GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.18           wt%ox Minor oxides of the primitive mantle (in wt.%) that comprise the remnant portions of the Earth's mantle. In this particular study the sum of the minor oxides is taken and normalized to 100% in an effort to obtain the absolute values of each element, which are then used for comparison to prior studies conducted of the Earth's mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Solid Earth 22 Ti 0.071           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Basaltic Glass at ODP/DSDP Site 504 22 Ti 0.97   0.07     51 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 51 basaltic glass analyses excluding anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 22 Ti 0.94   0.09     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Alborz Mountains 22 Ti 270         3 ppm Phosphorite sandstones, quartzose and ferruginous, in sequence of phosphatic black shales, sandstones and limestones, platform setting, P2O5: 24-28% from the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Aval et al. 1968
Bambui Group 22 Ti 1000         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Battle Creek Formation 22 Ti 1670         7 ppm Silty aphanitic phosphorites of the intra-cratonic Georgina Basin; Battle formation of Australia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Battle Creek Formation 22 Ti 300         17 ppm Cherty and calcareous pelletal phosphorites, located in the intra-cratonic basin Battle Cratonic Formation (Georgina Basin), P2O5: 8-37% (mostly 24-37%). Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Belkinsk Akai Sayan 22 Ti 400         33 ppm Calcareous phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Belkinsk Altai Sayan, Siberia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Bone Valley Formation 22 Ti 3.1         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Bone Valley Formation 22 Ti 405         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Altschuller 1980
Dover Sandstone 22 Ti 900         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
La Caja Formation 22 Ti 295         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Marine Phosphorites 22 Ti 640 405   40 1670 15 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 22 Ti 4600           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mishash Formation 22 Ti 110         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Monterey Formation 22 Ti 1200         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Oulad Abdoun Basin 22 Ti 200         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Phosphoria Formation 22 Ti 1000         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Pungo River Formation 22 Ti 750         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Slope Lisbourne Group 22 Ti 40         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk 22 Ti 500         38 ppm Siliceous and clayey phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Orgueil Chondrite 22 Ti 436         7 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 22 Ti 2400   120     7   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 22 Ti 2400             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 436   21.8     7 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
Comet Halley 22 Ti 5.18   0.18         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Orgueil Chondrite 22 Ti 436         7 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 22 Ti 5.24   0.12         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 22 Ti 5.24   0.13         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 22 Ti 4.99   0.02         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 22 Ti 2400   120     7   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Average values of coarse grained CAI's in ordinary chondrites as given in McSween 1977. Values in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 McSween 1977
Ca-Al-rich Inclusions 22 Ti 0.91           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of irregularly shaped inclusions in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Chondrules 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of Ca-Al rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Type F Aggregates 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Avergae values of type F aggregates in ordinary chondrites according to Wark 1979 and given in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 Wark 1979
Chassigny Achondrite 22 Ti 0.15           wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Goalpara Ureilite 22 Ti 0.1           wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kenna Ureilite 22 Ti         0.2   wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Novo-Urei Ureilite 22 Ti         0.12   wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 22 Ti       0.12 0.18   wt%ox Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Seawater 22 Ti         0.02     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 22 Ti         20     Unknown distribution type. Ti(OH)4[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.94         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.88         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 10.32         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 10.85         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 22 Ti 7.92         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 22 Ti 8.87         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.1           wt%ox Mean of Crystalline Rock sample (group 1 and group 2) averages from table 4 of Compston et al. 1970. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Soil 22 Ti 7.5         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Andesites 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.78           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.88           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.95           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.86           wt%ox Condie 1993
Andesites 22 Ti 0.76           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 1.52           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 0.97           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 1.45           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 0.99           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 1.45           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 1.5           wt%ox Condie 1993
Basalts 22 Ti 1.42           wt%ox Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 32             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 35             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.42           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.46           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 17             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.29           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.34           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.28           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.28           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.72           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.56           wt%ox Condie 1993
Komatiites 22 Ti 0.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 33             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 31             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.45           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.48           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 18             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 23             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 25             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 23             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 21             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.62           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 21             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 22 Ti 0.62           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 22 Ti 0.82           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.84             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.82             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.41             Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.53           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.34           wt%ox Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 28             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 27             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Chert 22 Ti 0.41           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.13           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.27           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 0.83         10 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 22 Ti 1.81         7 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 3.02         23 wt% Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 22 Ti 3.12         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 22 Ti 1.7         6 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 22 Ti 3.26         16 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 22 Ti 1.22         12 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 22 Ti 2.96         4 wt% Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 22 Ti 3.53         6 wt% Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 22 Ti 2.5         8 wt% Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 2.3         44 wt% Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 1.3         13 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 22 Ti 3.12         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 22 Ti 1.27         27 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 22 Ti 3.07         16 wt% Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 22 Ti 0.78         7 wt% Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 1.7         5 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 22 Ti 2.33         9 wt% Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 22 Ti 1.64         