GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 23 V 92           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 23 V 120           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 23 V 174           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 23 V 144           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Alborz Mountains 23 V 18         3 ppm Phosphorite sandstones, quartzose and ferruginous, in sequence of phosphatic black shales, sandstones and limestones, platform setting, P2O5: 24-28% from the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Aval et al. 1968
Aleutian Basalts 23 V 294.38         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 23 V 145           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 23 V 162   6       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 23 V 201   6       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 23 V 108           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 23 V 99           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 23 V 99           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 23 V 88.7           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Amazon River Particulates 23 V 232           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amour River Particulates 23 V 81           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 23 V 255         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 23 V 89           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andes Basalt 23 V 198.36         22 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 23 V 231         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 23 V 170         2 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 23 V 132           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 140           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 140           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 170           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 154           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 135           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 23 V 168           ppm Condie 1993
Archean Terrains 23 V 162           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 23 V 195           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 23 V 245           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 23 V 102         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 23 V 71         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 23 V 224         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Australian Granite 23 V 57         1074 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 23 V 8           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 23 V 49         704 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 23 V 63         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 23 V 2         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 23 V 72   5     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 23 V 83   20     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Bambui Group 23 V 150         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Arithmetic Average. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Basalts 23 V 245           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 252           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 283           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 272           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 270           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 260           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 181         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 23 V 101         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 23 V 240           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 23 V 316         23 ppm Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 23 V 161         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 23 V 297         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 23 V 205         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 23 V 154         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 23 V 133         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 23 V 312         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 23 V 213         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 23 V 234         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 23 V 211         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 23 V 196         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 23 V 157         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basic Precambrian Granulites 23 V 307         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Battle Creek Formation 23 V 110         17 ppm Cherty and calcareous pelletal phosphorites, located in the intra-cratonic basin Battle Cratonic Formation (Georgina Basin), P2O5: 8-37% (mostly 24-37%). Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Battle Creek Formation 23 V 23         7 ppm Silty aphanitic phosphorites of the intra-cratonic Georgina Basin; Battle formation of Australia. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Belkinsk Akai Sayan 23 V 60         33 ppm Calcareous phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Belkinsk Altai Sayan, Siberia. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Bone Valley Formation 23 V 70         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Boninites 23 V 188.01         70 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 23 V 88           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Clay 23 V 319         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 23 V 164         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Rock 23 V 30         3 ppm Residually concentrated pelletal phosphorite from 'Brown Rock' Tennessee, U.S.A. Ordovician carbonate platform, decalcified during late Tertiary to Recent, P2O5 = 11, 27, 29%, samples include one production composite. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Cr/V 40   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Mg/V 0.157   0.009         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 23 V 89         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 23 V 66         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 23 V 14         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 23 V 20         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 23 V 224         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 23 V 170           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 23 V 103           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 23 V 268.53         29 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 23 V 160           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 95           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 185           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 117           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 87           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 120           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 154           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 98           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 128           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 98           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 23 V 102           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 23 V 34   2       ppm Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Meteorite 23 V 39   9       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chert 23 V 44         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 23 V 25         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CI Chondrites   Cr/V 47             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Mg/V 0.172             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 23 V 56           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 23 V 54.3   2.715       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 23 V 56           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 23 V 56.5   2.88     9 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 23 V 55           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 23 V 56           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 23 V 3.99   0.02         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 23 V 54.3   2.715       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 23 V 56.5           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites   V/Sc 9.4             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Clastic Turbidites 23 V 170         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 23 V 17           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Congo River Particulates 23 V 163           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 23 V 246.59         107 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 23 V 158.27         19 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths 23 V 53 55 17     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0041 0.0039 0.001     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 23 V 210           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 23 V 150           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   Se/V 0.00094             Elemental ratios as found in the Continental Crust according to Rudnick and Gao 2003.  