GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 28 Ni 13.3             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 28 Ni 71           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 28 Ni 43           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 28 Ni 40.7           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Alborz Mountains 28 Ni 35         3 ppm Phosphorite sandstones, quartzose and ferruginous, in sequence of phosphatic black shales, sandstones and limestones, platform setting, P2O5: 24-28% from the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Aval et al. 1968
Aleutian Basalts 28 Ni 130.08         26 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 28 Ni 46           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 28 Ni 290   85       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 28 Ni 58           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 28 Ni 5.1             Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 28 Ni 0.89             Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 28 Ni 0.82             Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 28 Ni 15.6             Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 28 Ni 15             Concentratons of elements in the Allende chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Amazon River Particulates 28 Ni 105           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amour River Particulates 28 Ni 82           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 28 Ni 103         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 28 Ni 63.9           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 28 Ni 27           ppm Minor element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Bailey 1981. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. The trace element data are from the analyses of Bailey pertaining to Andean Andesite. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 28 Ni 130.49         28 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 28 Ni 100           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 96           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 41.4         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 28 Ni 40           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 42           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 95.14         28 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 28 Ni 50           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 30           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 28 Ni 50           ppm Condie 1993
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 28 Ni 0.097             Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 28 Ni 0.044             Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Archean Amphibolites 28 Ni 20           ppm Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 28 Ni 23           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Canadian Shield 28 Ni 90           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Archean Lower Crust 28 Ni 58           ppm Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 28 Ni 40           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Archean Terrains 28 Ni 77           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 28 Ni 105           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 28 Ni 130           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 28 Ni 19         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 28 Ni 44         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 28 Ni 213.8         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aubres Aubrite 28 Ni 0.161             Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 28 Ni 3         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 28 Ni 8         1074 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 28 Ni 11         704 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 28 Ni 2         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 28 Ni 1           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 28 Ni 2071   72     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 28 Ni 2040   117     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Bambui Group 28 Ni 30         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Barea Mesosiderite 28 Ni 1.224             Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basalts 28 Ni 83           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 70           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 68           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 78           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 96           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 182           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 190           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 28 Ni 271         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 28 Ni 99         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 28 Ni 138         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 28 Ni 74         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 86         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 481         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 28 Ni 153         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 130         6 ppm Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 28 Ni 102         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 28 Ni 153         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 28 Ni 103         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 28 Ni 252         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 191         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 28 Ni 90         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 174         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 28 Ni 156         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 28 Ni 153         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 28 Ni 195         23 ppm Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 28 Ni 64         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basic Precambrian Granulites 28 Ni 173         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Battle Creek Formation 28 Ni 21         17 ppm Cherty and calcareous pelletal phosphorites, located in the intra-cratonic basin Battle Cratonic Formation (Georgina Basin), P2O5: 8-37% (mostly 24-37%). Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Battle Creek Formation 28 Ni 9         7 ppm Silty aphanitic phosphorites of the intra-cratonic Georgina Basin; Battle formation of Australia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Binda Eucrite 28 Ni 0.0057             Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Bone Valley Formation 28 Ni 9         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Boninites 28 Ni 191.76         75 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 28 Ni 1.3             Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Clay 28 Ni 106.1         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 28 Ni 247.7         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Rock 28 Ni 30         3 ppm Residually concentrated pelletal phosphorite from 'Brown Rock' Tennessee, U.S.A. Ordovician carbonate platform, decalcified during late Tertiary to Recent, P2O5 = 11, 27, 29%, samples include one production composite. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
CAI Inclusions Allende Meteorite 28 Ni 2660   133       ppm Bulk composition of an 111.1mg Ca-Al-rich inclusion from the Allende Meteorite named A37. Analyses performed on A37 were by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, all values given in ppm. This particular analysis performed included all ranges of sections from A37 which therin yielded the best approximation of where particular elements were best located. Bischoff & Palme 1987
