31.13         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 20 Ca 34.45         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 20 Ca 9.86         60 wt% Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 20 Ca 2.41           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 20 Ca 34.59           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 20 Ca 10.49         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 4.71           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 6.02           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 4.88           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 4.22           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 6.51           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 5.89           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 6.02           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 4           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 4.99           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 3.31           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 20 Ca 7.41           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 20 Ca 0.71   0.16       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Meteorite 20 Ca 0.47   0.07         Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 20 Ca 52.3             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 20 Ca 0.32         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 20 Ca 0.3           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chert 20 Ca 0.36         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 20 Ca 0.047             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 20 Ca 0.021             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondrules 20 Ca 9.7           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of Ca-Al rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 9280           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 9320   279.6       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Wolf & Palme 2001
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 0.011             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CI Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 9320   279.6       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 9280   659     15 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 0.925           wt% Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 0.061             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 6.33   0.01         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 1.234           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 0.92           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 1.29           wt% Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
CI Chondrites 20 Ca 0.9           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites   Ca/Al 1.076             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.156             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Yb 5.75             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Clastic Turbidites 20 Ca 2.41         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CM Chondrites 20 Ca 0.029             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CM Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CM Chondrites 20 Ca 0.07             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
CO Chondrites 20 Ca 0.41   0.38     8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 20 Ca 1.4   0.4     6 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 20 Ca 0.76   0.12     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 20 Ca 1.1   0.2     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 20 Ca 0.125             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Colombia Trench 20 Ca 28.33           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colorado River Particulates 20 Ca 34000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Comet Halley 20 Ca 6.38   0.11         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Congo River Particulates 20 Ca 8400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 20 Ca 9.93         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 20 Ca 7.2         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths 20 Ca 2.41 2.52 1     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths   Ca/Al 1.25 1.24 0.25     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 20 Ca 7.2           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 20 Ca 10.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.41           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.29           wt% Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.4           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.4           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 20 Ca 7.4           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.29           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.85           wt% UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.66           wt%ox Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.7           wt%ox In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 20 Ca 40370           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.5           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 20 Ca 7.5           wt%ox Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.4           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Goldschmidt 1933
Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Vinogradov 1962
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.8           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.7           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Continental Crust 20 Ca 6           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 5.18           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 5.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.76           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.75           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.75           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.8           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.55           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 0.51           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 18.77           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 19.04           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 19.48           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 19.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 20.3           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxne mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 20.75           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a Clinopyroxene mineral in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 16.28           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a plagioclase sample in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 4.9           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 20 Ca 4.82           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 20 Ca 4.85 2.57 10.14     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Ca/Al 1.46 1.19 0.93     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths 20 Ca 2.79 2.62 1.65     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths   Ca/Al 1.28 1.17 0.49     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Shields & Platforms 20 Ca 6.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 20 Ca 9.5           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 20 Ca 0           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Core 20 Ca 0           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 4.63           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 14.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 0.27           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 22.9           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 1.59           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 0.75           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 1.38           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 19.7           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 4.93           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 4.54           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 5.43           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 20 Ca 16.8           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Xenoliths 20 Ca 0.7 0.49 0.72     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Ca/Al 0.88 0.82 0.66     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
