GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Ademellites 6 C 0.09         113 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Adamellite consolidated from 27 references and 113 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 78.18, Crystallization index equal to 13.54. Le Maitre 1976
Alaska Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 6 C 140   90       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 6 C 580           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amphibolites 6 C 0.46         189 wt%ox Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 6 C 0.05           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andesites 6 C 0.05         2203 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Andesite consolidated from 200 references and 2203 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 51.41, Crystallization index equal to 34.27. Le Maitre 1976
Andesites 6 C       10 1200   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Andesites. Note that it is particularly difficult to quantify pre-eruptive volatile abundances for Andesites because most are erupted subaerially after significant degassing has taken place and contain abundant phenocrysts such that liquid compositions are more silicic than bulk rock. Mineral disequilibria also hamper experimental work. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Anorthosites 6 C 0.14         97 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Anorthosite consolidated from 23 references and 97 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.91, Crystallization index equal to 58.00. Le Maitre 1976
Archean Canadian Shield 6 C 0.16           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Goodwin 1978. Shaw et al. 1986 Goodwin 1978
Archean Canadian Shield 6 C 0.2           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Terrains 6 C 2.3           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Arenaceous Rocks 6 C 1.22         2754 wt%ox Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 6 C 0.29         121 wt%ox Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 6 C 1.1         4 wt%ox Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Atmosphere   12C 1             Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   13C 0.0113             Isotopic compositions of Earth Atmosphere as given in relative abundances of noble-gas and major volatiles. Porcelli & Turekian 2014 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Porcelli et al. 2002
Atmosphere   14C 75             Global inventory of 14C isotope in the Earth's atmosphere as measured in either grams, kilograms or tons. Turekian & Graustein 2004 Lal & Peters 1967
Atmosphere 6 C 65           ppt Mole fraction of CH3CCl3: Methylchloroform gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C       0.1 1   ppb Mole fraction of CH2O: Formaldehyde gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C 55700000000000000             Global inventory for atmospheric volatiles as measured in moles. Based on dry tropospheric air. Porcelli & Turekian 2007 Keeling & Whorf 2000
Atmosphere 6 C 540           ppt Mole fraction of CF2Cl2: Chlorofluorocarbon 12 gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C       5 20   ppb Mole fraction of CxHy: NMHC gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C 1.7           ppm Mole fraction of CH4: Methane gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C 360           ppm Mole fraction of CO2: Carbon dioxide gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 6 C 265           ppt Mole fraction of CFCl3: Chlorofluorocarbon 11 gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Basalts 6 C 0.11         3156 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basalt consolidated from 330 references and 3156 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.18, Crystallization index equal to 45.19. Le Maitre 1976
Basanites 6 C 0.18         138 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Basanite consolidated from 40 references and 138 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 33.58, Crystallization index equal to 44.58. Le Maitre 1976
Brown Clay 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 6 C 0         29 wt%ox The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 6 C 34.5         13 wt%ox The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 6 C 25.08         87 wt%ox Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 6 C 36.37         2038 wt%ox Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 6 C 35.08         50 wt%ox Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascadia Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 6 C 26.55           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 3.14           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.44           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.51           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.55           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 5.48           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.93           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.27           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.95           wt%ox Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 1.84           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 6 C 0.83           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 6 C 847           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chert 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 6 C 2.39         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 6 C 1.32         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
CI Chondrites 6 C 32200   3220       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 6 C 0.7             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 6 C 3.5           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 6 C 3.45           wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 6 C 3.22   0.322       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Elements imcompletely condensed in CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 6 C 3.5           wt% Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 6 C 3.2           wt% C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 6 C 7.39   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Clastic Turbidites 6 C 0         28 wt%ox In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CM Chondrites 6 C 0.35             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 6 C 1.31         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Colombia Trench 6 C 22.26           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Comet Halley 6 C 8.66             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Delsemme 1988. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Delsemme 1988
Comet Halley 6 C 8.9             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Geiss 1987. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Geiss 1987