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Fe/Ni 18.1   1.4         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 28 Ni 49.2         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 28 Ni 42         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 28 Ni 6         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 28 Ni 6         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 28 Ni 151.29         24 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 28 Ni 47.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 28 Ni 86           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 28 Ni 245.05         29 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 64           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 40           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 73           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 57           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 35           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 49           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 41           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 56           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 34           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 38           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 28 Ni 46           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 28 Ni 400   50       ppm Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Achondrite 28 Ni 446           ppm Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
Chassigny Meteorite 28 Ni 500   70       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 28 Ni 17.7             Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 28 Ni 27.8         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 28 Ni 18.8         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 28 Ni 19           ppm Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 28 Ni 0.024             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 28 Ni 0.032             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
CI Chondrites   Fe/Ni 17.2             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   FeO/Ni 22             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
CI Chondrites   MgO/Ni 14.5             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 10700           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 10800           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 10500           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 6.23   0.02         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 1.1   0.056     27 wt% Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 10770   323.1       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 0.047             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CI Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 0.048             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 1.1           wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 1.077   0.03231       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 10960           ppm C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 28 Ni 1.374           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites   Ni/Co 22             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
CI Chondrites   Ni/Cr 4             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Clastic Turbidites 28 Ni 47.5         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CM Chondrites 28 Ni 0.048             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
CM Chondrites 28 Ni 0.057             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for CM Chondritic meteorites with fine grained matricies, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 McSween & Richardson 1977
CO Chondrites 28 Ni 4.7   2.6     8 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of ALHA77307 (CO3.0 chondrite). All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 28 Ni 3.4   0.4     36 wt% Major element oxide composition of interstitial matrix of 3 areas of ALHA77307. All interstitial matricies analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 28 Ni 3.9   0.7     106 wt% Major element oxide composition of matrix rims of 8 chondrules of ALHA77307. All matrix rims analyzed by Electron Microprobe and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
CO Chondrites 28 Ni 5.2   2.2     6 wt% Major element oxide composition of amorphous phase of the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. All amorphous phases analyzed by Analytical transmission electron microscopy and normalized to 100%. Scott & Krot 2004 Brearley 1993
Greshake 1997
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 28 Ni 0.019             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Colombia Trench 28 Ni 20.4           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colorado River Particulates 28 Ni 40           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Comet Halley 28 Ni 6.19   0.18         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Congo River Particulates 28 Ni 74           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 28 Ni 158.74         146 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 28 Ni 137.89         52 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Xenoliths 28 Ni 2110 2066 282     28   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 28 Ni 98           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 28 Ni 59           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 51           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 105           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 56           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 54           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 28 Ni 35           ppm In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 28 Ni 64.4           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 28 Ni 66           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 30           ppm Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 28 Ni 105           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 28 Ni 59           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 28 Ni 59           ppm Elemental data on selected ore metals of Komatiite deposit type. All values are taken from Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 28 Ni   1.5         wt% Elemental data on selected ore metals of Komatiite deposit type. These values are consistent with median crustal abundance values given by Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 28 Ni 54           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 28 Ni 59           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 51           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 56           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 46           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 28 Ni 75           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 28 Ni 105           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 28 Ni 59           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 28 Ni 35           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.18           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.09           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.06           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.11           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.03           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a orthopyroxene mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.27           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Peridotite 28 Ni 0.22           wt% Major element mineral chemical data for a spinel mineral sample in a Russian peridotite xenolith from spinel-garnet to garnet facies. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 28 Ni 2147 2135 263     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Rift Xenoliths 28 Ni 2152 2160 220     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Shields & Platforms 28 Ni 88           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 28 Ni 55           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core   Fe/Ni       16 16     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 28 Ni 52000           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 28 Ni 5.2           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Core 28 Ni 5.2           wt% Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 28 Ni 5.4           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%.Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 28 Ni       4.9 5.4   wt% Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 28 Ni 4.87   0.3       wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Core 28 Ni 5.2           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core   Ni/Co       20.8 20.8     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Core   Ni/P       10 11     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Cratonic Xenoliths 28 Ni 2579 2570 324     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
