GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Zeolite Clay 22 Ti 0.64         3 wt%ox This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.56           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.65           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Y-791491 Lodranite 22 Ti 0.36             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Y-74450 Eucrites 22 Ti 5.4             Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Xenolites 22 Ti 0.22           wt% Least depleted ultramafic xenolith model of fertile upper mantle compositions as given by Jagoutz et al. 1979. Walter 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 22 Ti 0.66             Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Winonaite Pontlyfni 22 Ti 0.6             Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Websterites 22 Ti 0.64         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Websterite consolidated from 10 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 9.51, Crystallization index equal to 60.27. Le Maitre 1976
Watson IIE Iron 22 Ti 0.84             Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.27           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.494         13 wt%ox Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 22 Ti 1.275         43 wt%ox Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Sediment 22 Ti 0.567         15 wt%ox Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Veramin Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.3             Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Venus N-MORB 22 Ti 1.15           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from N-MORB (samples that very closely resemble those of N-MORB) samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Wilson 1989
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.24           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Pyrolites in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation in the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 1, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt% Bulk mantle/crust composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980, given in major element oxide values. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venera 14 Rocks 22 Ti 1.25   0.41       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 14 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Venera 13 Rocks 22 Ti 1.59   0.45       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Venera 13 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1984
Vega 2 22 Ti 0.2   0.1       wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Vega 2 samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1986
Vanuatu Trench 22 Ti 0.558           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 22 Ti       0.12 0.18   wt%ox Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Upper Continental Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 28             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 27             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.59           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.76   0.043       wt%ox Revised upper continental crust (UCC) value calculated from the ratios as reported in Table 4 using Al2O3 = 15.2% and Rb = 122 ppm from the Taylor & McLennan (1985) estimate. Uncertainties are calculated from the standard deviations of the mean ratios in Table 4. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Fahrig and Eade 1968. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Fahrig & Eade 1968
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.3           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 3117           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.64   0.08       wt% Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text









Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Taylor and McLennan 1985.Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from derivative compositions of Taylor and McLennan 1985. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Shaw et al. 1967. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of present day Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.12           wt%ox Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.64           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.56           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Condie 1993. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% using derivative compositions of data from Wedepohl 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.524           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.55           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.07           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke & Washington 1924. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke & Washington 1924
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.75           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.57           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Clarke 1889. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Clarke 1889
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.55           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Ronov and Yaroshevskiy 1976. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1976
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.67           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Gao et al. 1998a. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.64           wt% Reccomended values for major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from Rudnick and Gao 2004. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9   0.5       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.75           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.83           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Goldschmidt 1933. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Goldschmidt 1933
Upper Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Major element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given in wt.% from either surface exposures or glacial clays. These values were first given by Borodin 1998. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Borodin 1998
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Gd 41             Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Ti* 0.804             Elemental ratios of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 22 Ti 1.33         14 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Type F Aggregates 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Avergae values of type F aggregates in ordinary chondrites according to Wark 1979 and given in weight percent per oxide. Bischoff & Keil 1983 Wark 1979
Turbidites 22 Ti 0.688         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 22 Ti 0.723         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 22 Ti 1.71           wt% Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Trachytes 22 Ti 0.7         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 22 Ti 2.4         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachyandesites 22 Ti 1.08         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Tongan Basalts 22 Ti 0.94         70 wt% Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonga Trench 22 Ti 0.488           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.34         355 wt% Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.46         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.46         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.34           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.53           wt%ox Condie 1993
Tonalites 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK, Portugal, with equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995 Wedepohl 1991
Arth et al. 1978
Ermanovics et al. 1979
Tarney et al. 1979
Schermerhorn 1987
Paradis et al. 1988
Pohl & Emmermann 1991
Tepper et al. 1993
Tonalites 22 Ti 0.73         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 22 Ti 0.54         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tholeiites 22 Ti 1.98         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Terrigenous Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.037   0.004     58   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tephrites 22 Ti 1.76         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk 22 Ti 500         38 ppm Siliceous and clayey phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.86   0.003     114 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.07   0.003     17 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.79   0.122     6 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.5   0.011     28 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.66   0.004     95 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 22 Ti 0.89   0.086     7 wt% Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Syenites 22 Ti 0.84         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Sumatra Trench 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Subducted Sediment 22 Ti 0.62   0.04       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Subducted Sediment   TiO2/Al2O3 0.0503   0.0028     346   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Stannern Eucrite 22 Ti 5.8             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
