GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Atmosphere   31Kr 8.5             Global inventory of 31Kr isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons.  Based on atmospheric 31Kr/Kr ratio of (5.2 ¿ 0.4)x10^-13. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Atmosphere   78Kr 0.6087   0.002         Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   80Kr 3.9599   0.002         Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   82Kr 20.217   0.004         Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   83Kr 20.136   0.021         Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   84Kr 100             Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   86Kr 30.524   0.025         Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere 36 Kr 202000000000000             Global inventory for atmospheric volatiles as measured in moles. Based on dry tropospheric air. Porcelli & Turekian 2010 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 36 Kr 0.29   0.03     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 36 Kr 0.33   0.14     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
CI Chondrites   36Ar/84Kr 3710             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1973
CI Chondrites   36Ar/84Kr 2500             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Marti et al. 1972
CI Chondrites   36Ar/84Kr 3800             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
CI Chondrites   36Ar/84Kr 3380             Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites   84Kr/132Xe 10             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Marti et al. 1972
CI Chondrites   84Kr/132Xe 22.5             Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites   84Kr/132Xe 19             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1973
CI Chondrites   84Kr/132Xe 15.5             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
CI Chondrites 36 Kr 8.7   0         Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 36 Kr 8.7             Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Depleted Mantle 36 Kr 2   0.8         Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  He/Kr is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Intra Stellar Medium 36 Kr 2.97   0.4455         Abundance of highly volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Jupiter Atmosphere 36 Kr       2.2 3.2     Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Jupiter with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Lunine 2004 Atreya et al. 1999b
Gautier et al. 2001
Noll et al. 1989
Fink et al. 1978
Mars Atmosphere   84Kr/132Xe 11   3         Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Mars Atmosphere 36 Kr 0.3           ppm Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Oceans Deep water 36 Kr 3.7             Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 989 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bieri et al. 1968
Oceans Surface water 36 Kr 2             Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 10 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bieri et al. 1968
Orgueil Chondrite 36 Kr 8.7         7   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 36 Kr 8.7         7   Orgueil meteorite measurements. Abundance approximated from 84Kr not element. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Planets   84Kr       6.7e-14 1.3e-12     Abundance of volatiles in the atmospheres of terrestrial planets. In this case, the value is for the atmosphere of Venus and is measured as a ratio of moles to the mass of the planet itself (mol/g-planet) where the planet is given in grams in the actual table. These values were originally given by Ozima and Podosek 2001. Porcelli & Pepin Ozima & Podosek 2001
Planets   84Kr 1.9e-16             Abundance of volatiles in the atmospheres of terrestrial planets. In this case, the value is for the atmosphere of Mars and is measured as a ratio of moles to the mass of the planet itself (mol/g-planet) where the planet is given in grams in the actual table. These values were originally given by Ozima and Podosek 2001. Porcelli & Pepin Ozima & Podosek 2001
Planets   84Kr 1.97e-14             Abundance of volatiles in the atmospheres of terrestrial planets. In this case, the value is for the atmosphere of Earth and is measured as a ratio of moles to the mass of the planet itself (mol/g-planet) where the planet is given in grams in the actual table. These values were originally given by Ozima and Podosek 2001. Porcelli & Pepin Ozima & Podosek 2001
Primitive Mantle 36 Kr 0.417           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Seawater 36 Kr 3.7             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bieri et al. 1968
Seawater 36 Kr 0.0034             Broeker & Peng 1982
SNC Meteorites   84Kr/132Xe 20.5   1.5         Isotopic ratio of the Martian Atmosphere as studied by Bogard et al. 2001 using SNC (Shergotty Nakhla Chassigny Meteorite) glasses. Isotopic values are given as ratios with % terrestrial or % solar values depending on the isotope itself. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Solar Photosphere 36 Kr 3.3   0.06         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Abundances are not derived from the photosphere. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Solar System   36Ar/84Kr 3380             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Anders & Ebihara 1982. These particular ratio values are high compared to the solar wind and SEP most likely due to different depletions of He and Ne in SEPs. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System   36Ar/84Kr 3800             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Cameron 1982. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Cameron 1982
Solar System   36Ar/84Kr 2500             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Marti et al. 1972. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Marti et al. 1972
Solar System   36Ar/84Kr 3320             Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System   84Kr/132Xe 22.5             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Anders & Ebihara 1982. These particular ratio values are high compared to the solar wind and SEP most likely due to different depletions of He and Ne in SEPs. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System   84Kr/132Xe 15.5             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Cameron 1982. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Cameron 1982
Solar System   84Kr/132Xe 20.6             Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System   84Kr/132Xe 10             Solar system Noble Gas ratios as measured by Marti et al. 1972. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Marti et al. 1972
Solar System 36 Kr 41.3             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 36 Kr 45.3   4.983         Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 36 Kr 45   8.1         Solar atomic abundances. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 36 Kr 3.3   0.495         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Highly Volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Stony Meteorites 36 Kr 0.003             Typical activity of selected cosmogenic radionuclides in stony meteorites. Herzog 2004
Venus Atmosphere   84Kr 25     7 38     Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
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