D'Orbigny Angrite 28 Ni 0.091             Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Danube River Particulates 28 Ni 40           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts 28 Ni 0.24           wt% Bulk major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as averaged from the previous mineral composition measurements and normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 28 Ni 1960   196       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  MgO/Ni is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle 28 Ni 0.19             Nickel abundances in the upper mantle normalized to the C1 Chondrite value of 1.10 wt.% taken from Orgueil Chondrite values in Anders & Ebihara 1982. Jones & Drake 1986 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Depleted MORB Mantle Clinopyroxene 28 Ni 0.06           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Cpx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Total Fe as FeO. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Olivine 28 Ni 0.36           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Olivine. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Orthopyroxene 28 Ni 0.09           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Opx. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted MORB Mantle Spinel 28 Ni 0.24           wt% Major element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as measured from Spinel. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005
Diatom Oozes & Clay 28 Ni 31.7         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 28 Ni 46.7         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 28 Ni 204.5         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 28 Ni 44.5         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 28 Ni 34         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dover Sandstone 28 Ni 45         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
DSDP/ODP Site 800 28 Ni 111.6           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 28 Ni 87           ppm Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 28 Ni 87.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dyalpur Ureilite 28 Ni 1110           ppm Trace element values for the Dyalpur meteorite as given in Higuchi et al. 1976.  Mainly used in this study as comparisons to the Kenna and Havero meteorites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
E-MORB 28 Ni 91           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.7             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 28 Ni 134           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 28 Ni 164           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ni/Co 6.4             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Ni/Co 6.1             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 36           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 31           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 2.1             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 2             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Earth 28 Ni 2           ppm Model composition of the Earth as first noted by Ganapathy & Anders 1974.  The values are notably less for the 'cosmic' elements than that of the chondrites and eucrites which of course is to be expected, and enriched in the more terrestrial elements. Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
East China Craton 28 Ni 50           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 28 Ni 46           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 28 Ni 63.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 28 Ni 1.67             Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 28 Ni 20.5             Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enstatite Chondrites   Fe/Ni 16.5   0.8         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Estherville Mesosiderite 28 Ni 1.042             Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Eucrites 28 Ni 1.7           ppm Model composition of the Eucrite Parent body as found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978). These are basically just single element compositions of eucrites, which will be compared to other models that correlate to the values of Eucrites yet are representaive of similar yet different groups of material from the solar system. Morgan et al. 1978
Felsic Archean Granulites 28 Ni 20 15       263 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 28 Ni 37         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 28 Ni 16 8       128 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 1.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 18           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 10         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 7           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 8           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 6           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 8           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 28 Ni 6           ppm Condie 1993
Frankfort Howardites 28 Ni 0.125             Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 28 Ni 135.24         46 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 28 Ni 137           ppm Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Ganges River Particulates 28 Ni 80           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites   Fe/Ni 26   9         McDonough 1991
Garnet Peridotites   MgO/Ni 199   44         McDonough 1991
Garnet Peridotites 28 Ni 0.26           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Garnet Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Garnet Peridotites 28 Ni   0.27         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garnet Peridotites   Ni/Co 21   4         McDonough 1991
Garnet Peridotites   Ni/Cr 1.08   0.62         McDonough 1991
Garnet Peridotites   Ni/Ir 630000   290000         McDonough 1991