Comet Halley 6 C 8.64   0.08         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Continental Arc Basalt 6 C 1.44             Compositional analyses of Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Momotombo Volcano 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Continental Crust 6 C 1990           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Core 6 C       2 4   wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 Wood 1993
Core 6 C 0.2           wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 6 C 0.2           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 6 C 0.2           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 6 C 0.2           wt% Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Core 6 C 2000           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 6 C 0.2           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Dacites 6 C 0.06         578 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dacite consolidated from 80 references and 578 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 67.62, Crystallization index equal to 23.17. Le Maitre 1976
Dacites 6 C 6.924             Compositional analyses of Dacite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Mt. St. Helens 1980. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Depleted Mantle 6 C 50.3   12.072       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  CO2/Nb is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diabases 6 C 0.16         370 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diabase consolidated from 64 references and 370 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 31.49, Crystallization index equal to 42.08. Le Maitre 1976
Diatom Oozes & Clay 6 C 0         15 wt%ox Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 6 C 0         6 wt%ox Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 6 C 0.97         6 wt%ox Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 6 C 0         4 wt%ox This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 6 C 0.42         260 wt%ox Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Diorites 6 C 0.1         755 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Diorite consolidated from 141 references and 755 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 50.66, Crystallization index equal to 32.87. Le Maitre 1976
Dolerites 6 C 0.18         687 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dolerite consolidated from 99 references and 687 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 29.15, Crystallization index equal to 44.56. Le Maitre 1976
DSDP/ODP Site 800 6 C 5.22           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dunites 6 C 0.43         78 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Dunite consolidated from 35 references and 78 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 2.16, Crystallization index equal to 67.05. Le Maitre 1976
East China Craton 6 C 0.97           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 6 C 0.94           wt%ox Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 6 C 7.04           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Felsic Granulites 6 C 0.25         137 wt%ox Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 6 C 0.53         972 wt%ox Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ferruginous Clay 6 C 3.83         2 wt%ox The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 6 C       50 400   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of MORB settings.  The values reported are generally for the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 6 C 11.26             Compositional analyses of Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Erta 'Ale Volcano 1974. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Gabbros 6 C 0.07         1317 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Gabbro consolidated from 173 references and 1317 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 26.46, Crystallization index equal to 48.34. Le Maitre 1976
Granites 6 C 0.57         402 wt%ox Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 6 C 0.33         1226 wt%ox Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 6 C 0.05         2236 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granite consolidated from 197 references and 2236 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 84.24, Crystallization index equal to 9.27. Le Maitre 1976
Granodiorites 6 C 0.08         723 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Granodiorite consolidated from 125 references and 723 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 70.20, Crystallization index equal to 20.38. Le Maitre 1976
Green Clay 6 C 0         3 wt%ox Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 11.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 11.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   C/Mg 12             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   N/C 0.06             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   N/C       0.03 0.06     Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   N/C 0.2             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.6             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.8             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Harzburgites 6 C 0.09         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Harzburgite consolidated from 18 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 3.43, Crystallization index equal to 66.60. Le Maitre 1976
Hawaiites 6 C 0.04         58 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Hawaiite consolidated from 13 references and 58 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 42.64, Crystallization index equal to 36.02. Le Maitre 1976
Hydrothermal Sediment 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interior North China Craton 6 C 5.54           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 6 C 1.2           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 6 C 0.55           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 6 C 0.82           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 6 C 1.76           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 6 C 0         2 wt%ox Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 6 C 15         5 wt%ox Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 6 C 0         12 wt%ox This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 6 C 0.26         136 wt%ox Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Interplanetary Dust Particles 6 C 1.75         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 6 C 8.14   2.849         Abundance of highly volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 6 C 1.9             Compositional analyses of Andesite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Mt. St. Augustine 1979. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any island arc.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Izu-Bonin Trench 6 C 3.76           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 6 C 1.07           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Jupiter Atmosphere 6 C       2.5 3.5     Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Jupiter with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Carbon value as Methane gas CH4. Lunine 2004 Atreya et al. 1999b