D'Orbigny Angrite 20 Ca 108             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Dacites 20 Ca 4.32         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Danube River Particulates 20 Ca 45000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts 20 Ca 3.17           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted D-MORB basalts   CaO/Al2O3 0.8             Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 20 Ca 3.5   0.035       wt%ox Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  MMM is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 20 Ca 19.52           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene   CaO/Al2O3 2.48             Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Olivine 20 Ca 0.05           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Olivine. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 20 Ca 2.18           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene   CaO/Al2O3 0.34             Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Diabases 20 Ca 8.9         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diatom Oozes & Clay 20 Ca 1.06         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 20 Ca 0.73         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 20 Ca 2.7         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 20 Ca 2.48         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 20 Ca 5.33         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diorites 20 Ca 6.58         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 20 Ca 9.24         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 800 20 Ca 8.52           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 20 Ca 1.3           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 20 Ca 1.56           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dunites 20 Ca 1.01         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
E-MORB 20 Ca 10.59           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.81           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.51           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   CIW 54.4             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   CIW 54.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.52           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.2           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 56.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 57.6             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Earth 20 Ca 1.9           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
East China Craton 20 Ca 4.83           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 20 Ca 5.03           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 20 Ca 9.06           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 20 Ca 8.1             Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 20 Ca 5.1             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Al 1.1   0.08         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.143   0.014         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Ti 19.1   2.2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Yb 5.46   0.51         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Estherville Mesosiderite 20 Ca 52             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Eucrites 20 Ca 1.3           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
Felsic Archean Granulites 20 Ca 2.8 2.7       379 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 20 Ca 3.88         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 20 Ca 2.8 2.5       224 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 2.06         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 20 Ca 1.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 20 Ca 5.45         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 20 Ca 26             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 20 Ca 11.85         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 20 Ca 8.5             Calcium concentration found in Basalts, which is compared to the value obtained at the Galapagos. Calcium concentrations were obtained via EGTA/EDTA titration, electrometric endpoint, Hg electrode at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 20 Ca 3.65           wt% Composition of the Earth's Mantle as based on bulk composition of upper mantle rocks. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 20 Ca 11.11           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Gabbros 20 Ca 4.58           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 20 Ca 9.58         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 20 Ca       10.31 11     Calcium concentration observed at the Galapagos Islands which is used as a model for hydrothermal ridge activity of major and minor elements in the ocean. Calcium concentrations were obtained via EGTA/EDTA titration, electrometric endpoint, Hg electrode at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Ganges River Particulates 20 Ca 26500           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 20 Ca   0.9         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 20 Ca 1.05           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Garnet Peridotites 20 Ca 0.82           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garnet Peridotites   Ca/Al   0.99           McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 20 Ca 19500           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 20 Ca 9.15             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 20 Ca 0.58   0.08       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 20 Ca 1.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 20 Ca 1.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 20 Ca 1.18           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 20 Ca 1.46         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 20 Ca 1.43         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 20 Ca 1.74         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 20 Ca 2.28           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 20 Ca 1.84         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 20 Ca 1.5           wt%ox I and S type felsic Granites that comprise the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995 Whalen et al. 1987
Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.83           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.83         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Granulites 20 Ca 4.57 3.49       593 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 20 Ca 5.6           wt%ox Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 20 Ca 5.07 3.78       661 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 20 Ca 9.77 10.36       350 wt%ox Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 20 Ca 2.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 20 Ca 2.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 20 Ca 2.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 20 Ca 2.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 20 Ca 3.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 20 Ca 2.6           wt%ox Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 20 Ca 9.57         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 20 Ca 7.76         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 20 Ca 2.6           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 20 Ca 10.53         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 20 Ca 10.66         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 20 Ca 11.48         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 20 Ca 11.29         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
H Ordinary Chondrites 20 Ca 1.3           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Hamble River 20 Ca 83             Dissolved calcium concentrations of the Hamble River. Measures & Burton 1978
Harzburgites 20 Ca 2.9         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Hawaiites 20 Ca 7.91         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Honshu Basalt 20 Ca 9.68         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 20 Ca 3         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 20 Ca 5.5             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Landes 20 Ca 11.1             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 20 Ca 8.3             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 20 Ca 78.5             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 20 Ca 6.13         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 20 Ca 51.3           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). Manheim et al. 1980
Interior North China Craton 20 Ca 6.3           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 20 Ca 5.12           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 20 Ca 4.1           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 20 Ca 7.93           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 20 Ca 6.61           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 20 Ca 0.55         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 20 Ca 19.23         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 20 Ca 1.84         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 20 Ca 6.07         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 20 Ca 6.2 6.1       106 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 20 Ca 9.2 8.8       48 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 20 Ca 5.7 5.9       132 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 20 Ca 6.15         26 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Interplanetary Dust Particles 20 Ca 0.052             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 20 Ca 2.61   0.3915         Abundance of refractory elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 20 Ca 11.44         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 20 Ca 7.32         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 20 Ca 5.36           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 20 Ca 5.1         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Itchen River 20 Ca 85             Dissolved calcium concentrations of the Itchen River. Measures & Burton 1978