Garonne River Particulates 28 Ni 33           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 28 Ni 8.1             Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 28 Ni 881           ppm Trace element abundances of the Goalpara meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Goalpara Ureilite 28 Ni 850   20       ppm Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 28 Ni 7           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 28 Ni 15           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 28 Ni 12           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 28 Ni 15         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 28 Ni 6.2         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 28 Ni 15         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 28 Ni 12           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granulites 28 Ni 89 27       491 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 28 Ni 57 25       319 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 28 Ni 58           ppm Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulitic Xenolites 28 Ni 137 83       239 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 28 Ni 75           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 28 Ni 68           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 28 Ni 45           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 28 Ni 45           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 28 Ni 30           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 28 Ni 190           ppm Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 28 Ni 141.53         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 28 Ni 47.5         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 28 Ni 24           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
H Ordinary Chondrites 28 Ni 1.6           ppm Model composition of H-Chondrites as found by Mason 1965.  These values correlate to those found by Morgan et al. 1978 for the Eucrite parent body, which is the norm for these types of materials (chondrites). The match is not perfect however, seeing that the H-chondrites are obviously more abundant in the involatile elements and metals due to their cosmic origins. Morgan et al. 1978 Mason 1965
Havero Ureilite 28 Ni 1170           ppm Trace element abundances of the Havero (bulk) meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 28 Ni 2850           ppm Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
Havero Urelite 28 Ni 0.92             Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Honshu Basalt 28 Ni 191.52         57 ppm Average major and trace element values for Honshu Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Hydrothermal Sediment 28 Ni 189.2         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 28 Ni 4.48             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Iron Meteorites 28 Ni 9.5           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IAB Landes 28 Ni 12             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 28 Ni 2.75             Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 28 Ni 0.01             Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 28 Ni 3.5           ppm Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
IIAB Iron Meteorites 28 Ni 5.65           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IIIAB Iron Meteorites 28 Ni 8.33           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IIIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Interior North China Craton 28 Ni 37           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 28 Ni 37           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 28 Ni 49           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 28 Ni 78           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 28 Ni 34           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 28 Ni 17.5         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 28 Ni 29.7         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 28 Ni 234         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 28 Ni 57         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 28 Ni 71 46       88 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 28 Ni 76 52       30 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 28 Ni 35 24       69 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 28 Ni 58         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Interplanetary Dust Particles 28 Ni 0.027             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 28 Ni 3.51   0.1755         Abundance of elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. Elements used were Mg-silicates and metallic FeNi. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 28 Ni 118.63         22 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 28 Ni 239.67         135 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 28 Ni 30           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 28 Ni 13         323 ppm Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
IVA Iron Meteorites 28 Ni 8.51           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IVA meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IVB Iron Meteorites 28 Ni 17.13           wt% Average elemental composition of Group IVB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Izu-Bonin Trench 28 Ni 52.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 28 Ni 66.6           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 28 Ni 91.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 28 Ni 0.15             Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Juvinas Eucrite 28 Ni 1.1           ppm Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Kamchatka Basalt 28 Ni 135.08         40 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 28 Ni 20.1           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 28 Ni 0.41             Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 28 Ni 1740         1 ppm Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite 28 Ni 1180   20       ppm Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 28 Ni 2380           ppm Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Kerm Trench 28 Ni 118.9           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 28 Ni 110         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 28 Ni 1177         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites   Fe/Ni 75             McDonough 1991
Komatiites   MgO/Ni 210             McDonough 1991
Komatiites 28 Ni 1700           ppm Condie 1993
Komatiites   Ni/Co 12             McDonough 1991
Komatiites   Ni/Cr 0.5             McDonough 1991
Komatiites   Ni/Ir 1000000             McDonough 1991
Kuriles Trench 28 Ni 66.6           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kyzyl Kum 28 Ni 7         5 ppm Phosphatic sandstones and shales, near shore deltaic and littoral sediments of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan, P2O5: >10%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Kapustyanski 1964
L Ordinary Chondrites 28 Ni 0.032             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
La Caja Formation 28 Ni 43         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 28 Ni 85           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 28 Ni 76           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ni/Co 3.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Ni/Co 3.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.7             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 30           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 27           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.8             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Lena River Particulates 28 Ni 147           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Lesser Antilles Basalt 28 Ni 442.69         52 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
LL Ordinary Chondrites 28 Ni 9.75             Concentratons of elements in mean LL chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Low Si-Mg Mantle 28 Ni 0.28           wt% LOSIMAG (LOw SIlicon MAGnesisum) C1 model of fertile upper mantle compositions given by Hart and Zindler 1986. Walter 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 156           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 64           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 99           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 88           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 347           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 65           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 73           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 141           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 75           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 88           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 58           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 80           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 88           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 35           ppm Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 89           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 99           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 88           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 28 Ni 135           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Luzon Basalt 28 Ni 96.57         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 28 Ni 2.16             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 28 Ni 0.043             Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
