GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Amazon River Particulates 5 B 68           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 5 B 9.2         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 5 B 38         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 5 B 29         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Atmosphere 5 B 2.5e-10             Molar abundances of Boron in the atmosphere as given by Spivack 1986.  Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Bambui Group 5 B 10         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Augmented by chemical data from Rader & Hill 1938 as follows: Analysis 7: average of 6 samples; Analysis 11: average of 8 samples: Analysis 18: average of 9 samples.  Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Basic Precambrian Granulites 5 B 15         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Bone Valley Formation 5 B 18         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Brown Rock 5 B 14         3 ppm Residually concentrated pelletal phosphorite from 'Brown Rock' Tennessee, U.S.A. Ordovician carbonate platform, decalcified during late Tertiary to Recent, P2O5 = 11, 27, 29%, samples include one production composite. Chemically determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Carbonates 5 B 21         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 5 B 7.9         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 18           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 28           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 7.6           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 9.6           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 23           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 8           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 5 B 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 3.9             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 1.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 3.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 1.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 1.2             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 3.7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   La/B 1.7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 5 B 63           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 5 B 870   87     1 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 5 B 1.2           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 5 B 2.77   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 5 B 0.69   0.0897       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Zhai & Shaw 1994
CI Chondrites 5 B 0.9           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 5 B 0.69   0.0897       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 5 B 0.87           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 5 B 0.27           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
Congo River Particulates 5 B 43           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Crust 5 B 10           ppm Ppm values of Boron in the Earth's continental crust as given by two sources, Harder 1978 and Chaussidon & Albarede 1992.  These values are given mainly for a comparison to the rest of the layers of the oceanic crust analyzed in this work from DSDP holes. Smith et al. 1995 Harder 1978

Continental Crust 5 B 9.3           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 5 B 11           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 5 B 10           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 5 B 11           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Harder (1974) and Shaw et al. (1986) in the proportions of Figure 2; LCC = data from Truscott et al. (1986), Leeman et al. (1992) and Harder (1974). Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 5 B 10           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 5 B 10           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 5 B 18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 5 B 11           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 5 B 11           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 5 B 1.5           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 5 B 9.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 5 d11B -7             ¿ values of Boron in the Earth's continental crust as given by two sources, Harder 1978 and Chaussidon & Albarede 1992.  These values are given mainly for a comparison to the rest of the layers of the oceanic crust analyzed in this work from DSDP holes. Smith et al. 1995 Harder 1978

Core 5 B 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 5 B 0.25           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 5 B 3.59           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 5 B 0.324           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 5 B 0.364           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Depleted Mantle 5 B 0.06   0.0546       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  B/K is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Dike Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 0.006             Boron compositions associated with Crustal Layer 2B and given in molar values. Smith et al. 1995
Dike Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 6.1           ppm Average Boron content of altered oceanic crustal Layer 2B, calculated as the average of all the Troodos and Oman ophiolite samples. Smith et al. 1995
Dike Section Oceanic Crust 5 d11B 5.9             Boron isotopic composition of Troodos and Oman ophiolite samples which are taken as a representative of crusal layer 2B. Smith et al. 1995
Dike Section Oceanic Crust 5 d11B 3.7             Lodders & Fegley 1998
Diorite 5 B 6.6         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 5 B 18           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Extrusive Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 0.013             Boron composition of DSDP composites which represent Layer 2A of the oceanic crust. Smith et al. 1995
Extrusive Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 26           ppm Average B content of the upper 550m of altered crust which has been determined by integrating composites from DSDP hole 417A, 417D and 418A. Smith et al. 1995
Extrusive Section Oceanic Crust   d11B 0.8             Boron isotopic compositions of Layer 2A composites, which happens to be similar to the range of values measured in dikes from Troodos ophiolite and basalts from DSDP Hole 504B. Smith et al. 1995
Felsic Granulites 5 B 2.8         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 5 B 11         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Gabbro Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 26           ppm Lodders & Fegley 1998
Gabbro Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 0.007             Boron composition of altered oceanic crustal layer 3 given in molar values. Smith et al. 1995
Gabbro Section Oceanic Crust 5 B 2.7           ppm Boron content of Layer 3 which is represented by gabbros from ODP Hole 735B. Smith et al. 1995
Gabbro Section Oceanic Crust 5 d11B 0.8             Lodders & Fegley 1998
Gabbro Section Oceanic Crust 5 d11B 5.7             Boron isotopic composition of altered crustal Layer 3 which is represented by ODP Hole 735B samples.  Smith et al. 1995
Garonne River Particulates 5 B 120           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Granites 5 B 6.6         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 5 B 3         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Greywackes 5 B 37           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Interior North China Craton 5 B 29           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 5 B 31           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 5 B 4.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 5 B 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 5 B 11           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 5 B 2.4         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 5 B 21         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Intra Stellar Medium 5 B 1.95   0.4875         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
La Caja Formation 5 B 3.8         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 5           ppm LCC = data from Truscott et al. (1986), Leeman et al. (1992) and Harder (1974). Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 9.3           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 8.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 2           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Leeman et al. 1992
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 7.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 8.3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 5 B 3.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
MacKenzie River Particulates 5 B 49           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Granulites 5 B 3.79         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 5 B 10         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 5 B 300           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 5 B 0.25           ppm Mantle concentrations of Boron (in ppm) as given by Spivack 1986.  Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Mantle 5 d11B -3   1         Mantle concentrations of Isotopic Boron (in ¿) as given by Spivack 1986. Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Marine Organisms 5 B 120           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 5 B 230           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 5 B 230           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Phosphorites 5 B 16 13   0 35 11 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Sediments 5 B 0.21             Boron concentration of sediments used mainly for comparison to values analyzed in this study from the oceanic crust DSDP holes. Smith et al. 1995