Izu-Bonin Trench 20 Ca 5.31           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 20 Ca 0.65           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 20 Ca 2.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 20 Ca 13.1             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kamchatka Basalt 20 Ca 9.96         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 20 Ca 0.46           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 20 Ca 37.2             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 20 Ca 1.3   0.1       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kerm Trench 20 Ca 2.31           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 20 Ca 11.5         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 20 Ca 6.9         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 20 Ca 7.49         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 20 Ca 8.3         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 20 Ca 6.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 20 Ca 0.65           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
L Ordinary Chondrites 20 Ca 0.05             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Late Archean Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.8           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.58           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   CIW 54.3             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   CIW 54.6             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.18           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.49           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 57.6             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 56.6             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Latites 20 Ca 4.34         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 20 Ca 12.94   0.43     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Lesser Antilles Basalt 20 Ca 10.79         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Leucitic Basalt 20 Ca 8.16           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Lherzolites 20 Ca 5.32         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Low Si-Mg Mantle 20 Ca 3.21           wt% LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Low Si-Mg Mantle   CaO/Al2O3 0.79             LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.2           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.3           wt%ox Balance of residual rocks after 30% partial melting of the felsic lower crust, assuming that I and S type felsic granites represent the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 9.5           wt%ox Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.07           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 9.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 8.48           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 48600           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 9.59           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 6.92           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.2           wt%ox Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.64           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 9.59           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 10.28           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 9.59           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 7.68           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 10.1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 8.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 20 Ca 1.58           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lujavrites 20 Ca 1.79         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Lunar Anothosites 20 Ca 14           wt%ox Recalcuated measurements of the chemical composition of the 'most common anorthosite type' that was originally calculated according to Wood et al. 1970b. Compston et al. 1970 Wood et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 20 Ca 11.81         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 20 Ca 11.98         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Crystalline Rocks 20 Ca 11           wt%ox Mean of Crystalline Rock sample (group 1 and group 2) averages from table 4 of Compston et al. 1970. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 20 Ca 11.98         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Luzon Basalt 20 Ca 10.75         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 20 Ca 7             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 20 Ca 71.3             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
MacKenzie River Particulates 20 Ca 35800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Archean Granulites 20 Ca 9.72 9.99       101 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 20 Ca 9.45         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 20 Ca 10.89 10.9       269 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 20 Ca 9.92         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 20 Ca 9.31 9.7       95 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Magdalena River Particulates 20 Ca 10000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Makran Trench 20 Ca 7.37           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 20 Ca 58             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 20 Ca 23000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 20 Ca 3           wt% Composition of the Mantle of the Earth assuming average solar system elemental ratios for the whole Earth. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Mantle 20 Ca 2.53           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mantle 20 Ca 3.19           wt% Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle 20 Ca 3.19     2.92 3.66   wt% Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle   CaO/Al2O3 0.91             Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 20 Ca 2.15           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 20 Ca 11.51         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 20 Ca 5.04           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Apatites 20 Ca       53.4 55.3   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 20 Ca 14000           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 320000           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 10000           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 20 Ca 16000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Wedepohl 1969
Mars Mantle 20 Ca 2.4           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mars Mantle 20 Ca 2           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Mantle 20 Ca 2.4           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 8.14   0.814       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 6.03   0.603       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 6.62   0.662       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 8.09   0.809       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 7.35   0.735       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 20 Ca 8.8   0.88       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 20 Ca 5.9   2       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.4   2       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.4   2       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.09   0.609       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.63   0.663       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.86   0.686       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.4   2       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 20 Ca 6.56   0.656       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 20 Ca 6.76         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 20 Ca 43.77         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 20 Ca 5900           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 20 Ca 27.7     23.3 33.3 10 wt%ox Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Meon River 20 Ca 84             Dissolved calcium concentrations of the Meon River. Measures & Burton 1978