St. Lawrence River Particulates 22 Ti 7800           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Spinel Peridotites   Al/Ti 22 22 29     361   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti 0.09 0.09 0.09     361 wt%ox McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti   0.09         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 22 Ti 0.07           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 6500 6520 4000     193   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 7700 7440 2800     104   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ti/Eu 5200 4360 4000     49   McDonough 1990
South Sandwich Trench 22 Ti 0.46           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Antilles Trench 22 Ti 0.87           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South African Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.08           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
Solimoes River   Ti/Gd 73.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Solimoes river in Brazil. Godfrey et al. 1996
Solid Mars 22 Ti 0.1   0.9       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-1 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Solid Mars 22 Ti 0.1   0.9       wt% Mars surface chemistry as given from MGS thermal emission spectra on Surface type-2 for major element oxides and calculated by Hamilton et al. 2001 using the method of Wyatt et al. 2001. McSween, Jr. 2004 Hamilton et al. 2001
Wyatt et al. 2001
Solid Earth 22 Ti 810           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 22 Ti 810           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 22 Ti 0.071           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Solar System 22 Ti 2400             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 22 Ti 2400   120     7   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 22 Ti 2400   120     7   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 22 Ti 0.95           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Solar System 22 Ti 4.95   0.693         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Refractory Elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar Photosphere 22 Ti 5.02   0.06         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 22 Ti 4.99   0.02         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 22 Ti 5.24   0.12         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 22 Ti 5.24   0.13         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Slope Lisbourne Group 22 Ti 40         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Sioux County Eucrite 22 Ti 4.08             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Silty Mud 22 Ti 0.658         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silicified Limestone 22 Ti 0.05           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 22 Ti 0.39         23 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1085           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 960           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1280           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1205   120.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.004           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1200           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1350           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 1200           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 22 Ti 0.201           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Shergotty Meteorite 22 Ti 4900   430       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shergotty Meteorite 22 Ti 12.8   1.3       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shallowater Aubrite 22 Ti 0.128             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shalka Diogenite 22 Ti 0.37             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shales 22 Ti 0.82           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales 22 Ti 0.62           wt%ox Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.84             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.82             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.41             Condie 1993
Serra De Mage Eucrite 22 Ti 1.02             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Sediments 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Sedimentary Rock proportions according to fig. 2: 44.0% Shales, Siltstones; 20.9% Sandstones, Greywackes; 20.3% Mafic etc. Volcanics; 14.6% Carbonates (0.8% Evaporites). Wedepohl 1995 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Seawater 22 Ti         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Seawater 22 Ti 10             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Orians & Bruland 1988
Orians & Bruland 1988
Shiller 1988
Orians et al. 1990
Seawater 22 Ti         0.02     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 22 Ti 1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 22 Ti         20     Unknown distribution type. Ti(OH)4[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Scotia Island Basalt 22 Ti 1.06         41 wt% Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.4           wt%ox Condie 1993
Sandstones 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Condie 1993
Ryuku Trench 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Rivers 22 Ti 3           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
River Particulates 22 Ti 5600           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rio Negro River   Ti/Gd 68.5             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Rio Negro in Argentina. Godfrey et al. 1996
Rifted Continental Margins 22 Ti 0.9           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rhyolites 22 Ti 0.28         554 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyolite consolidated from 116 references and 554 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 88.37, Crystallization index equal to 5.45. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyodacites 22 Ti 0.6         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 22 Ti 0.12         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 22 Ti 0.85     0.74 0.96 2 wt%ox CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 22 Ti 0.64     0.3 1.1 5 wt%ox Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
Red Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.053   0.014     33   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.202         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.13           wt%ox Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 22 Ti 0.254         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites   TiO2/Al2O3 0.061   0.026     23   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.553         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 22 Ti 0.76         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
QUE 94201 Meteorite 22 Ti 11000   900       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Pyroxenites 22 Ti 1.47         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Pyrolites 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Pyrolites 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pungo River Formation 22 Ti 750         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 22 Ti 1.99         8 wt%ox Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735   Ti/Ti* 2.55         8   Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 3           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Tl/Rb = 0.005 in crust. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Hertogen et al. 1980