MacKenzie River Particulates 28 Ni 22           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Archean Granulites 28 Ni 227 112       84 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 28 Ni 78         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 28 Ni 150 105       175 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 28 Ni 98         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 28 Ni 126 80       61 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 28 Ni 98.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 28 Ni 0.19             Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 28 Ni 6600           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 28 Ni 0.26           wt% Melt extraction model for fertile upper mantle composition. Walter 2004
Mantle 28 Ni 0.26     0.24 0.28   wt% Best fit model of fertile upper mantle composition as given in major element oxide abundances. Also given are the High and low values of all oxides. These values have a confidence level of 95%. Walter 2004
Mantle 28 Ni 0.2           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mantle Xenoliths 28 Ni 0.28           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 28 Ni 128.3         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 28 Ni 99.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Organisms 28 Ni 1.4           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 230           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 230           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Phosphorites 28 Ni 53 33   7 250 16 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 28 Ni 68           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 28 Ni 68           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mars Core 28 Ni 7.2           wt% Major element composition of the Martian core given in weight percent from Sanloup 1999. McSween, Jr. 2004 Sanloup 1999
Mars Core 28 Ni 7.7           wt% Major element composition of the Martian core given in weight percent from Lodders & Fegley 1997. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1997
Mars Core 28 Ni 8           wt% Major element composition of the Martian core given in weight percent from Wanke & Dreibus 1998. McSween, Jr. 2004 Wanke & Dreibus 1988
Mavic Volcanics 28 Ni 75         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 28 Ni 0.01         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 28 Ni 99           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 28 Ni 53           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 28 Ni 25           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 28 Ni 32           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 28 Ni 53           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 26           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 23           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.7             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 28 Ni 1.17             Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 28 Ni 14         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 28 Ni 420.5         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 28 Ni 52 33       52 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 28 Ni 170.9           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 33           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 33.5           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 33.5   0.7       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 20           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 18           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 33           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 28 Ni 34           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 32           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 29           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 28 Ni 9             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 28 Ni 6.4             Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 28 Ni 3.28             Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Mishash Formation 28 Ni 73         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Mississippi River Particulates 28 Ni 55           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Monterey Formation 28 Ni 70         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Moon 28 Ni 0.5           ppm Model major element composition of the Moon as first noted by Ganapathy and Anders 1974. The moon is notably depleted in the alkali elements which could have been an effect of the high temperature of chondrule formation.  Morgan et al. 1978 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Moore County Eucrite 28 Ni 0.0042             Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
MORB Basaltic Glass 28 Ni 41.4           ppm MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-GC083 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 28 Ni 72           ppm MORB Glass ODP0142-0864A-001M-003/0-3 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 28 Ni 71           ppm MORB Glass MELPHNX-2-068-001 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
MORB Basaltic Glass 28 Ni 80           ppm MORB Glass WASRAI2-057-006 from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Transform that along with 4 other samples from this region form a coherent liquid line of descent for fractional crystalization from the highest MgO magma. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 28 Ni 149.5           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 28 Ni 123           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 28 Ni 120           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 28 Ni 81           ppm Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 28 Ni 119           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 28 Ni 149.5         26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
Nakhla Meteorite 28 Ni 90           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 28 Ni 37.8           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nanno Ooze 28 Ni 30.5         2 ppm Based on the nanno ooze of the nearby Site 320 (Hole et al., 1984) since no geochemical data exists for Site 321. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 28 Ni 42.6         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Narbada River Particulates 28 Ni 85           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