3 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.7         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.4         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.84         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Orangeite 22 Ti 0.88         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 2.34         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 0.97         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.58         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.97         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 0.95         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 3.16         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.37         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 3.76         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 395         3   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 283         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 248         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 578         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 451         18   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 468         6   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 332         31   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 216         5   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Leucitic Basalt 22 Ti 2.13           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Vega 2 22 Ti 0.2   0.1       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Vega 2 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1986
Venera 13 Rocks 22 Ti 1.59   0.45       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 13 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venera 14 Rocks 22 Ti 1.25   0.41       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 14 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.24           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Pyrolites in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 1, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus N-MORB 22 Ti 1.15           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from N-MORB (samples that very closely resemble those of N-MORB) samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Wilson 1989
Amphibolites 22 Ti 1.2         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 22 Ti 0.69         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 22 Ti 0.52         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 22 Ti 0.1         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 22 Ti 0.06         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.57           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.92           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.73           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 1.01           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Diorite 22 Ti 0.86         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 22 Ti 0.79           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 22 Ti 0.6         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.52         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 22 Ti 0.41         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 22 Ti 0.28         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.76           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 22 Ti 0.83         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulites 22 Ti 1.54         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 22 Ti 1.17         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mavic Volcanics 22 Ti 1.48         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.61         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 1.26           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.85           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 22 Ti 0.81         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 22 Ti 0.75         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Primitive Mantle   Ti/Gd 36             Element ratios from the Primitive Mantle as given by Hofmann 1988. Gao et al. 1998 Hofmann 1988
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.46         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.46         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.56           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Aldan River   Ti/Gd 69.6             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Aldan river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Apure River   Ti/Gd 93.8             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Apure river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Kolymar River   Ti/Gd 68.9             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Kolyma river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Lena River   Ti/Gd 72.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Lena river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Orinoco River   Ti/Gd 91.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Orinoco river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Parguaza River   Ti/Gd 81.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Parguaza river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Rio Negro River   Ti/Gd 68.5             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Rio Negro in Argentina. Godfrey et al. 1996
Solimoes River   Ti/Gd 73.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Solimoes river in Brazil. Godfrey et al. 1996
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 22 Ti 0.15         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 22 Ti 0.1         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 22 Ti 0.12         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
AII Fracture Zone Basalts 22 Ti 1.87           wt%ox Average major and minor element values of 9 basalt glass samples from Atlantis II Fracture Zone. These 9 glass samples are specifically from the eastern side of the AII Fracture Zone as given by Johnson and Dick 1992. Hart et al. 1999 Johnson & Dick 1992
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.615           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB   Ti/Ti* 0.884             Elemental ratio values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
ODP Site 735 22 Ti 1.342 1.035       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   Ti/Ti* 0.891 0.735       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 22 Ti 1.99         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735   Ti/Ti* 2.55         8   Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.12           wt%ox Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Ti* 0.804             Elemental ratios of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.615   0.5491     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Aleutian Basalts 22 Ti 0.79         66 wt% Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andes Basalt 22 Ti 1.03         56 wt% Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 22 Ti 0.69         47 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Boninites 22 Ti 0.25         348 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascade Basalt 22 Ti 0.87         60 wt% Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central American Basalts 22 Ti 1.02         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.79         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.98         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 22 Ti 1.22         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Greater Antilles Basalt 22 Ti 1.04         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Honshu Basalt 22 Ti 1.03         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.91         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.64         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Basalt 22 Ti 0.92         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kermadec Basalts 22 Ti 0.81         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lesser Antilles Basalt 22 Ti 0.85         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Luzon Basalt 22 Ti 0.78         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Basalt 22 Ti 1.01         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
New Hebrides Islands 22 Ti 0.69         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Scotia Island Basalt 22 Ti 1.06         41 wt% Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.86   0.003     114 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.79   0.122     6 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.66   0.004     95 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.07   0.003     17 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.5   0.011     28 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.89   0.086     7 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tongan Basalts 22 Ti 0.94         70 wt% Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.09         13 wt% Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.48         8 wt% Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.17         6 wt% Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.44         704 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.38           wt% Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 22 Ti 0.41         1074 wt% Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.72           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Granites 22 Ti 0.4           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 22 Ti 0.05         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Island Arcs 22 Ti 0.65         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.69           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Peninsular Range Batholith 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.34         355 wt% Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.64           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
