GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 31 Ga 7.78           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 31 Ga 14           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 31 Ga 16           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alborz Mountains 31 Ga 3         3 ppm Phosphorite sandstones, quartzose and ferruginous, in sequence of phosphatic black shales, sandstones and limestones, platform setting, P2O5: 24-28% from the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Aval et al. 1968
ALH 77005 Meteorite 31 Ga 7.3   1.2       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 31 Ga 2.9   0.5       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 31 Ga 2.1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 31 Ga 1.84           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 31 Ga 1.44           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 31 Ga 10.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Amazon River Particulates 31 Ga 19           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 31 Ga 18         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Angra dos Reis Angrite 31 Ga 0.36           ppm Elemental abundance of the Angra dos Reis meteorite.  Classified as an Angrite, the sample itself consists of a thin slice of material most likely made with a cutoff wheel.  However, the high abundance of Cu in the sample indicates that the sample was contaminated from the wheel used to make the slice of material. Laul et al. 1972
Archean Terrains 31 Ga 15           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 31 Ga 14.1         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 31 Ga 17.3         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Australian Granite 31 Ga 20.2           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 31 Ga 14.8         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 31 Ga 16         1074 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 31 Ga 18         704 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 31 Ga 20         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 31 Ga 2.6   0.4     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 31 Ga 3   0.8     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Bambui Group 31 Ga 10         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Basalts 31 Ga 12.5         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 31 Ga 7.6         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 31 Ga 17         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 31 Ga 20.1         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 31 Ga 17.6         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 31 Ga 18.3         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Bereba Eucrite 31 Ga 1.45           ppm Elemental abundance of the B¿r¿ba meteorite.  Sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation.  Laul et al. 1972
Bereba Eucrite 31 Ga 1.45           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Bialystok Howardite 31 Ga 1.34           ppm Elemental abundance of the Bialystok meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of one or several chips between 500-300 mg. No cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Binda Eucrite 31 Ga 0.9           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Brachina Brachinite 31 Ga 7.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Rock 31 Ga 8         3 ppm Residually concentrated pelletal phosphorite from 'Brown Rock' Tennessee, U.S.A. Ordovician carbonate platform, decalcified during late Tertiary to Recent, P2O5 = 11, 27, 29%, samples include one production composite. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Carbonates 31 Ga 2.3         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 31 Ga 2.8         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 31 Ga 0.7           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 31 Ga 6.1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 9.71   0.4855       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 9.2           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 10   0.69     14 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 3.11   0.02         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 9.8           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 10           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 9.71   0.4855       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 31 Ga 9.1           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
Congo River Particulates 31 Ga 25           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Constantinople Eucrite 31 Ga 1.51           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Constantinople Eucrite 31 Ga 1.51           ppm Elemental abundance of the Constantinople meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Continental Arcs 31 Ga 13           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 31 Ga 15           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 15           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 15.7           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 31 Ga 15           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 15           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 15           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Shields & Platforms 31 Ga 13           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 31 Ga 15           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 31 Ga 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Depleted Mantle 31 Ga 0.3             Gallium abundances in the upper mantle normalized to the C1 Chondrite value of 10.1 ppm taken from Orgueil Chondrite values in Anders & Ebihara 1982. Jones & Drake 1986 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Depleted Mantle 31 Ga 3.2   0.512       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  CaO is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 31 Ga 21.3         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 31 Ga 3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 31 Ga 3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Felsic Archean Granulites 31 Ga 17 16       183 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 31 Ga 18.2         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 31 Ga 19 18       133 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 31 Ga 17.4         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Frankfort Howardite 31 Ga 0.72           ppm Elemental abundance of the Frankfort meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of one or several chips between 500-300 mg. No cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Frankfort Howardites 31 Ga 0.51           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Garnet Peridotites 31 Ga   2.3         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 31 Ga 16           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 31 Ga 8.1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Granites 31 Ga 18.3         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 31 Ga 18           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 31 Ga 17.9         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 31 Ga 56         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granulites 31 Ga 18 17       307 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 31 Ga 20 19       219 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 31 Ga 14 14       21 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Greywackes 31 Ga 16           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Havero Urelite 31 Ga 1.13           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