New Hebrides Islands 28 Ni 131.72         18 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Niger River Particulates 28 Ni 120           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 28 Ni 58           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 28 Ni 6           ppm Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Antilles Trench 28 Ni 73.6           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 47           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 38           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 39           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 44           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 28 Ni 0.004         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Novo-Urei Ureilite 28 Ni 1540           ppm Trace element abundances of the Novo Urei meteorite originally given by Higuchi et al. 1976. Novo Urei happens to be the second in line as far as richest in siderophile element abundances, second only to Kenna Meteorite.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Novo-Urei Ureilite 28 Ni 1300   50       ppm Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 28 Ni 0.003             Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ob River Particulates 28 Ni 124           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 28 Ni 2262 2404 298     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Crust 28 Ni 144           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2004 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Crust 28 Ni 149           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2003 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 28 Ni 2410 2399 187     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 97           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 968           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 28           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 120           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 112           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 150           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 30           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 723           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 182           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 102           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 87           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 99           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 58           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 122           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 264           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 61           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 72           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 75           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 28 Ni 62           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceans Deep water 28 Ni 566           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 985 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Oceans Surface water 28 Ni 146           ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 0 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
ODP Site 735 28 Ni 138.1 112       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Orangeite 28 Ni 1224         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Fe/Ni 17.5   1.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 28 Ni 1.1         21 wt% Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 28 Ni 1.1         14   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 28 Ni 10.1             Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orinoco River Particulates 28 Ni 30           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Oulad Abdoun Basin 28 Ni 20         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Pacific Ocean Deep Water 28 Ni 11             Maximum Pacific deep-water concentration. Bruland 1983
Pacific Ocean Surface Water 28 Ni 2             Minimum central gyre surface concentration. Bruland 1983
Paleozoic Orogens 28 Ni 42           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 28 Ni 71           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Ni 1.8             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 26           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 28 Ni 29           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Ni/Co 1.8             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 3.6         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 313         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 3.6         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 332.3         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 393.8         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 37.8         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 313           ppm The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 28 Ni 112.8         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 28 Ni 36         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 28 Ni 27         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 28 Ni 0.146             Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 28 Ni 12           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Fe/Ni 31   4         McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   MgO/Ni 196   17         McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 28 Ni   0.26         wt%ox McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Ni/Co 19   1.3         McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Ni/Cr 0.82   0.35         McDonough 1991
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites   Ni/Ir 515000   120000         McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 28 Ni 97.4           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 28 Ni 1.247             Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 589         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 69         18 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 134         6 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 28         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 58         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 58         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 99         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 28 Ni 59         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Philip Trench 28 Ni 180.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phosphoria Formation 28 Ni 0.01         61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 28 Ni   100         ppm Rare-metal contents with modes above threshold values in phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 28 Ni 100         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 28 Ni 12           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 28 Ni 19           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 28 Ni 89         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle   Fe/Ni 31.9             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Fe/Ni 35             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle   FeO/Ni 44             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   MgO/Ni 196             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   MgO/Ni 197             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 1860   93       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: versus MgO Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.23           wt% Primitive mantle model of upper mantle composition from Palme and O'Neill Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 2.01. Walter 2004 Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 1960   196       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt% PRIMA (PRImitive MAntle) model of fertile upper mantle composition given by Allegre et al. 1995. Walter 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.23           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.27           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 1860           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.28           wt% Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt% Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM) major element compositions as measured by McDonough & Sun 1995. All mineral compositions normalized to 100%. Workman & Hart 2005 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 2080           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 1950           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.27           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.2           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Ringwood 1979. McDonough & Frey 1989 Ringwood 1979