Marine Sediments 5 d11B -1.3   4         Boron isotopic concentration of sediments used mainly for comparison to values analyzed in this study from the oceanic crust DSDP holes. Smith et al. 1995
Marine Shales 5 B 100           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 5 B 100           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mature Oceanic Crust 5 B 5.2           ppm Boron compositions as found in altered oceanic crust.  Smith et al. 1995
Mature Oceanic Crust 5 B 0.026             Boron compositions as found in altered oceanic crust.  Smith et al. 1995
Mature Oceanic Crust 5 d11B 3.7             Boron compositions as found in altered oceanic crust and averaged from all localites by which samples were taken (DSDP Holes, ODP Holes, Troodos and Oman ophiolites)..  Smith et al. 1995
Mavic Volcanics 5 B 19         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 5 B         0.005 41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 5 B 87           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Metafelsic Volcanics 5 B 5.4         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 5 B 17           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 5 B 17           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 5 B 3.2           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Mishash Formation 5 B 35         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Monterey Formation 5 B 13         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
N-MORB 5 B 0.5           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB   d11B -3             Average isotopic values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro isotopic composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 5 B 4.6           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nile River Particulates 5 B 75           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
North Qinling Belt in China 5 B 5.9           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 5 B 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 5 B 10           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 5 B 10           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 5 B 26           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 5 B 0.005         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Oceans Surface water 5 B 4.4           mg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Inorganic Boron. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Noakes & Hood 1961
ODP Site 735 5 B 2.7 2.15       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Data from Smith et al. (1995). Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735 5 B 2.7   0.1       ppm Boron averages from ODP Hole 735B Layer 3 gabbros. Smith et al. 1995
ODP Site 735 5 d11B 5.7   1.4         Boron Isotopic average from ODP Hole 735B Layer 3 Gabbros. Smith et al. 1995
ODP Site 735   d11B 7.4 6.75       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Data from Smith et al. (1995). Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 5 B 26.2   0.5       ppm Boron average from DSDP Site 417/418 composite Smith et al. 1995
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 5 B 26.2           ppm This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 5 d11B 0.8   0.4         Permil abundance of Boron 11 in integrated composites from DSDP Site 417/418 Smith et al. 1995
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d11B 0.8             This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Oman Ophiolite 5 B 7.67   0.22       ppm Average ppm Boron composition of the Oman Ophiolite Smith et al. 1995
Oman Ophiolite 5 d11B 8   1.1         Boron Isotopic composition average of samples from the Oman Ophiolite Smith et al. 1995
Ordinary Chondrites 5 B 22.9         14   Boron abundance for ordinary chondrites. Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 5 B 1.25         6 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 5 B 870         1 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orinoco River Particulates 5 B 50           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelites 5 B 101         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 5 B 38         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Phosphoria Formation 5 B 13         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Chemically determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 5 B         0.005 61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 5 B 9.2           ppm Analyst: M.D. Higgins Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 5 B 9.3         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 5 B 0.26   0.104       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: B/K =  (1.0 ¿ 0.3) 1E-3 Palme & O'Neill 2004 Chaussidon & Jambon 1994
Primitive Mantle 5 B 0.3           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 5 B 0.26           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Chaussidon & Jambon 1994
Pungo River Formation 5 B 30         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 5 B         0.005 20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
River Particulates 5 B 70           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 5 B 10           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 5 B 4.4           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Inorganic Boron. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Noakes & Hood 1961
Seawater 5 B 420             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 5 B 0.416             Conservative distribution type. H3BO3 is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 5 B 4.5           ppm Boron concentrations (in ppm) as found in seawater. Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Seawater 5 B 4440           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 5 B 4500000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 5 d11B 39.52   0.36         Boron isotopic concentrations (in ¿) as found in seawater. Smith et al. 1995 Spivack 1986
Silicate Earth 5 B 0.3           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 5 B 0.3           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 5 B 0.3           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 5 B 3         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Slope Lisbourne Group 5 B 30         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 10 or 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Solar Photosphere 5 B 2.7     2.68 2.82     Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Cunha & Smith 1999
Solar Photosphere 5 B 2.6   0.3         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 5 B 21.2   2.12     1   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 5 B 9             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 5 B 2.87   2.583         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 5 B 24   7.2     34   Problems with contamination are paramount for this particular element, the most reliable data according to Anders & Ebihara 1982 is that of Curtis et al. 1980. Boron abundances in Curtis et al. were determined by counting the 478 keV ?-ray of Li^7 from the reaction B^10(n, s)Li^7 which was used for 82 chondrite samples. The actual value for B abundance was derived without regard to Chondrite class in Curtis et al. which some have stated to be dangerous due to the B volatility during nebular condensation. Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 5 B 0.2           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 5 B 0.2           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 5 B 8.6           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 5 B 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 5 B 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 5 B 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 5 B 11           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 5 B 37           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 5 B 26           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 5 B 35           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 5 B 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 5 B 0.53 0.55 0.07     6 ppm McDonough 1990
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 5 B 5.1         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 5 B 5.6         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Troodos Ophiolite 5 B 4.46   0.15       ppm Boron averages from the Troodos Ophiolite complex. Smith et al. 1995
Troodos Ophiolite 5 d11B 3.7   1.2         Boron isotopic composition average from the Troodos Ophiolite complex. Smith et al. 1995
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 5 B 6         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 26.2           ppm Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 28           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 9.2           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 17   8       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 5 B 17           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Harder (1974) and Shaw et al. (1986) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 15           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 17           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 15           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 5 B 17           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust   d11B 0.8             Average isotopic composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic isotopic composition which should closeley resemble 417/418. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Yangtze Craton 5 B 22           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 5 B 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 5 B 27           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 5 B 12           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 5 B 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
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