As in the text these values are used as comparisons to the Elemental ratios found in Primitive Upper Mantle from McDonough and Sun 1995. Salters & Stracke 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 230           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 138           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 131           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 230           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 98           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 135           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 23 V 128           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 23 V 98           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 131           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 138           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 96           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 23 V   0.6         wt% Elemental data on selected ore metals of Layered mafic intrusions deposit type. These values are consistent with median crustal abundance values given by Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 138           ppm Elemental data on selected ore metals of Layered mafic intrusions deposit type. All values are taken from Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 138           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 23 V 230           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 101           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 23 V 108           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 23 V 96           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 346           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 219           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 199           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 219           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 244           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 75           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 59 61 19     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 23 V 3           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0037 0.0041 0.0024     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths 23 V 54 51 20     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0028 0.0018 0.003     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Shields & Platforms 23 V 141           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 23 V 194           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core   Cr/V       67 79     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 23 V       120 120   ppm Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 23 V 120           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 23 V 150           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 2175           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 51           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 60           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 333           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 128           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 29 27 14     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 837           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 23 V 1236           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0043 0.0042 0.0044     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Danube River Particulates 23 V 45           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted Mantle 23 V 79   5.53       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  CaO-V is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diatom Oozes & Clay 23 V 84         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 23 V 102         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. V is based on V/Fe ratio in Aleutian diatom ooze. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 23 V 147         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 23 V 105         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 23 V 132         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dover Sandstone 23 V 65         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
DSDP/ODP Site 800 23 V 87           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 23 V 92           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
E-MORB 23 V 288           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/V 3.3             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/V 3.5             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 23 V 70           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 23 V 81           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.74             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.75             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 81           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 91           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
East China Craton 23 V 131           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 23 V 118           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 23 V 96           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 23 V 94           µg/g Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
Enstatite Chondrites   Cr/V 55   5         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Mg/V 0.204   0.025         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Felsic Archean Granulites 23 V 38 29       244 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 23 V 98         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 23 V 50 40       138 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 40           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 50           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 55         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 30           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 30           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 48           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 30           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 23 V 25           ppm Condie 1993
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 23 V 245.77         39 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 23 V 200           ppm Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Garnet Peridotites 23 V   31         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 23 V 150           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Goalpara Ureilite 23 V 92   3       ppm Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 23 V 30         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 23 V 23         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 23 V 45         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 23 V 28           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 23 V 18           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 23 V 20           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 23 V 15           ppm Condie 1993
Granulites 23 V 122 90       325 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 23 V 89 60       432 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 23 V 214 193       225 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 23 V 130           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 23 V 111           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 23 V 140           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 23 V 115           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 23 V 106           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 23 V 140           ppm Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 23 V 253.2         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 23 V 180         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 23 V 98           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Honshu Basalt 23 V 186.65         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 23 V 473         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 23 V 29           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Landes 23 V 48           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 23 V 68           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Interior North China Craton 23 V 88           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 23 V 147           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 23 V 104           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 23 V 113           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 23 V 96           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 23 V 42         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. V is based on V/Fe ratio in Aleutian diatom ooze. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 23 V 29         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 23 V 88         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 23 V 139         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 23 V 128 121       81 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 23 V 155 154       29 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 23 V 157 160       77 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 23 V 121         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Intra Stellar Medium 23 V 2.06             Abundance of refractory elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 23 V 196.66         21 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 23 V 254.01         119 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 23 V 175           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 23 V 85         323 ppm Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 23 V 35           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 23 V 84           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 23 V 118           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 23 V 115           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kamchatka Basalt 23 V 260.45         31 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 23 V 46           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Karatau 23 V 17         10 ppm Dark, granular and oolitic phosphorites, cherty and dolomitic, in a sequence of black shales and dolomites of the Lesser Karatau geosyncline, Karatau, Kazakhstan U.S.S.R.  Averages of 5-10 specimens except for Cr, Mo and Li: P2O5 = 26-32%Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Kholodov 1963
Kenna Ureilite 23 V 100   10       ppm Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kerm Trench 23 V 153           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 23 V 255.1         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 23 V 76         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 23 V 160           ppm Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 23 V 84           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kyzyl Kum 23 V 7         5 ppm Phosphatic sandstones and shales, near shore deltaic and littoral sediments of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan, P2O5: >10%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Kapustyanski 1964