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni   0.24         wt%ox McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.24           wt%ox Estimates of major element oxide composition from the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. These values show that average Primitive mantle has roughly the same compositional values as Garnet/Spinel peridotites with some exceptions. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.22           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.23           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Minor oxides of the primitive mantle (in wt.%) that comprise the remnant portions of the Earth's mantle. In this particular study the sum of the minor oxides is taken and normalized to 100% in an effort to obtain the absolute values of each element, which are then used for comparison to prior studies conducted of the Earth's mantle. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 1990           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 2060           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.277           wt%ox Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.27           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.26           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Co 18             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Co 18.7             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Co 17             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Cr 0.64             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Cr 0.72             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle   Ni/Ir 570000             McDonough 1991
Primitive Mantle   Ni/P 22             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 28 Ni 174         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pungo River Formation 28 Ni 13         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Pyrolites 28 Ni 0.2           wt% Pyrolite model of fertile upper mantle composition give by Ringwood 1979. Walter 2004 Ringwood 1979
Pyrolites 28 Ni 0.25           wt% Pyrolite model of McDonough & Sun 1995 for modeling fertile upper mantle compositions. Walter 2004 McDougall & Sun 1995
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 28 Ni 16.9             Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 28 Ni 20           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 28 Ni 169         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 28 Ni 169         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 28 Ni 147.2         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 28 Ni 26           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 28 Ni 26.3         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 28 Ni 33.6         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 28 Ni 0.01         20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rifted Continental Margins 28 Ni 98           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 28 Ni 49           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 28 Ni 90           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 28 Ni 0.3           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 28 Ni 353.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 28 Ni 23           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 28 Ni 11           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 28 Ni 84.67         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 28 Ni 0.008             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 28 Ni 8     2 12     Nutrient distribution type. Ni[2+], NiCO3[0+] and NiCl[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 28 Ni 530             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 28 Ni 0.5           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 28 Ni 480           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Sera de Mage Eucrite 28 Ni 1           ppm Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Serra De Mage Eucrite 28 Ni 0.0118             Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 28 Ni 54           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 28 Ni 221           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 28 Ni 52           ppm Condie 1993
Shalka Diogenite 28 Ni 0.005             Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 28 Ni 9.5             Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 28 Ni 79   12       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   Fe/Ni 31.9             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 1960           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 1960   196       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 1960           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 0.25           wt%ox Bulk silicate Earth model based on C1 Carbonaceous Chondrite values of major element oxides as taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Sun 1995 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 0.27           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the least depleted ultramafic xenolith model according to Jagoutz et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Silicate Earth 28 Ni 0.26           wt%ox Pyrolite model of the silicate Earth based on the MORB-harzburgite model according to Green et al. 1979. Compositions are given in weight percent per silicate oxide. McDonough & Sun 1995 Green et al. 1979
Silicate Earth   Ni/Co 18.7             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth   Ni/P 22             Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts.and basalts. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 28 Ni 41         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 28 Ni 24           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 28 Ni 125.4         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 28 Ni 0.0017             Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Slope Lisbourne Group 28 Ni 250         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Solar Corona 28 Ni 6.29   0.23         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Corona 28 Ni 6.22   0.06         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 28 Ni 6.22   0.08         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 28 Ni 6.25   0.04         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 28 Ni 6.25   0.04         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 28 Ni 49300   2510     27   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 28 Ni 49300   2810.1     25   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 28 Ni 47800             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 28 Ni 6.23   0.623         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Mg-silicates and metallic FeNi. Palme & Jones 2004
Solid Earth   Fe/Ni       17.1 17.3     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 28 Ni       1.72 1.89   wt% Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth 28 Ni 1.87           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core. All values given in wt%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 28 Ni 1.82           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 28 Ni 1.82           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 28 Ni 18200           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 28 Ni 1.6147           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Solid Earth 28 Ni 188220           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth   Ni/Co       20.7 20.6     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solid Earth   Ni/P       10 11     Limits on the composition of the core assuming that between 5% and 15% of the light elements reside in the Earth's core. Model based on the silicate Earth estimates from Table 5. McDonough & Sun 1995
