GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Amphibolites 46 Pd 5.78         189 ppb Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 46 Pd 1.62         121 ppb Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 46 Pd 0.74         2754 ppb Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 46 Pd 0.32         2038 ppb Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 46 Pd 0.15         50 ppb Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.34           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.54           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 0.76           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.46           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.74           ppb Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 2.78           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 1.51           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 46 Pd 2.74           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 46 Pd         0.15   ppb Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
Chassigny Meteorite 46 Pd 0.15           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 560           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 550           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 1.68   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 0.56           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 0.556   0.0556       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 560   37     25 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 530           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 556   55.6       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 46 Pd 560           ppb C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.4           ppb UCC; LCC = from composite sample of 17 European greywackes analysed by ICP-MASS in nickel sulfide extract after Te co-precipitation (Hartmann, 1995). Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 46 Pd 1           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 46 Pd 1.5           ng/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.4           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 46 Pd 1.74           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 46 Pd 1           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 46 Pd 1.5           ng/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Core 46 Pd 3.1           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 46 Pd 3.1           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Depleted Mantle 46 Pd 5.2   1.248       ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Ir/Pd is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 46 Pd 0.51         260 ppb Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 46 Pd 1.73           ppb Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 46 Pd 1.1         137 ppb Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 46 Pd 0.23         972 ppb Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 46 Pd 0.31         402 ppb Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 46 Pd 0.09         1226 ppb Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Greywackes 46 Pd 0.4           ppb Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 46 Pd 97.1           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
Igneous Rocks 46 Pd 0.4           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
Interior North China Craton 46 Pd 1.06           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 46 Pd 2.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 46 Pd 0.62           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 46 Pd 1.01           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 46 Pd 1.4           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 46 Pd 1.66         136 ppb Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Juvinas Eucrite 46 Pd 1           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 46 Pd 0.4           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Kenna Ureilite 46 Pd 72.9         1 ppb Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 46 Pd 97.5           ppb Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Lower Continental Crust 46 Pd 1           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 46 Pd 2.78           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 46 Pd 2.8           ng/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 46 Pd 1           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Mafic Granulites 46 Pd 2.86         128 ppb Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 46 Pd 1.65         308 ppb Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 46 Pd 0.006           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Shales 46 Pd 0.004           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Laul et al. 1972
Mavic Volcanics 46 Pd 1.29         632 ppb Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 46 Pd 0.12         41 ppb Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.76           ng/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.76           ng/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Nakhla Meteorite 46 Pd 30   12       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 1.67           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 1.05           ppb Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 0.95           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 1.49           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 0.5           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Orgueil Chondrite 46 Pd 557         12 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 46 Pd 556         17 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Pelites 46 Pd 1.36         69 ppb Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 46 Pd 0.88         1341 ppb Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Primitive Mantle 46 Pd 3.27   0.4905       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: HSE, Pd/Ir = 1.022 ¿ 0.097, H-chondrite Palme & O'Neill 2004 Morgan et al. 1985
Primitive Mantle 46 Pd 3.9   3.12       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Seawater 46 Pd       0.00018 0.00066     Limits of Pd in total oceanic profile. Lee 1983
Seawater 46 Pd 0.07             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Shergotty Meteorite 46 Pd 1.7           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 46 Pd 0.004           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 46 Pd 3.9   3.12       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 46 Pd 0.004           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solar Photosphere 46 Pd 1.69   0.04         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 46 Pd 1.69   0.04         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 46 Pd 1.3             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 46 Pd 1.39   0.10703     18   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 46 Pd 1.39   0.0917     25   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 46 Pd 1           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 46 Pd 1           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 46 Pd 0.57           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 46 Pd 0.86           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 46 Pd 0.6           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 46 Pd 0.77           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 46 Pd 1.02           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 0.95           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 0.95           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 0.89           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 46 Pd 1.26           ppb Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 46 Pd 3.9 4.1 2.1     19 ppb McDonough 1990
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 46 Pd 0.11         641 ppb Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 46 Pd 1.81         553 ppb Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.5           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.52           ng/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.5           ng/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 1.46           ng/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.52           ng/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Jahn 2001 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Peucker-Eherenbrink & Jahn 2001
Upper Continental Crust 46 Pd 0.52   0.02       ng/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text
Yangtze Craton 46 Pd 1.7           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 46 Pd 1.88           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 46 Pd 0.79           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 46 Pd 1.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 46 Pd 3.02           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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