La Caja Formation 23 V 220         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/V 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/V 1.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 23 V 73           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 23 V 84           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.53             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.52             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 101           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 89           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Lena River Particulates 23 V 61           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Lesser Antilles Basalt 23 V 235.38         39 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 149           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 196           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 185           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 271           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 100           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 139           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 217           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 140           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 196           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 189           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 196           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 230           ppm Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 139           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 149           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 196           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 23 V 285           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Mafic Archean Granulites 23 V 216 195       67 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 23 V 311         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 23 V 216 219       173 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 23 V 201         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 23 V 261 257       55 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 23 V 139           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 23 V 91.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 23 V 500           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle Xenoliths 23 V 56           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 23 V 245.57         21 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 23 V 90           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Organisms 23 V 3.5           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 23 V 120           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 23 V 120           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Phosphorites 23 V 100 70   7 300 18 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 23 V 130           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 23 V 130           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 23 V 198         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 23 V 0.03         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 23 V 175           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 23 V 82           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 23 V 151           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 23 V 105           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 23 V 151           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.48             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.47             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 23 V 93           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 23 V 106           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 23 V 71           µg/g Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 23 V 74         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 23 V 142         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 23 V 129 129       50 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 23 V 252           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 118           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 95           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 118           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 46           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 107   16       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 23 V 107           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.63             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.63             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 99           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 23 V 87           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 23 V 113           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 23 V 108           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mishash Formation 23 V 195         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Monterey Formation 23 V 160         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
N-MORB 23 V 220           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 23 V 265           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 23 V 281           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Nakhla Meteorite 23 V 192           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 23 V 106           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nanno Ooze 23 V 42         2 ppm Based on the nanno ooze of the nearby Site 320 (Hole et al., 1984) since no geochemical data exists for Site 321. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 23 V 59         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
New Hebrides Islands 23 V 336         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 23 V 180           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 23 V 130           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 23 V 239           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 23 V 97           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 23 V 145           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 23 V 119           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 23 V 128           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 23 V 114           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Novo-Urei Ureilite 23 V 85   3       ppm Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 23 V 64           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ob River Particulates 23 V 173           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 23 V 38 40 11     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Ocean Arc Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0056 0 0.0071     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Crust 23 V 252           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1997 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 23 V 40 32 16     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Island Xenoliths   V/Al 0.0063 0.0064 0.0019     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 331           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 166           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 267           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 269           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 285           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 371           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 373           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 271           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 227           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 170           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 552           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 349           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 313           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 531           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 341           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 334           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 392           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 201           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 2017           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 23 V 295           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceans Deep water 23 V 1.2           µg/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 1000 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris 1975
Oceans Surface water 23 V 1           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 0 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris 1975
ODP Site 735 23 V 197 170.5       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Orangeite 23 V 104         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Cr/V 50   1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Mg/V 0.195   0.006         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 23 V 56.2         7 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 23 V 58           µg/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 23 V 56.7         6 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orinoco River Particulates 23 V 127           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Oulad Abdoun Basin 23 V 70         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Paleozoic Orogens 23 V 174           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 23 V 118           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.48             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/V 0.47             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 23 V 96           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 23 V 109           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Pelagic Clay 23 V 106         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 121         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. V is calculated based on V/Fe ratios in the Java 261 pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 100         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 1.36         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. V is calculated based on V/Fe ratios in the Java 261 pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 138         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. V is based on V/Fe ratio in Aleutian diatom ooze. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 100         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 23 V 158         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 23 V 106         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 23 V 117         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 23 V 6.