Gautier et al. 2001
Noll et al. 1989
Fink et al. 1978
Kamchatka Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kerm Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kimberlite 6 C 5.3         35 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Group 1A Kimberlites which are representative of a global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 6 C 3.6         32 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Micaceous kimberlites which represent a model for global average. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kimberlite 6 C 4.53         22 wt% Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kuriles Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
L Ordinary Chondrites 6 C 0.02             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Latites 6 C 0.19         146 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Latite consolidated from 46 references and 146 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 68.49, Crystallization index equal to 20.89. Le Maitre 1976
Lherzolites 6 C 0.08         177 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lherzolite consolidated from 16 references and 177 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.16, Crystallization index equal to 66.06. Le Maitre 1976
Lower Continental Crust 6 C 588           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Lujavrites 6 C 0.03         76 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Lujavrite consolidated from 6 references and 76 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 64.78, Crystallization index equal to 5.01. Le Maitre 1976
Mafic Granulites 6 C 0.23         128 wt%ox Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 6 C 0.48         308 wt%ox Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Makran Trench 6 C 5.08           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Manganese Nodules 6 C 1000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle 6 C 0.01           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Marianas Trench 6 C 2.61           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Apatites 6 C       0.8 3.5   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 6 C 345000           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 6 C 4500           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 6 C 12000           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Vinogradov 1959
Mars Atmosphere   13C/12C 0   50         Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Mars Atmosphere 6 C 95             Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Mavic Volcanics 6 C 0.72         632 wt%ox Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 6 C 2.49         41 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Metafelsic Volcanics 6 C 0.35         41 wt%ox Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 6 C 0         12 wt%ox Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metamorphic Rocks 6 C 1.1           wt%ox Metamorphic rock proportions according to Figure 2: 64% Gneisses; 15.4% Mica Schist; 17.8% Amphibolites; 2.6% Marbles. Wedepohl 1995 Poldervaart 1955
Mexico Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Monzonites 6 C 0.08         252 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Monzonite consolidated from 102 references and 252 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 69.58, Crystallization index equal to 19.20. Le Maitre 1976
Mugearites 6 C 0.15         55 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Mugearite consolidated from 25 references and 55 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 54.63, Crystallization index equal to 25.83. Le Maitre 1976
N-MORB 6 C 0.05           wt%ox Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 6 C 300   100       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 6 C 12.32         4 wt%ox Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nepheline Leucite Basalts 6 C 0.15         70 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nepheline, Leucite Basalt consolidated from 16 references and 70 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 28.60, Crystallization index equal to 48.50. Le Maitre 1976
Nephelinites 6 C 0.6         159 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Nephelinite consolidated from 38 references and 159 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 38.07, Crystallization index equal to 37.70. Le Maitre 1976
Neptune Atmosphere 6 C       30 60     Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Neptune with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Carbon is given as methane, CH4. Lunine 2004 Gautier et al. 1995
Norites 6 C 0.18         188 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Norite consolidated from 41 references and 188 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 23.29, Crystallization index equal to 51.19. Le Maitre 1976
North Antilles Trench 6 C 0.59           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 6 C 4.35           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 6 C 0.84           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 6 C 1.25           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 6 C 0           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 6 C 0.72           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 6 C 0.4         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 6 C 11.4         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Ocean Island Basalts 6 C       2000 6500   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of OIB setting. The values reported are typically that of the melt phase (dissolved). These values are taken from Hawaiian Ocean Island Basalt. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Ocean Island Basalts 6 C 3.15             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1983. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type II Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Ocean Island Basalts 6 C 48.9             Compositional analyses of Ocean Island Basalt obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Kiluaea Volcano 1918. Based on the geology of this region the volatile (Type I Gas) levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Symonds et al. 1994
Oceans Deep water 6 C 2264             Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Total CO2. Depth = 714 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Broecker & Takahashi 1978
Oceans Surface water 6 C 2039             Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Total CO2. Depth = 1 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Broecker & Takahashi 1978