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1282           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1280   128       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt% Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.18           wt% PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.201           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt%ox Major oxide elemental abundances in weight percent from Earth's Primitive Mantle as were first given by Hart and Zindler 1986.  Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.18           wt%ox Minor oxides of the primitive mantle (in wt.%) that comprise the remnant portions of the Earth's mantle. In this particular study the sum of the minor oxides is taken and normalized to 100% in an effort to obtain the absolute values of each element, which are then used for comparison to prior studies conducted of the Earth's mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.204           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.17           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti   0.21         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1280           ppm Concentration of the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. Values given are placed next to average concentrations of Continental lithospheric mantle in an effort to calculate the proportional contribution to the Primitive mantle. This calculation assumes that the Continental lithospheric mantle is 1.45% the mass of the Primitive mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.21           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.23           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.181           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.225           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.217           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.2           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1300           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1085           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 860           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 743           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 0.201           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 22 Ti 1205   120.5       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Ti/Eu 7600             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   Ti/Gd 36             Element ratios from the Primitive Mantle as given by Hofmann 1988. Gao et al. 1998 Hofmann 1988
Precambrian Granulites 22 Ti 0.81         88 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Canadian Shield 22 Ti 0.52           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Post-Archean Terrrains 22 Ti 0.62           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Phosphoria Formation 22 Ti 0.1         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 22 Ti 1000         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Phonolites 22 Ti 0.62         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Philip Trench 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.37         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 0.95         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 3.76         1 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 0.97         9 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.97         36 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 2.34         6 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 3.16         18 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 22 Ti 1.58         7 wt% Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 332         31   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 283         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 578         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 468         6   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 395         3   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 248         1   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 451         18   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts   Ti/Y 216         5   Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Petersburg Eucrites 22 Ti 3.4             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Peru Trench 22 Ti 0.31           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 22 Ti   0.13         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Periodotite Massifs 22 Ti 0.15           wt% Average Zabargad fertile peridotite model for upper mantle composition given by Bonatti et al. 1986. Walter 2004 Bonatti et al. 1986
Peridotites 22 Ti 0.63         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Peninsular Range Batholith 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 22 Ti 0.4             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Pelites 22 Ti 0.75         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 22 Ti 0.81         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.606         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.61         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.627         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.627         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.852         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.643         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.59         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.039   0.014     9   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay   TiO2/Al2O3 0.0613   0.011     55   Plank & Langmuir 1998
Parguaza River   Ti/Gd 81.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Parguaza river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Parana River Particulates 22 Ti 9400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.62           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 21             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Oulad Abdoun Basin 22 Ti 200         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Orinoco River Particulates 22 Ti 8600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Orinoco River   Ti/Gd 91.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Orinoco river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Orgueil Chondrite 22 Ti 436         7 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 22 Ti 436         7 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Ordinary Chondrites   Al/Ti 19.6   0.9         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21   1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ti/Sc 75   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orangeite 22 Ti 0.88         114 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Olivine Chondrules 22 Ti 0.22     0.17 0.3 3 wt%ox Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 22 Ti 1.18           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP Site 735 22 Ti 1.342 1.035       22 wt%ox Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   Ti/Ti* 0.891 0.735       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Oceans Surface water 22 Ti 0.9           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.08 0.04 0.08     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Crust 22 Ti 9700           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1995 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Crust 22 Ti 7000           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1996 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.62           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.85           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.65           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Island Peridotite 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Hawaiian peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Sen 1988
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.02 0.02 0.02     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 22 Ti 4.9             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Novo-Urei Ureilite 22 Ti         0.12   wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 22 Ti 0.15         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 1.26           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.85           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Antilles Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
Norites 22 Ti 1         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
Niger River Particulates 22 Ti 8200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
New Hebrides Islands 22 Ti 0.69         65 wt% Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Nephelinites 22 Ti 2.66         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Syenites 22 Ti 0.6         108 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline syenite consolidated from 37 references and 108 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.20, Crystallization index equal to 7.45. Le Maitre 1976
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 22 Ti 2.17         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nano Ooze 22 Ti 0.365         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nankai Trench 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 22 Ti 3.5   0.5       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 22 Ti 2020   250       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.72           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.47           wt% Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Primary N-MORB (Normal Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt) major element compositions as measured by Presnall & Hoover 1987. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 Presnall & Hoover 1987