E-MORB 22 Ti 1.83           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 22 Ti 1.1           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.28           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.53           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 2.07           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.64           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 2.55           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.72           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.47           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.11           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 22 Ti 1.71           wt% Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Ademellites 22 Ti 0.54         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
Andesites 22 Ti 0.87         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Anorthosites 22 Ti 0.64         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Basalts 22 Ti 1.84         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basanites 22 Ti 2.51         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Dacites 22 Ti 0.58         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Diabases 22 Ti 1.49         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diorites 22 Ti 0.95         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 22 Ti 1.14         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
Dunites 22 Ti 0.09         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 22 Ti 1.12         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 22 Ti 0.31         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.54         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Harzburgites 22 Ti 0.26         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Hawaiites 22 Ti 3.23         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Igneous Rocks 22 Ti 1.05         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Latites 22 Ti 0.81         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Lherzolites 22 Ti 0.42         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Lujavrites 22 Ti 1.22         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Monzonites 22 Ti 0.78         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Mugearites 22 Ti 2.09         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 22 Ti 2.17         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 22 Ti 0.6         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 22 Ti 2.66         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
Norites 22 Ti 1         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
Peridotites 22 Ti 0.63         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Phonolites 22 Ti 0.62         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Pyroxenites 22 Ti 1.47         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyodacites 22 Ti 0.6         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyolites 22 Ti 0.28         554 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyolite consolidated from 116 references and 554 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 88.37, Crystallization index equal to 5.45. Le Maitre 1976
Syenites 22 Ti 0.84         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Tephrites 22 Ti 1.76         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Tholeiites 22 Ti 1.98         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 22 Ti 0.54         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites 22 Ti 0.73         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Trachyandesites 22 Ti 1.08         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 22 Ti 2.4         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachytes 22 Ti 0.7         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Websterites 22 Ti 0.64         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Websterite consolidated from 10 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 9.51, Crystallization index equal to 60.27. Le Maitre 1976
Marine Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Rivers 22 Ti 3           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 22 Ti 1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Manganese Nodules 22 Ti 6700           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 22 Ti 11           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Seawater 22 Ti 10             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Orians & Bruland 1988
Orians & Bruland 1988
Shiller 1988
Orians et al. 1990
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 22 Ti 0.15         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Allende Meteorite 22 Ti 0.15           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Melitite-rich Chondrules 22 Ti 1.2     1 1.5 10 wt%ox Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Olivine Chondrules 22 Ti 0.22     0.17 0.3 3 wt%ox Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 22 Ti 0.64     0.3 1.1 5 wt%ox Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 22 Ti 0.85     0.74 0.96 2 wt%ox CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Amazon River Particulates 22 Ti 7000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Colorado River Particulates 22 Ti 3000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Congo River Particulates 22 Ti 8400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Danube River Particulates 22 Ti 4200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ganges River Particulates 22 Ti 5300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garonne River Particulates 22 Ti 5000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
MacKenzie River Particulates 22 Ti 4300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mekong River Particulates 22 Ti 3600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Niger River Particulates 22 Ti 8200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Orinoco River Particulates 22 Ti 8600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Parana River Particulates 22 Ti 9400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
River Particulates 22 Ti 5600           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
St. Lawrence River Particulates 22 Ti 7800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.0734           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.204           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.23           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.225           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.2           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Al/Ti 19.9   1.3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21.1   1.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ti/Sc 75   6         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Al/Ti 19.5             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 440           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 440           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 420           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74.3             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Al/Ti 18.5   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Ti 19.1   2.2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74   7         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Al/Ti 19.6   0.9         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21   1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ti/Sc 75   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1205   120.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.201           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1205   120.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.201           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
CI Chondrites   Ti/Eu 7600             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.06           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.11           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1280           ppm Concentration of the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. Values given are placed next to average concentrations of Continental lithospheric mantle in an effort to calculate the proportional contribution to the Primitive mantle. This calculation assumes that the Continental lithospheric mantle is 1.45% the mass of the Primitive mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   Ti/Eu 7600             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
South African Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.08           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
Spinel Peridotites   Al/Ti 22 22 29     361   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti 0.07           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti 0.09 0.09 0.09     361 wt%ox McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 7700 7440 2800     104   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 5200 4360 4000     49   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 6500 6520 4000     193   McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti   0.09         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 22 Ti   0.13         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti   0.21         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti   0.09         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Core 22 Ti 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1200           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 22 Ti 810           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 22 Ti 0.03           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.004           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1200           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 22 Ti 810           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 630           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1280           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1350           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 960           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1085           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