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 6 C 2.95           wt%ox This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 6 C 2.95           wt%ox Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Staudigel et al. 1995
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d13C 1.06             This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d13C 1.06             Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by UNOCAL. Staudigel et al. 1995
Oldoinyo Lengai Carbonatite 6 C 24.4             Compositional analyses of Carbonatite obtained by direct sampling of hot gas vents at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano 1999. Based on the geology of this region the volatile levels are consistent with those of any subducted continental margin.  Carbon in this particular case is given as CO2. Oppenheimer 2004 Oppenheimer et al. 2002
Orgueil Chondrite 6 C 3.45         7   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982 Belsky & Kaplan 1970
Gibson et al. 1971
Wiik 1969
Orgueil Chondrite 6 C 3.45         7 wt% Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Pelagic Clay 6 C 3.86         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 0         3 wt%ox Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 0         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 0         55 wt%ox ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 3.86         56 wt%ox Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 0         6 wt%ox Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 6 C 0         8 wt%ox Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 6 C 0.35         69 wt%ox Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 6 C 1.63         1341 wt%ox Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Peridotites 6 C 0.3         103 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Peridotite consolidated from 41 references and 103 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 6.17, Crystallization index equal to 69.66. Le Maitre 1976
Peru Trench 6 C 18.49           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Philip Trench 6 C 8.63           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phonolites 6 C 0.08         320 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Phonolite consolidated from 59 references and 320 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 82.94, Crystallization index equal to 7.23. Le Maitre 1976
Phosphoria Formation 6 C 2.2         61 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 6 C 0.1           wt%ox Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 6 C 1.28           wt%ox Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Canadian Shield 6 C 0.02           wt% Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 6 C 120           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 6 C 100           ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Mass balance. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Zhang & Zindler 1993
Pyroxenites 6 C 0.13         106 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Pyroxenite consolidated from 42 references and 106 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 11.51, Crystallization index equal to 66.29. Le Maitre 1976
Radiolarian Clay 6 C 0         11 wt%ox This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 6 C 0         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 6 C 0         8 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 6 C 0         2 wt%ox The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 6 C 0         17 wt%ox Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 6 C 1.54         20 wt%ox Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rhyodacites 6 C 0.21         63 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyodacite consolidated from 40 references and 63 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 71.44, Crystallization index equal to 18.67. Le Maitre 1976
Rhyolites 6 C 0.08         554 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Rhyolite consolidated from 116 references and 554 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 88.37, Crystallization index equal to 5.45. Le Maitre 1976
River Particulates 6 C 9000             Average river contents of particulate Carbon via Natural Transport. Value represents the total amount of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (both from Atmospheric and Carbonate Weathering origins). Meybeck 1982
Rivers 6 C 15900             Average river contents of dissolved Carbon via Natural Transport. Value represents the total amount of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (both from Atmospheric and Carbonate Weathering origins). Meybeck 1982
Ryuku Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Saturn Atmosphere 6 C 6             Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Saturn with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Carbon is given as Methane CH4. Lunine 2004 Atreya et al. 1999b
Gautier et al. 2001
Noll et al. 1989
Fink et al. 1978
Seawater 6 C 4             Organic. Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 6 C 2200             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Total CO2. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Broecker & Takahashi 1978
Seawater 6 C 2300             C (inorganic). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 6 C 2             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Andrews et al. 1996
Seawater 6 C 28000000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 6 C 2.3     2 2.5     Nutrient distribution type. HCO3[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Sediments 6 C 5.9           wt%ox Sedimentary Rock proportions according to fig. 2: 44.0% Shales, Siltstones; 20.9% Sandstones, Greywackes; 20.3% Mafic etc. Volcanics; 14.6% Carbonates (0.8% Evaporites). Abundance of sedimentary carbonates reported by Ronov & Yaroshevskiy (1968) reduced from 22500 to 16000 ppm C to adjust the proportion of Carbonate to Reduced Carbon 4:1 Wedepohl 1995 Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1969
Shergotty Meteorite 6 C 530   130       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 6 C 120           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 6 C 120           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 6 C 8.3e+21             Global inventory for crustal volatiles as measured in moles. Porcelli & Turekian 2013 Hunt 1972
Ronov & Yaroshevskiy 1976
Silicate Earth 6 C 120           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicified Limestone 6 C 18.43           wt%ox Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 6 C 0         16 wt%ox The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Solar Corona 6 C 8.33   0.48         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Corona 6 C 7.92   0.04         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 6 C 7.9   0.06         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles and the solar wind. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 6 C 8.39   0.04         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Allende Prieto et al. 2002