N-MORB 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.615   0.5491     26 wt%ox Major element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.615           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 22 Ti 1.11           wt% Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB   Ti/Ti* 0.884             Elemental ratio values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Mugearites 22 Ti 2.09         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 2.55           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.53           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 2.07           wt% MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.64           wt% MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 22 Ti 1.28           wt% MORB Glass WASRAI2-050-007 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Moore County Eucrite 22 Ti 2.58             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Moon 22 Ti 0.34           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Monzonites 22 Ti 0.78         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Monterey Formation 22 Ti 1200         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Mishash Formation 22 Ti 110         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Mincy Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.8             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Miles IIE Iron 22 Ti 2.73             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.33           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.72           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.67           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.69   0.04       wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.27           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.31           wt% Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.27           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.69           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Mexico Trench 22 Ti 0.57           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 1 1.02       78 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Metamorphic Rocks 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to fig. 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Metalliferous Clay 22 Ti 0.671         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.61         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 23             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 25             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 21             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. Experimental partial melt of the Indarch enstatite chondrite at 1,425¿C (29% partial melt). Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Krot et al. 2001 using skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 1.7           wt% Models for bulk chemical composition of Mercury using three surface magma compositions. Calculated 10% partial melt at 10 kbar of the bulk composition given by Morgan & Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Models for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury as give by the refractory end member from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti       0.15 0.3   wt% Preferred model for the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.3           wt% Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Model of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury as given by Goettel 1988 values for the refractory end member and various other studies of the bulk silicate earth to yield FeO of 3 wt% (61% refractory end member, 39% bulk silicate earth). Taylor & Scott 2004 Goettel 1988
Jagoutz et al. 1979
Taylor & McLennan 1985
McDonough & Sun 1995
Mercury Crustal Silicates 22 Ti 0.2           wt% Models of the bulk chemical composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt%. These values are derived from the average of skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules in metal-rich chondrites. Taylor & Scott 2004 Krot et al. 2001
Melitite-rich Chondrules 22 Ti 1.2     1 1.5 10 wt%ox Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mekong River Particulates 22 Ti 3600           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 22 Ti 0.15         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mavic Volcanics 22 Ti 1.48         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-6 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.08   0.216       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-4 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.75   0.15       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-5 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-7 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.02   0.204       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-10 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 1.2   0.24       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the A-15 soil sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.7   2.5       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-1 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Soil 22 Ti 0.6   0.25       wt% Mars major element soil composition as analyzed by the C-5 soil sample from the Viking 1 Mars lander. McSween, Jr. 2004 Clark et al. 1982
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.65   0.13       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-17 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.92   0.184       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-3 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.69   0.138       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the Dust-free sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.95   0.19       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-16 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.91   0.182       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-7 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Rocks 22 Ti 0.82   0.164       wt% Mars major element rock composition as analyzed by the A-18 sample from the Mars Pathfinder. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke et al. 2001
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.1           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Mantle 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element oxide composition of the Martian mantle given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Marine Shales 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 22 Ti 4600           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.052   0.007     13   Plank & Langmuir 1998 McLennan et al. 1990
Marine Sediments   TiO2/Al2O3 0.046   0.009     32   Plank & Langmuir 1998 Ben Othman et al. 1989
Marine Phosphorites 22 Ti 640 405   40 1670 15 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 22 Ti 4600           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Organisms 22 Ti 11           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marianas Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marianas Basalt 22 Ti 1.01         168 wt% Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.09           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Mantle 22 Ti 0.13     0.12 0.15   wt% Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Manganese Nodules 22 Ti 6700           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Malvern Howardites 22 Ti 2.7             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Makran Trench 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 1.32 1.25       95 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 22 Ti 1.17         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 1 0.84       266 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 22 Ti 1.54         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.95 0.96       101 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
MacKenzie River Particulates 22 Ti 4300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Macibini Eucrites 22 Ti 4.3             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