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 23 V 15           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 23 V   70         ppm McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 23 V 104           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 23 V 221         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 23 V 343         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 23 V 323         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 23 V 405         18 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 23 V 332         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Philip Trench 23 V 160           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phosphoria Formation 23 V 0.03         61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 23 V 300         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 23 V   300         ppm Rare-metal contents with modes above threshold values in phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 23 V 53           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 23 V 139         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle   Cr/V 32             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 23 V 82.1           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 23 V 87           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 23 V 81           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 23 V   82         ppm McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 23 V 82           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 23 V 128           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 23 V 86           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 23 V 77           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 23 V 82           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 23 V 86   4.3       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: versus MgO Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 23 V 77           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 23 V 83           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 23 V 100           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 23 V 85           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 23 V 82   12.3       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 23 V 82.1           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle   V/Sc 4.7             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 23 V 135         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pungo River Formation 23 V 25         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 23 V 55           µg/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 23 V 113   15       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 23 V 136         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 23 V 136         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 23 V 123         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 23 V 73         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 23 V 52         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 23 V 0.01         20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rifted Continental Margins 23 V 122           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 23 V 210           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 23 V 170           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 23 V 0.9           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 23 V 129           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 23 V 29           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 23 V 11           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 23 V 237         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 23 V 2.5           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 23 V         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Morris 1975
Seawater 23 V 0.023             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 23 V 30     20 35     Slight surface depletion. HVO4[2-], H2VO4[1-] and NaHVO4[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 23 V 2150             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Jeandel et al. 1987
Shales 23 V 154           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 23 V 117           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 23 V 100           ppm Condie 1993
Shergotty Meteorite 23 V 290   40       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   Cr/V 32             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 23 V 82   12.3       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 23 V 82           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 23 V 82           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 23 V 43         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 23 V 20           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 23 V 212         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Slope Lisbourne Group 23 V 240         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Solar Corona 23 V 4.23   0.4         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Corona 23 V 4.23   0.4         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Very Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Photosphere 23 V 4   0.02         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 23 V 4   0.02         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 23 V 254             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 23 V 3.99   0.1995         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Refractory Elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 23 V 295   14.16     8   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 23 V 293   14.94     9   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth   Cr/V       46 52     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 23 V       95 95   ppm Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 23 V 95           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 23 V 105           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Antilles Trench 23 V 189           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 23 V 102           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 23 V 108           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 23 V 120           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 23 V 120           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 23 V 139           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 23 V 97           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 23 V 94           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 23 V 97           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 23 V 106           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 23 V 84           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 23 V 56 53 21     132 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 23 V   53         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   V/Sc 5 4.7 1.1     113   McDonough 1990
Subducted Sediment 23 V 110   10.7       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 23 V 90           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 250   5     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 168   1.2     86 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 106   4     17 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 94   7     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 242   11     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 23 V 295   30     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk 23 V 70         38 ppm Siliceous and clayey phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Tonalites 23 V 103           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 70           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 80           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 35         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 66         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 37           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 23 V 52         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonga Trench 23 V 121           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 23 V 222.6         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 23 V 299           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 23 V 86         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 23 V 143         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 23 V 219         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/V 1.2             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/V 1.3             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 86           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 86           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 53           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 53           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 60           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 60           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 97           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 97           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 97   11       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text










Upper Continental Crust 23 V 53           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 59           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Eade and Fahrig 1973 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Eade and Fahrig 1973
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 86           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 98           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 23 V 107           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 23 V 78           ppm Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Vanuatu Trench 23 V 98           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Sediment 23 V 92         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 23 V 126         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 23 V 157         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 23 V 56           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Y-74450 Eucrites 23 V 67.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Yangtze Craton 23 V 95           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 23 V 104           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 23 V 83           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 23 V 82           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 23 V 94           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yemissei River Particulates 23 V 322           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
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