GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 51 Sb 61           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
ALH 77005 Meteorite 51 Sb 69           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 51 Sb 56           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 51 Sb 20           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 51 Sb 65           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Amazon River Particulates 51 Sb 1.9           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 51 Sb 0.09         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 51 Sb 0.08         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 51 Sb 0.41         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Aubres Aubrite 51 Sb 2.2           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Carbonates 51 Sb 0.41         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 51 Sb 0.09         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 222             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 271             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 258             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 569             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 713             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 649             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Ce/Sb 215             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.28           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.25           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.09           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.1           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.22           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.28           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.24           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.3           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.21           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 51 Sb 0.22           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 51 Sb 0.869           ppb Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
Chassigny Meteorite 51 Sb 0.87           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 51 Sb 31           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 153           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 130           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 142   25.6     22 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 0.142           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 140           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 0.133   0.0133       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 162.3           ppb C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 1   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 51 Sb 133   13.3       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
Congo River Particulates 51 Sb 1           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 51 Sb 300           ppb UCC = calculated from rock averages of Onism & Sandell (1955) and Burwash & Culbert (1979) in the proportions of Figure 2; LCC = estimated. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 51 Sb 200           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Core 51 Sb 0.13           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 51 Sb 0.13           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Danube River Particulates 51 Sb 1.9           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted Mantle 51 Sb 2.6   1.092       ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Sb/Pr is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 51 Sb 0.17         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dyalpur Ureilite 51 Sb 28           ppb Trace element values for the Dyalpur meteorite as given in Higuchi et al. 1976.  Mainly used in this study as comparisons to the Kenna and Havero meteorites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
East China Craton 51 Sb 0.22           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 51 Sb 0.21           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 51 Sb 19           ng/g Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 51 Sb 77           ng/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Felsic Granulites 51 Sb 0.12         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 51 Sb 0.3         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Gibson Lodranite 51 Sb 150           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 51 Sb 8.4           ppb Trace element abundances of the Goalpara meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Granites 51 Sb 0.12         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 51 Sb 0.13         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Havero Ureilite 51 Sb 8.6           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero (bulk) meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 51 Sb 231           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
IAB Udei Station 51 Sb 36           ng/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Igneous Rocks 51 Sb 1.1           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
Interior North China Craton 51 Sb 0.12           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 51 Sb 0.14           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 51 Sb 0.37           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 51 Sb 0.34           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 51 Sb 0.24           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 51 Sb 0.09         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Juvinas Eucrite 51 Sb 42           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Kenna Ureilite 51 Sb 9.8         1 ppb Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 51 Sb 24.1           ppb Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.3           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.09           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.1           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Sims et al. 1990
Lower Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
MAC 88177 Lodranite 51 Sb 25           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 51 Sb 18           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Granulites 51 Sb 0.08         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 51 Sb 0.17         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Magdalena River Particulates 51 Sb 2.4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Manganese Nodules 51 Sb 40           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 51 Sb 0.16           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 51 Sb 1           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 51 Sb 1           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 51 Sb 1.5           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 51 Sb 0.33         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 51 Sb 0.0007         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 51 Sb 3.2           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Metafelsic Volcanics 51 Sb 0.14         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.28           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.28           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 51 Sb 40   30       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 51 Sb 7.3           ppb Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.29           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Novo-Urei Ureilite 51 Sb 12.1           ppb Trace element abundances of the Novo Urei meteorite originally given by Higuchi et al. 1976. Novo Urei happens to be the second in line as far as richest in siderophile element abundances, second only to Kenna Meteorite.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Oceans Deep water 51 Sb 0.2           µg/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Oceans Surface water 51 Sb 0.2           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Orgueil Chondrite 51 Sb 155         22 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 51 Sb 140           ng/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Orgueil used as standard. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 51 Sb 133         15 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Parana River Particulates 51 Sb 3           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelites 51 Sb 0.98         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 51 Sb 0.69         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 51 Sb 4.9           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Phosphoria Formation 51 Sb 0.0007         61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 51 Sb 7           ppm Rare-metal contents with modes above threshold values in phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Primitive Mantle 51 Sb 5.5   2.75       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 51 Sb 12           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jochum & Hofmann 1997
Primitive Mantle 51 Sb 12           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Sb/Pb = 0.074 ¿ 0.031, Sb/Pr = 0.02 in mantle, 0.05 in crust. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jochum & Hofmann 1997
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 51 Sb 158           ng/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 51 Sb 0.0006         20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
River Particulates 51 Sb 2.5           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 51 Sb 0.07           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Andreae et al. 1981
Seawater 51 Sb 0.15           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Andreae et al. 1981
Seawater 51 Sb 0.0012             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 51 Sb 0.2           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Griel & Robinson 1952
Seawater 51 Sb 150             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Bruland 1983
Seawater 51 Sb 1.2             Unknown distribution type. Sb(OH)6[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Sera de Mage Eucrite 51 Sb 0.7           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Shergotty Meteorite 51 Sb 5.2   3.6       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 51 Sb 0.006           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 51 Sb 0.006           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 51 Sb 5.5   2.75       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solar Photosphere 51 Sb 1   0.3         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain standard deviation. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 51 Sb 1   0.3         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 51 Sb 0.352   0.06336     34   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 51 Sb 0.31             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 51 Sb 0.309   0.0556     22   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 51 Sb 0.05           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 51 Sb 0.05           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 51 Sb 0.18           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 51 Sb 0.14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.42           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 51 Sb 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 51 Sb 3.9 3.2 3.9     11 ppb McDonough 1990
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 51 Sb 0.3         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 51 Sb 0.16         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.31           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.4           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.31           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.3           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.45           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Sims et al. 1990 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Sims et al. 1990
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.2           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 51 Sb 0.4   0.1       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text










Veramin Mesosiderite 51 Sb 30           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Watson IIE Iron 51 Sb 24.5           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 51 Sb 390           ng/g Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 51 Sb 114           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Y-791491 Lodranite 51 Sb 130           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 51 Sb 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 51 Sb 0.26           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 51 Sb 0.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 51 Sb 0.24           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 51 Sb 0.08           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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