MAC 88177 Lodranite 22 Ti 0.48             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Luzon Basalt 22 Ti 0.78         24 wt% Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lunar Soil 22 Ti 7.5         1 wt%ox Average of 6 literature sources including this study on Lunar Soil sample 10084. Undoubtedly from polygenetic origin, it is highly believed that the soil samples are a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 rocks.  Contributions from meteorites could be the reason the soils and breccias have higher than normal nickel and zinc contents and it has been found according to Keays et al. 1970 that the soils contain at most a 2% mix of carbonaceous chondrite material.  Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.1           wt%ox Mean of Crystalline Rock sample (group 1 and group 2) averages from table 4 of Compston et al. 1970. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 22 Ti 7.92         2 wt%ox Average of major and minor element analyses of Lunar Breccias by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Lunar Breccias 22 Ti 8.87         6 wt%ox Average of 3 Literature sources including this study on the same Lunar Breccia samples; 10018, 10019, 10048, 10056, 10060, 10061. Compston et al. 1970
Lujavrites 22 Ti 1.22         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.88           wt%ox Balance of residual rocks after 30% partial melting of the felsic lower crust, assuming that I and S type felsic granites represent the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 5010           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.85           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.23           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.97           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.38           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.04           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.26           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.32           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.13           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.33           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.65           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.04           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.95           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.82           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           wt%ox Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Low Si-Mg Mantle 22 Ti 0.18           wt% LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Lherzolites 22 Ti 0.42         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Leucitic Basalt 22 Ti 2.13           wt% XRF elemental analysis of Venus' surface  given in mass percent as calculated from Leucitic Basalt samples. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Volkov et al. 1986
Lesser Antilles Basalt 22 Ti 0.85         84 wt% Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lena River   Ti/Gd 72.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Lena river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Least-Altered Basalt at ODP/DSDP Site 504 22 Ti 0.94   0.09     58 wt%ox Mean and standard deviation are calculated from 58 least-altered basalt analyses from the pillow section, based on K2O contents less than 0.10% and calculated on a water free basis. The analyses does not include anomalously high P and Ti units (see text). Alt et al. 1986
Latites 22 Ti 0.81         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 23             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 31             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 33             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.45           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.48           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 18             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
La Caja Formation 22 Ti 295         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Kuriles Trench 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Komatiites 22 Ti 0.3           wt%ox Condie 1993
Kolymar River   Ti/Gd 68.9             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Kolyma river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.4         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.7         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 22 Ti 1.84         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kermadec Basalts 22 Ti 0.81         36 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kerm Trench 22 Ti 0.669           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kenna Ureilite 22 Ti         0.2   wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kapoeta Howardites 22 Ti 1.8             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kamchatka Trench 22 Ti 0.16           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kamchatka Basalt 22 Ti 0.92         78 wt% Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Johnstown Diogenite 22 Ti 0.63             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Java Trench 22 Ti 0.71           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 22 Ti 0.2           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Island Arcs 22 Ti 0.65         323 wt% Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Island Arcs 22 Ti 0.48           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.91         503 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.64         32 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Intra Stellar Medium 22 Ti 1.91   0.191         Abundance of refractory elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 22 Ti 0.83         26 wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.97 0.95       132 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 0.81 0.79       48 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.83 0.78       106 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Granulites 22 Ti 0.83         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 22 Ti 0.365         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 22 Ti 0.233         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 22 Ti 0.09         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.55           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.76           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.64           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Igneous Rocks 22 Ti 1.05         22775 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Igneous rocks consolidated from 967 references and 22,775 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.81, Crystallization index equal to 30.82. Le Maitre 1976
Ibitira Eucrite 22 Ti 4.79             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
IAB Landes 22 Ti 0.9             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
Hydrothermal Sediment 22 Ti 0.207         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Honshu Basalt 22 Ti 1.03         137 wt% Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hawaiites 22 Ti 3.23         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Havero Urelite 22 Ti 0.36             Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Harzburgites 22 Ti 0.26         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
H Ordinary Chondrites 22 Ti 0.06           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 10.85         8 wt%ox Average of Major and Minor element analyses of Group 2 Lunar crystalline rocks using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Group 2 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 10.32         8 wt%ox Average of 7 literature studies including this study on Major and minor elements of 8 samples of Lunar Crystalline rocks; 10003, 10070, 10044, 10045, 10047, 10050, 10058, 10062. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.88         6 wt%ox Average of 6 Literature studies including this study on Major and Minor elements of six Lunar crystalline rocks samples 10017, 10022, 10024, 10049, 10057, 10072. Compston et al. 1970
Group 1 Lunar Crystalline Rocks 22 Ti 11.94         6 wt%ox Averages of Major and Minor element analyses in Lunar crystalline rock samples using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Compston et al. 1970
Greywackes 22 Ti 0.72           wt%ox Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Green Clay 22 Ti 0.782         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greater Antilles Basalt 22 Ti 1.04         21 wt% Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.61           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.72           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.56           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.77           wt%ox Condie 1993