South African Garnet Peridotites 28 Ni 0.29           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of 24 African Garnet Peridotite xenoliths from Boyd and Mertzman 1987. Values mainly used for comparison to compsitions gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Boyd & Mertzman 1987
South Antilles Trench 28 Ni 58.1           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 28 Ni 40           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 28 Ni 43           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 28 Ni 50           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 28 Ni 37           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 28 Ni 49           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 45           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 38           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 49           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 28 Ni 47           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 28 Ni 31.7           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites   Fe/Ni 31   8         McDonough 1991
Spinel Peridotites   FeO/Ni 39 37 11     308   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   MgO/Ni 191   33         McDonough 1991
Spinel Peridotites   MgO/Ni 190 190 33     308   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 28 Ni 2160 2140 304     308 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 28 Ni 0.27           wt%ox Average major oxide composition of Spinel Peridotites from Maaloe and Aoki 1975. Values mainly used for comparison to compsition values gathered by McDonough in his study to show no significant differences between prior and current averages. McDonough 1990 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Spinel Peridotites 28 Ni   0.27         wt%ox McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ni/Co 19.4 19.6 2.4     165   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ni/Co 20   4         McDonough 1991
Spinel Peridotites   Ni/Cr 0.86 0.79 0.31     308   McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Ni/Cr 0.86   0.31         McDonough 1991
Spinel Peridotites   Ni/Ir 600000   140000         McDonough 1991
St. Lawrence River Particulates 28 Ni 240           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Stannern Eucrite 28 Ni 0             Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 28 Ni 70.5   14.73       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 28 Ni 57.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 42   1     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 17.2   0.3     86 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 516   15     17 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 4.8   0.2     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 11   3     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 28 Ni 41   3     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk 28 Ni 200         38 ppm Siliceous and clayey phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. Detection Limit = 2 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Tonalites 28 Ni 19           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 15           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 15           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 14         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 29         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 13           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 28 Ni 16         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonga Trench 28 Ni 251.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 28 Ni 182.22         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 28 Ni 115           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 28 Ni 52.3         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 28 Ni 36.5         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 28 Ni 275         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/Ni 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/Ni 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 56           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 60           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 19           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 18.6           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 20           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 44           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 38           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 60           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 19           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Eade and Fahrig 1973 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Eade and Fahrig 1973
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 20           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 20           ppm Major and minor element composition of present day Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 20           ppm Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 47           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 47           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 47   11       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text










Upper Continental Crust 28 Ni 19           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust   Ni/Co 3.3             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Ni/Co 3.1             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 28 Ni       900 2300   ppm Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Ureilite Rock Metal 28 Ni 5.2         5 wt% Low Iridium values indicative of bulk rock values. Janssens et al. 1987 Berkley & Jones 1982
Ureilite Vein Metal 28 Ni 5.6         5 wt% High Iridium values indicative of vein material. Janssens et al. 1987 Berkley & Jones 1982
Vanuatu Trench 28 Ni 49.5           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Venus Core 28 Ni 6.6           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation given by the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Core 28 Ni 5.6           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation given by the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 1. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Core 28 Ni 5.5           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Veramin Mesosiderite 28 Ni 2.8             Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Sediment 28 Ni 33.8         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 28 Ni 140.6         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 28 Ni 202.3         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 28 Ni 141           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Watson IIE Iron 28 Ni 0.629             Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 28 Ni 23.4             Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 28 Ni 12.2             Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Xenolites 28 Ni 0.27           wt% Least depleted ultramafic xenolith model of fertile upper mantle compositions as given by Jagoutz et al. 1979. Walter 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Y-791491 Lodranite 28 Ni 12.9             Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 28 Ni 37           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 28 Ni 49           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 28 Ni 26           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 28 Ni 33           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 28 Ni 36           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yemissei River Particulates 28 Ni 325           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Yukon River Particulates 28 Ni 136           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
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