ALH 77005 Meteorite 22 Ti 1.7           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 22 Ti 2340   440       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 22 Ti 1240   70       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 22 Ti 480   90       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 22 Ti 3.7           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.1           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.69   0.138       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.82   0.164       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.65   0.13       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.92   0.184       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.95   0.19       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.91   0.182       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.75   0.15       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.02   0.204       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.2   0.24       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   2.5       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.6   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.08   0.216       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Nakhla Meteorite 22 Ti 3.5   0.5       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 22 Ti 2020   250       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
QUE 94201 Meteorite 22 Ti 11000   900       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shergotty Meteorite 22 Ti 12.8   1.3       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shergotty Meteorite 22 Ti 4900   430       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Solid Mars 22 Ti 0.1   0.9       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-2 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Solid Mars 22 Ti 0.1   0.9       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-1 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Carbonates 22 Ti 0.03   0.98     162 wt%ox Average bulk chemical composition of the Albanel carbonates as determined from major element oxides in wt%. Mean values and standard deviations determined by X-Ray Fluoresence Specrometry (XRF) approximating a sandy and/or cherty dolostone. Mirota & Veizer 1994
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 22 Ti 0.7             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
ALHA 77257 Urelite 22 Ti 0.2             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 22 Ti 12.3             Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 22 Ti 4.4             Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Aubres Aubrite 22 Ti 0.185             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Barea Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.52             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Binda Eucrite 22 Ti 1.02             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 22 Ti 2.1             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
D'Orbigny Angrite 22 Ti 5.3             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 22 Ti 0.6             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Estherville Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.9             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Frankfort Howardites 22 Ti 1.36             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Gibson Lodranite 22 Ti 0.72             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Havero Urelite 22 Ti 0.36             Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
IAB Landes 22 Ti 0.9             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
Ibitira Eucrite 22 Ti 4.79             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Johnstown Diogenite 22 Ti 0.63             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kapoeta Howardites 22 Ti 1.8             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
MAC 88177 Lodranite 22 Ti 0.48             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 22 Ti 4.3             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Malvern Howardites 22 Ti 2.7             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Miles IIE Iron 22 Ti 2.73             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.8             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Moore County Eucrite 22 Ti 2.58             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 22 Ti 4.9             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 22 Ti 0.4             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Petersburg Eucrites 22 Ti 3.4             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Serra De Mage Eucrite 22 Ti 1.02             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shalka Diogenite 22 Ti 0.37             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 22 Ti 0.128             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Sioux County Eucrite 22 Ti 4.08             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Stannern Eucrite 22 Ti 5.8             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Veramin Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.3             Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Watson IIE Iron 22 Ti 0.84             Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 22 Ti 0.6             Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 22 Ti 0.66             Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Y-74450 Eucrites 22 Ti 5.4             Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Y-791491 Lodranite 22 Ti 0.36             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Earth 22 Ti 0.1           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Eucrites 22 Ti 0.07           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
H Ordinary Chondrites 22 Ti 0.06           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Moon 22 Ti 0.34           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.143   0.0143       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 458   18.32       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Wolf & Palme 2001
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.142           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 4.95   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 436           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 22 Ti 1.91   0.191         Abundance of refractory elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Solar Photosphere 22 Ti 5.02   0.06         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 22 Ti 4.95   0.693         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Refractory Elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 458   18.32       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 143   14.3       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 5400           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1282           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1280   128       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 3           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Tl/Rb = 0.005 in crust. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Hertogen et al. 1980
Continental Arc Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.09 0.05     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.48           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a Clinopyroxene mineral in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.57           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.45           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.28           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.45           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.39           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxne mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.27           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.43           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.19           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.17           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.19           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.08           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.05           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.01           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 730           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 26640           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 2704           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1512           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 28260           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 416           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 27600           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 2664           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 720           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 26280           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 10           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 3120           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 23.6           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 568           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 36.1           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 15300           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1260           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1050           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 3420           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.08 0.09     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.11 0.07     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.07           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.34           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.67           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.18           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 73.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Stachel et al. 