Graywackes 22 Ti 0.74           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granulitic Xenolites 22 Ti 1.04 0.91       347 wt%ox Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 22 Ti 0.83 0.71       591 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 22 Ti 0.5           wt%ox Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 22 Ti 0.57 0.49       650 wt%ox Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.54         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 22 Ti 0.54           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Granites 22 Ti 0.05         8 wt% Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 22 Ti 0.4           wt% Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 22 Ti 0.31         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 22 Ti 0.27           wt%ox I and S type felsic Granites that comprise the melt fraction. Wedepohl 1995 Whalen et al. 1987
Granites 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.28           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Granites 22 Ti 0.28         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 22 Ti 0.41         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Goalpara Ureilite 22 Ti 0.1           wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Gibson Lodranite 22 Ti 0.72             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Garonne River Particulates 22 Ti 5000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti   0.09         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.11           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Jordan 1979. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Jordan 1979
Garnet Peridotites 22 Ti 0.06           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Ganges River Particulates 22 Ti 5300           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gabbros 22 Ti 1.12         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Gabbros 22 Ti 1.1           wt%ox Wedepohl 1995 Le Maitre 1976
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 22 Ti 1.1           wt% Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 22 Ti 1.22         203 wt% Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Ti/Gd 1937             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Frankfort Howardites 22 Ti 1.36             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Ferruginous Clay 22 Ti 0.7         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.34           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.29           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.35           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.28           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.52         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 22 Ti 0.25           wt%ox Condie 1993
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.48 0.43       222 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 22 Ti 0.6         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Archean Granulites 22 Ti 0.4 0.36       379 wt%ox Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Eucrites 22 Ti 0.07           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
Estherville Mesosiderite 22 Ti 1.9             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Enstatite Chondrites   Al/Ti 18.5   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Ti 19.1   2.2         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74   7         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle 22 Ti 792           ppm Trace element composition of EDMM (Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 22 Ti 0.6             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
East Sunda Trench 22 Ti 0.591           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
East China Craton 22 Ti 0.69           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 22 Ti 0.79           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Earth 22 Ti 0.1           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 26             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 24             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.58           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 19             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 22             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 35             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Al2O3/TiO2 32             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.42           wt%ox Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 22 Ti 0.46           wt%ox Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 17             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ti/Zr 20             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
E-MORB 22 Ti 1.83           wt% Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Dunites 22 Ti 0.09         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 801 22 Ti 0.76           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 800 22 Ti 0.66           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dover Sandstone 22 Ti 900         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
Dolerites 22 Ti 1.14         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
Diorites 22 Ti 0.95         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Diorite 22 Ti 0.86         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diatome Ooze 22 Ti 0.652         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 22 Ti 0.582         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 22 Ti 0.478         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatom Oozes & Clay 22 Ti 0.464         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diabases 22 Ti 1.49         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle 22 Ti 650           ppm Trace element composition of DDMM (Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 22 Ti 0.16           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 22 Ti 0.63           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 22 Ti 716.3     666.5 756.1   ppm Trace element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) with minimum and maximum estimates based on assuming initiation of continuous depletion at 2.5Ga (min) and 3.5Ga (max). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 22 Ti 798   95.76       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Ti/Gd is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Ti/Gd 2020             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Danube River Particulates 22 Ti 4200           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Dacites 22 Ti 0.58         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
D'Orbigny Angrite 22 Ti 5.3             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.05 0.04 0.05     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 405           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 3200700           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 73.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Stachel et al. 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 958           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 191           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 199           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 104           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 795           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 5036           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 3540720           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 5640900           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 978           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 142           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 676           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 401           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 22 Ti 2385           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.34           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.23           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.18           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.07           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.1           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.67           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Smith et al. 1991