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 11.7           wt% Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 11.7           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. Experimental partial melt of the Indarch enstatite chondrite at 1,425¿C (29% partial melt). Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 18.7           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Krot et al. 2001 using skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 18.4           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Morgan & Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 3.6           wt% Models of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt%. These values are derived from the average of skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 10.7           wt% Model of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury as given by Goettel 1988 values for the refractory end member and various other studies of the bulk silicate earth to yield FeO of 3 wt% (61% refractory end member, 39% bulk silicate earth). Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Jagoutz et al. 1979
Taylor & McLennan 1985
McDonough & Sun 1995
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 5.2           wt% Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca       3.5 7   wt% Preferred model for the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 20 Ca 15.2           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury as give by the refractory end member from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 20 Ca 4.4           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 20 Ca 6.7           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 20 Ca 5.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 20 Ca 6.7           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.55           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.94           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   CIW 55             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   CIW 56.1             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 20 Ca 9.3             Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 20 Ca 4.62         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 20 Ca 3         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metamorphic Rocks 20 Ca 3.88           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to fig. 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 20 Ca 2.97 2.4       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 20 Ca 1.73           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.24           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.25           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 2.96           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.27           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.25   0.01       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.25           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.1           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.48           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.17           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 56.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   CIW 57.7             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 20 Ca 44.7             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 20 Ca 30.5             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 20 Ca 42.4             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Monzonites 20 Ca 4.17         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Moon 20 Ca 6.4           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Moore County Eucrite 20 Ca 67             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
MORB Basaltic Glass 20 Ca 11.95           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 20 Ca 10.24           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 20 Ca 11.4           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 20 Ca 11.68           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 20 Ca 12.21           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Mugearites 20 Ca 6.14         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
N-MORB 20 Ca 11.303   0.8138     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 20 Ca 10.34           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 20 Ca 12.19           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 20 Ca 12.99           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 20 Ca 11.75           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 20 Ca 12.5           wt% Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
N-MORB 20 Ca 11.303           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB   CaO/Al2O3 0.75             Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
Nakhla Meteorite 20 Ca 10.5   0.5         Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 20 Ca 3.92           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 20 Ca 18.58         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 20 Ca 11.46         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 20 Ca 2.31         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 20 Ca 11.89         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
New Hebrides Islands 20 Ca 11.96         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 20 Ca 3300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Nile River Particulates 20 Ca 40000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Norites 20 Ca 9.41         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 20 Ca 3.63           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 20 Ca 1.95           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 4.13           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 7.58           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 4.42           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 3.79           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 5.31           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 20 Ca 50         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Novo-Urei Ureilite 20 Ca 1.1   0.2       wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 20 Ca 74             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 20 Ca 0.89 0.89 0.48     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Arc Xenoliths   Ca/Al 1.75 1.55 1.32     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 0.78           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 0.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 0.61           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 17.91           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 19.81           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 20 Ca 0.06           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Oceanic Crust 20 Ca 84600           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1992 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Crust 20 Ca 80600           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1991 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 20 Ca 1.1 0.82 0.75     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Island Xenoliths   Ca/Al 1.36 1.1 0.92     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceans Deep water 20 Ca 413.6           mg/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 1000 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
Oceans Surface water 20 Ca 417.6           mg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 30 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
ODP Site 735 20 Ca 11.113 11.125       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 20 Ca 12.88           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Olivine Chondrules 20 Ca 4.7     2.7 8.3 3 wt%ox Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite 20 Ca 5.16         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Al 1.08   0.04         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.156   0.006         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21   1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Yb 5.88   0.3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 20 Ca 9020         12 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 20 Ca 9.3             Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 20 Ca 9020         12 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orinoco River Particulates 20 Ca 3000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Paleozoic Orogens 20 Ca 5.8           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 20 Ca 8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.7           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 20 Ca 3.36           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   CIW 56.1             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   CIW 57             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Parana River Particulates 20 Ca 5900           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 0.57         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 4.93         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 1.07         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 3.48         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 3.92         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 2.31         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 4.93         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 20 Ca 2.31           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelites 20 Ca 2.37         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 20 Ca 2.11         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 