IAB Iron Meteorites 31 Ga 63.6           µg/g Average elemental composition of Group IAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IAB Udei Station 31 Ga 5.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 31 Ga 1.19           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
IIAB Iron Meteorites 31 Ga 58.63           µg/g Average elemental composition of Group IIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IIIAB Iron Meteorites 31 Ga 19.79           µg/g Average elemental composition of Group IIIAB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Interior North China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 31 Ga 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 31 Ga 19.9         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 31 Ga 19 18       38 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 31 Ga 17 17       2 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 31 Ga 22 22       44 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intra Stellar Medium 31 Ga 1.99   0.2985         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arcs 31 Ga 18           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 31 Ga 18.3         323 ppm Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
IVA Iron Meteorites 31 Ga 2.14           µg/g Average elemental composition of Group IVA meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
IVB Iron Meteorites 31 Ga 0.23           µg/g Average elemental composition of Group IVB meteorites. Haack & McCoy 2004 Chabot & Drake 2000
Jones & Drake 1983
Johnstown Diogenite 31 Ga 0.18           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Jonzac Eucrite 31 Ga 1.45           ppm Elemental abundance of the Jonzac meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Jonzac Eucrite 31 Ga 1.45           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 31 Ga 1.48           ppm Elemental abundance of the Juvinas meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 31 Ga 1.48           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardite 31 Ga 1.1           ppm Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of dark material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardite 31 Ga 1.3           ppm Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardites 31 Ga 1.04           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Karatau 31 Ga 2         10 ppm Dark, granular and oolitic phosphorites, cherty and dolomitic, in a sequence of black shales and dolomites of the Lesser Karatau geosyncline, Karatau, Kazakhstan U.S.S.R.  Averages of 5-10 specimens except for Cr, Mo and Li: P2O5 = 26-32%Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Kholodov 1963
Kimberlite 31 Ga 8.4         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
LL Ordinary Chondrites 31 Ga 5.2           µg/g Concentratons of elements in mean LL chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 13           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 15           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 13           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 19           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 13           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
MAC 88177 Lodranite 31 Ga 0.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Mafic Archean Granulites 31 Ga 18 17       53 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 31 Ga 20.2         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 31 Ga 15 14       21 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 31 Ga 18.9         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 31 Ga 21 19       23 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Manganese Nodules 31 Ga 10           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle Xenoliths 31 Ga 2           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marine Organisms 31 Ga 0.5           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 31 Ga 20           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 31 Ga 20           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Phosphorites 31 Ga 4 2   0 12 9 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 31 Ga 19           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 31 Ga 19           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 31 Ga 19.6         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 31 Ga         0.01 41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 31 Ga 28           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 31 Ga 17           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 31 Ga 16           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 31 Ga 17           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 31 Ga 16           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
META 78008 Urelite 31 Ga 3.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 31 Ga 18.6         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 31 Ga 17.5   0.7       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 31 Ga 17.5           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mississippi River Particulates 31 Ga 30           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Molteno Howardite 31 Ga 1.08           ppm Elemental abundance of the Molteno meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Monterey Formation 31 Ga 12         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Moore County Eucrite 31 Ga 1.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Nakhla Meteorite 31 Ga 3   0.5       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nakhla Nakhlite 31 Ga 2.7           ppm Elemental abundance of the Nakhla meteorite.  Classified as a Nakhlite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
North Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 31 Ga 1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Oceanic Crust 31 Ga 17           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2008 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 1.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 20.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 19.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 3.5           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 15.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 19.1           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 20.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 14.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 17           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 22           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 10.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 17           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 2.84           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 18.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 13.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 22.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 31 Ga 3.16           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceans Surface water 31 Ga       15 30   ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Burton et al. 1959
Ishibashi 1961
Orgueil Chondrite 31 Ga 10.4           µg/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 31 Ga 10.1         10 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 31 Ga 10.1         10 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orinoco River Particulates 31 Ga 28           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Paleozoic Orogens 31 Ga 14           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 31 Ga 16           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Pelites 31 Ga 21.2         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 31 Ga 21         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Peninsular Range Batholith 31 Ga 17           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 31 Ga   2.5         ppm McDonough 1991