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 958           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 191           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 199           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 104           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 795           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 5036           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 3540720           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 5640900           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 978           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 142           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 2385           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 676           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 401           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 405           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.05 0.04 0.05     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 3200700           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Mantle Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.09           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.02 0.02 0.02     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.65           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.62           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.85           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.08 0.04 0.08     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.201           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Alaska Trench 22 Ti 0.72           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Trench 22 Ti 0.73           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andaman Trench 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andesites 22 Ti 0.958         50 wt%ox Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Ashy Clay 22 Ti 0.851         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 22 Ti 0.415         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 22 Ti 0.893         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 22 Ti 0.044         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 22 Ti 0.37         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites   TiO2/Al2O3 0.053   0.01     87   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Cascadia Trench 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 22 Ti 0.431         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 22 Ti 0.123         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Clastic Turbidites 22 Ti 0.767         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Clastic Turbidites   TiO2/Al2O3 0.05   0.004     36   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 22 Ti 0.04           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Revised bulk continental crust (BCC) value calculated from the revised upper continental crust (UCC) as reported in Table 5. The middle and lower crust is given by Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatom Oozes & Clay 22 Ti 0.464         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 22 Ti 0.478         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 22 Ti 0.582         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 22 Ti 0.652         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 800 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 22 Ti 0.76           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
East Sunda Trench 22 Ti 0.591           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ferruginous Clay 22 Ti 0.7         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Green Clay 22 Ti 0.782         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Hydrothermal Sediment 22 Ti 0.207         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 22 Ti 0.09         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 22 Ti 0.233         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 22 Ti 0.365         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 22 Ti 0.2           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kamchatka Trench 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kerm Trench 22 Ti 0.669           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kuriles Trench 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Makran Trench 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marianas Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.052   0.007     13   Plank & Langmuir 1998 McLennan et al. 1990
Marine Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.046   0.009     32   Plank & Langmuir 1998 Ben Othman et al. 1989
Metalliferous Clay 22 Ti 0.671         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Mexico Trench 22 Ti 0.57           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nankai Trench 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 22 Ti 0.365         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Antilles Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.627         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.852         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.643         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.627         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.61         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.606         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.59         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.0613   0.011     55   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.039   0.014     9   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Peru Trench 22 Ti 0.31           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Philip Trench 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.553         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.202         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.254         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites   TiO2/Al2O3 0.061   0.026     23   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Red Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.053   0.014     33   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ryuku Trench 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silicified Limestone 22 Ti 0.05           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 22 Ti 0.658         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Antilles Trench 22 Ti 0.87           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Sandwich Trench 22 Ti 0.46           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Subducted Sediment 22 Ti 0.62   0.04       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Subducted Sediment   TiO2/Al2O3 0.0503   0.0028     346   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Terrigenous Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.037   0.004     58   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tonga Trench 22 Ti 0.488           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 22 Ti 0.688         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 22 Ti 0.723         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.76   0.043       wt%ox Revised upper continental crust (UCC) value calculated from the ratios as reported in Table 4 using Al2O3 = 15.2% and Rb = 122 ppm from the Taylor & McLennan (1985) estimate. Uncertainties are calculated from the standard deviations of the mean ratios in Table 4. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Vanuatu Trench 22 Ti 0.558           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Sediment 22 Ti 0.567         15 wt%ox Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.494         13 wt%ox Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.275         43 wt%ox Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Zeolite Clay 22 Ti 0.64         3 wt%ox This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Oceans Surface water 22 Ti 0.9           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Seawater 22 Ti         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Active Continental Rifts 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 22 Ti 0.9           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.4 0.36       379 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.48 0.43       222 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.83 0.78       106 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 0.81 0.79       48 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.97 0.95       132 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.95 0.96       101 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 1 0.84       266 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 1.32 1.25       95 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 1 1.02       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 22 Ti 0.9           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.36           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.45           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.52           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.39           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.72           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.32           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.26           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.04           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.38           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.97           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.23           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.85           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.95           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.04           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.65           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.33           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.13           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.69   0.04       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.33           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.27           µg/g