20 Ca 8.6             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 20 Ca 1.69           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peridotites 20 Ca 5.05         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Periodotite Massifs 20 Ca 3.2           wt% Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Massifs   CaO/Al2O3 0.82             Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 20 Ca   2.52         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Ca/Al   1.18           McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 20 Ca 24.52           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 20 Ca 60.7             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 8.69         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 10.73         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 8.3         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 11.61         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 7.99         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 10.45         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 10.28         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 20 Ca 10.45         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Philip Trench 20 Ca 13.29           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phonolites 20 Ca 2.72         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Phosphoria Formation 20 Ca 44         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 20 Ca 3.3           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 20 Ca 4.12           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 20 Ca 5.2         88 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.232           wt%ox Major oxides of the primitive mantle that are estimated to comprise the bulk of the Earth's mantle (measured in wt.%). Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 2.89           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.078           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 4.36           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.6           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.6           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca   3.6         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 2.9           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.4           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 23110           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 26100   2088       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Major element, RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 2.53   0.253       wt% Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.55           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.7           wt% Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.23           wt% PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.23           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Allegre et al. 1995. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.54           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 4.36           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from McDonough & Sun 1995. Palme & O'Neill 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.27           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Hart & Zindler 1986. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 4.4           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Palme & Nickel 1985. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Wanke et al. 1984. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Jagoutz et al. 1979. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.1           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.5           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.54           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.21           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.21           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.54           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.65   0.31       wt% Major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle, measurements by Palme & O'Neill 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.21           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 2.61           wt% Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 20 Ca 3.1           wt% Estimates of major element composition of the Earth Primitive Mantle from Ringwood 1979. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle   Ca/Al 1.07   0.001         Primitive mantle ratios (in wt. %) of lithophile elements used to attempt to estimate the composition of the Earth. Values are obtained by using the same approach as were utilized by a number of previous references. However, in this study the difference is that siderophile elements (or all elements suspected of entering the Earth's core) are omitted, therein retaining only the major lithophile elements. The idea behind the omission of the siderophile elements in this study is that the ratios of the elements which do not enter the core (lithophile) are the same in the bluk Earth as in the mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle   Ca/Al   1.09           McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   CaO/Al2O3 0.82             Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle   CaO/Al2O3 0.8             Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   CaO/Al2O3 0.79             PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 20 Ca 11.54         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pyrolites 20 Ca 3.1           wt% Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 20 Ca 3.1           wt%ox Major oxide values for Pyrolites studied by Ringwood, given in wt.%. These oxide values are used as a model for Primitive mantle oxide values obtained in this study, the idea being that Ringwood's pyrolite oxide values should resemble PRIMA oxide values given. Allegre et al. 1995 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 20 Ca 3.55           wt% Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyrolites   CaO/Al2O3 0.94             Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites   CaO/Al2O3 0.8             Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyroxenites 20 Ca 14.08         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 20 Ca 9.8             Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 20 Ca 8.14   0.01         Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 20 Ca 1.29         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 20 Ca 1.5         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 20 Ca 1.29         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 20 Ca 0.94         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 20 Ca 0.09           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 20 Ca 0.15         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 20 Ca 0.57         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 20 Ca 13.2     8.6 24 5 wt%ox Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 20 Ca 11.4         2 wt%ox CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 20 Ca 44.62         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rhyodacites 20 Ca 3.62         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Rifted Continental Margins 20 Ca 10.1           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 20 Ca 6.3           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 20 Ca 21500           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 20 Ca 150000           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Rivers 20 Ca 375             Calcium concentration observed in rivers, which is compared to the value obtained at the Galapagos for a reference as to how much Ca is input to the ocean by weathering of continental rocks in contrast to the hydrothermal flux of Ca. Calcium concentrations were obtained via EGTA/EDTA titration, electrometric endpoint, Hg electrode at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Ryuku Trench 20 Ca 2.57           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 20 Ca 0.45           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 20 Ca 0.2           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 20 Ca 1.31           wt%ox Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 20 Ca 11.34         41 wt% Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 20 Ca 10             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 20 Ca 415           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = C.A. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
Seawater 20 Ca 412           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Horbie et al. 1974