Pesyanoe Aubrite 31 Ga 0.056           ppm Elemental abundance of the Pesyanoe meteorite.  Classified as an Angrite, the sample itself consists of dark material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite which was obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum).  Laul et al. 1972
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 31 Ga 17         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 31 Ga 26         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 31 Ga 21         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 31 Ga 20.9         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phosphoria Formation 31 Ga         0.001 61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 31 Ga 14           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 3           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 3.7           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 4.4   0.22       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: versus MgO Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 4   0.4       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga   3.9         ppm McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 3.4           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 3.9           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 4.4           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 0.03             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 31 Ga 4           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 31 Ga 18.3           µg/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 31 Ga 27   1       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 31 Ga         0.001 20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rifted Continental Margins 31 Ga 13           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 31 Ga 16           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 31 Ga 25           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 31 Ga 0.09           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 31 Ga       10 20   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Burton et al. 1959
Ishibashi 1961
Seawater 31 Ga 0.0003             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 31 Ga 0.3             Unknown distribution type. Ga(OH)4[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 31 Ga 0.03           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 31 Ga 1.7             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Orians & Bruland 1988
Orians & Bruland 1988
Shiller 1988
Orians et al. 1990
Sera de Mage Eucrite 31 Ga 1.42           ppm Elemental abundance of the Serra de Mag¿ meteorite.  Classified as an unbrecciated eucrite, the sample used was a powder which had been reconstituted in the original proportions from magnetically separated pyroxene and feldspar fractions. Laul et al. 1972
Serra De Mage Eucrite 31 Ga 0.68           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shallowater Aubrite 31 Ga 41           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 31 Ga 16   1.3       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shergotty Shergottite 31 Ga 13.9           ppm Elemental abundance of the Shergotty meteorite.  Classified as a Shergottite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Silicate Earth 31 Ga 4           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 31 Ga 4           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 31 Ga 4   0.4       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Sioux County Eucrite 31 Ga 1.26           ppm Elemental abundance of the Sioux County meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Sioux County Eucrite 31 Ga 1.27           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Sioux County Eucrite 31 Ga 1.26           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Solar Photosphere 31 Ga 2.88   0.1         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain standard deviation. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 31 Ga 2.88   0.1         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 31 Ga 37.8   2.6082     14   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 31 Ga 38             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 31 Ga 37.8   2.608     14   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 31 Ga 3.11   0.7775         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solid Earth 31 Ga 3           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 31 Ga 3           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 31 Ga 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 31 Ga 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 31 Ga 2.4 2.4 1.3     49 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 31 Ga   2.4         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 31 Ga 1.73           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Stannern Trend Eucrites 31 Ga 1.44           ppm Elemental abundance of the Stannern  meteorite sample 2.  Classified as a eucrite the sample was taken from a region of the meteorite that has a pure white/grey color.  Conversley to sample 1, this sample has lower abundances of trace elements. Laul et al. 1972
Stannern Trend Eucrites 31 Ga 1.36           ppm Elemental abundance of the Stannern  meteorite sample 1.  Classified as a eucrite the sample was taken from a region of the meteorite that was stained yellow.  This sample turned out to have higher concentrations of 10 trace elements, upwards of two orders of magnitude, than other eucrites. Laul et al. 1972
Stannern Trend Eucrites 31 Ga 1.44           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Stannern Trend Eucrites 31 Ga 1.36           ppm Laul et al. 1972
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 15.3   0.2     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 15.7   0.1     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 16.5   0     86 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 17.9   0.4     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 16.2   0.6     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 31 Ga 4.2   0.1     17 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonalites 31 Ga 19           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 31 Ga 19.8         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 31 Ga 18.7         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 114           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 16           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 17.5           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 14           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 17.5   0.7       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text









Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 14           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 18           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 17           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 31 Ga 17.5           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Washougal Howardite 31 Ga 0.96           ppm Elemental abundance of the Washougal meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Watson IIE Iron 31 Ga 2.19           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 31 Ga 16.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 31 Ga 10.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Y-74450 Eucrites 31 Ga 1.46           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Y-791491 Lodranite 31 Ga 4.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 31 Ga 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 31 Ga 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 31 Ga 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 31 Ga 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Click to return to previous page