Solar Photosphere 6 C 8.56   0.04         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 6 C 10100000             Solar atomic abundances. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 6 C 7.08             Solar system abundances of major rock forming elements relative to silicon and taken from Palme & Jones Chapter 1.03 of the Treatise of Geochemistry 2004. Clayton 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 6 C 8.39   2.517         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Highly Volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 6 C 12100000   3630000         Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 6 C 11100000             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar Wind 6 C 7.88   0.02         Anders & Grevesse 1989 Bochsler 1987
Solid Earth 6 C 0.07           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core. All values given in wt%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 6 C 730           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 6 C 0.07           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 6 C 0.07           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 6 C 730           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
South Antilles Trench 6 C 0.08           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 6 C 1.27           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 6 C 1.04           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 6 C 1.62           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 6 C 0.67           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 6 C 3.18           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 6 C 1.25           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 6 C 0.88           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 6 C 4.64           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 6 C 0.94           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 6 C 110 93 50     13 ppm McDonough 1990
Stony Meteorites 6 C 50             Typical activity of selected cosmogenic radionuclides in stony meteorites. Herzog 2004
Subducted Sediment 6 C 3.01   1.44       wt%ox Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 6 C 0.14           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Syenites 6 C 0.28         436 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Syenite consolidated from 102 references and 436 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 74.46, Crystallization index equal to 13.04. Le Maitre 1976
Tephrites 6 C 0.02         84 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tephrite consolidated from 23 references and 84 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 47.52, Crystallization index equal to 35.77. Le Maitre 1976
Tholeiites 6 C 0.03         190 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tholeiite consolidated from 31 references and 190 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 24.97, Crystallization index equal to 49.33. Le Maitre 1976
Tinguaites 6 C 0.06         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tinguaite consolidated from 24 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 79.89, Crystallization index equal to 5.79. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites 6 C 0.14         83 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Tonalite consolidated from 32 references and 83 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 59.53, Crystallization index equal to 29.19. Le Maitre 1976
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 6 C 0.34         641 wt%ox Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 6 C 0.22         553 wt%ox Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonga Trench 6 C 0           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Trachyandesites 6 C 0.08         223 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyandesite consolidated from 51 references and 223 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 63.59, Crystallization index equal to 23.31. Le Maitre 1976
Trachybasalts 6 C 0.1         155 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachybasalt consolidated from 48 references and 155 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 46.69, Crystallization index equal to 35.39. Le Maitre 1976
Trachytes 6 C 0.09         483 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Trachyte consolidated from 100 references and 483 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 80.67, Crystallization index equal to 9.80. Le Maitre 1976
Turbidites 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 6 C 0         4 wt%ox Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Upper Continental Crust 6 C 3240           ppm Figure 7 in Wedepohl (1995). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 6 C 0.8           wt%ox Standard profile (in percentages of Major Rock Species) of the continental crust as shown in abundances according to Figure 2 of Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 6 C 2.95           wt%ox Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Uranus Atmosphere 6 C       30 60     Abundances of major element species in the atmosphere of Uranus with the values expressed as relative to solar abundance. See Source citations for abundance values in absolute units. Carbon is given as Methane, CH4. Lunine 2004 Gautier et al. 1995
Vanuatu Trench 6 C 3.94           wt%ox Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Venus Atmosphere   12C/13C 88.3   1.6         Isotopic composition of Venus' atmosphere as obtained by Venera 11/12 Mass Spectrometer. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere   12C/13C 86   12         Isotopic composition of Venus' atmosphere as obtained by IR spectroscopy. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere 6 C 96.5   0.772       wt% Abundance of various elements, isotopes and compounds to give a representative chemical composition model of the atmosphere found on Venus. Carbon given as CO2 in this instance. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Volcanoclastic Sediment 6 C 2.53         15 wt%ox Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 6 C 0         13 wt%ox Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 6 C 0         43 wt%ox Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Websterites 6 C 0.02         199 wt%ox Average major oxide concentration values for Websterite consolidated from 10 references and 199 analyses. Differentiation index equal to 9.51, Crystallization index equal to 60.27. Le Maitre 1976
Yangtze Craton 6 C 6.01           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 6 C 0.68           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 6 C 2.13           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 6 C 0.18           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 6 C 0.39           wt%ox Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Zeolite Clay 6 C 0         3 wt%ox This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
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