Seawater 20 Ca 10300             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 20 Ca 420000           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 20 Ca 448000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 20 Ca 10.3             Slight surface depletion. Ca[2+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 20 Ca 10.2             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Sediments 20 Ca 9           wt%ox Sedimentary Rock proportions according to fig. 2: 44.0% Shales, Siltstones; 20.9% Sandstones, Greywackes; 20.3% Mafic etc. Volcanics; 14.6% Carbonates (0.8% Evaporites). Abundance of sedimentary carbonates reported by Ronov & Yaroshevskiy (1968) reduced from 22500 to 16000 ppm C to adjust the proportion of Carbonate to Reduced Carbon 4:1 Wedepohl 1995 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Serra De Mage Eucrite 20 Ca 64.9             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 20 Ca 0.64           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 20 Ca 0.71           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 20 Ca 1.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shalka Diogenite 20 Ca 5.2             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 20 Ca 0.739             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 20 Ca 6.86   0.39         Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.53           wt% Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.3           wt% Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 3.5           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 3.4           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.53   0.253       wt% Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 3.55           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.9           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.57           wt% Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.53           wt% Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.07           wt% Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 20 Ca 2.53           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 20 Ca 2.81         23 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 20 Ca 23.45           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 20 Ca 1.4         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 20 Ca 73.98             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Corona 20 Ca 6.46   0.06         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 20 Ca 6.43   0.2         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Corona 20 Ca 6.46   0.08         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 20 Ca 6.36   0.02         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 20 Ca 6.36   0.02         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 20 Ca 6.6           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Solar System 20 Ca 61100   4338.1     15   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 20 Ca 62500             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 20 Ca 61100   4340     15   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 20 Ca 6.33   0.3165         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Refractory Elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solid Earth 20 Ca 1.71           wt% Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 20 Ca 1.607           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Solid Earth 20 Ca 1.71           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 20 Ca 1.71           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 20 Ca 1.71           wt% Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. Ca is not considered a light element and thus does not reside in the Earth's core. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Mars 20 Ca 10.3   0.7       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-1 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Solid Mars 20 Ca 7.4   0.7       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-2 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
South African Garnet Peridotites 20 Ca 0.77           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
South Antilles Trench 20 Ca 0.7           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 20 Ca 7.31           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 20 Ca 5.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 20 Ca 6.46           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 20 Ca 6.2           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 20 Ca 4.25           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 3.02           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 6.6           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 3.79           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 20 Ca 3.15           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 20 Ca 1.06           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 20 Ca 2.15 2.2 1.11     374 wt%ox McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 20 Ca   2.2         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 20 Ca 2.08           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites   Ca/Al 1.28 1.35 1.6     374   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ca/Al   1.35           McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
St. Lawrence River Particulates 20 Ca 23000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Stannern Eucrite 20 Ca 76.2             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Stony Meteorites 20 Ca 24             Typical activity of selected cosmogenic radionuclides in stony meteorites in the metal phase. Herzog 2004
Subducted Sediment 20 Ca 5.95   1.75       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 20 Ca 3.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Syenites 20 Ca 3.53         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 14.58   0.903     6 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 9.88   0.355     17 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 12.53   0.025     95 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 4.66   0.063     28 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 10.41   0.275     7 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 20 Ca 6.3   0.033     114 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tephrites 20 Ca 9.18         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Test River 20 Ca 83             River Test concentrations of dissolved calcium (given as a ratio C/S value). Measures & Burton 1978
Test River 20 Ca 82             River Test concentrations of dissolved calcium (given as a ratio C/S value). Measures & Burton 1978
Tholeiites 20 Ca 10.36         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 20 Ca 2.77         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites 20 Ca 4.9           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK, Portugal, with equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995 Wedepohl 1991
Arth et al. 1978
Ermanovics et al. 1979
Tarney et al. 1979
Schermerhorn 1987
Paradis et al. 1988
Pohl & Emmermann 1991
Tepper et al. 1993
Tonalites 20 Ca 4.9           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites 20 Ca 5.42         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.52         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.1           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.19         355 wt% Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 2.86         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 3.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 20 Ca 2.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonga Trench 20 Ca 2.12           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 20 Ca 11.99         70 wt% Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Trachyandesites 20 Ca 4.96         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 20 Ca 7.9         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachytes 20 Ca 2.34         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 20 Ca 11.17           wt% Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 20 Ca 4.77         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 20 Ca 3.23         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Type F Aggregates 20 Ca 12.2           wt%ox Avergae values of type F aggregates in ordinary chondrites according to Wark 1979 and given in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 Wark 1979
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 20 Ca 5.9         14 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.18           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke & Washington 1924. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke & Washington 1924
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.55           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 29450           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 3           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 5.45           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke 1889. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke 1889
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.59           wt% Reccomended values for major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from Rudnick and Gao 2004. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.24           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Wedepohl 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 3.6           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. CaO is that remaining after apatite is subtracted assuming all P2O5 is residing in apatite. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 4.1           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 20 Ca 12.88           wt%ox