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Cratonic Peridotite 22 Ti 0.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in an African craton peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Core 22 Ti 0.03           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 22 Ti 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Continental Shields & Platforms 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Rift Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.11 0.07     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 3420           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.08 0.09     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 730           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 26640           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 2704           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1512           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 28260           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 416           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1260           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 2664           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 720           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 26280           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 10           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 3120           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 23.6           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 568           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 36.1           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 15300           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 1050           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 22 Ti 27600           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.19           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.43           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.27           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.39           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxne mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.45           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.28           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.45           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.13           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.48           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a Clinopyroxene mineral in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.5           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.57           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a clinopyroxene mineral sample in a  Russian peridotite xenolith from various rock facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.12           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a garnet mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.02           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.05           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Australian peridotite xenolith from spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Canil & O'Neill 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.14           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.08           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.19           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.17           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 22 Ti 0.01           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in an Antarctic peridotite xenolith from plagioclase-spinel facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Zipfel & Worner 1992
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Christensen and Mooney 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Christensen & Mooney 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.5           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.72           wt% Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.36           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.72           wt% Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.54           wt% Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 4010           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.6           wt%ox In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.75           wt%ox Revised bulk continental crust (BCC) value calculated from the revised upper continental crust (UCC) as reported in Table 5. The middle and lower crust is given by Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Plank & Langmuir 1998
Continental Crust 22 Ti 4200           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 22 Ti 1.1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Goldschmidt 1933
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Vinogradov 1962
Continental Crust 22 Ti 1           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt%ox Estimates of the major element composition of the continental crust derived from various sources. According to these estimates the continental crust is said to have an intermediate chemical composition. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.68           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 5400           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.52           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.39           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 22 Ti 1           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.9           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Holland and Lambert 1972. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Holland & Lambert 1972
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.45           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.8           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1967. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Ronov & Yaroshevsky 1967
Continental Crust 22 Ti 0.7           wt% Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Smithson 1978. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Smithson 1978
Continental Arcs 22 Ti 0.8           wt%ox Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 22 Ti 0.9           wt%ox Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arc Xenoliths 22 Ti 0.1 0.09 0.05     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.98         497 wt% Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 22 Ti 0.79         142 wt% Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Congo River Particulates 22 Ti 8400           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Comet Halley 22 Ti 5.18   0.18         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Colorado River Particulates 22 Ti 3000           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Colombia Trench 22 Ti 0.04           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CO Chondrites 22 Ti 0.06   0.01     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 22 Ti         0.04 8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 22 Ti 0.07   0.02     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Clastic Turbidites 22 Ti 0.767         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Clastic Turbidites   TiO2/Al2O3 0.05   0.004     36   Plank & Langmuir 1998
CI Chondrites   Al/Ti 19.5             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Ti 21             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.142           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 436           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 4.95   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.143   0.0143       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 143   14.3       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 436   21.8     7 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 440           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 440           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 458   18.32       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 458   18.32       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Wolf & Palme 2001
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 420           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 630           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
CI Chondrites 22 Ti 0.0734           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites   Ti/Eu 7600             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
CI Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74.3             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
Chondrules 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Average values of Bulk compositions of Ca-Al rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Bischoff & Keil 1983
Chert 22 Ti 0.123         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 22 Ti 0.431         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 22 Ti 0.41           wt%ox Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 22 Ti 2.1             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chassigny Meteorite 22 Ti 480   90       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 22 Ti 3.7           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 22 Ti 0.15           wt%ox Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Central East China Craton 22 Ti 0.63           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province.