GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Active Continental Rifts 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 64 Gd 3.4           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 64 Gd 3.61           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aldan River   Ti/Gd 69.6             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Aldan river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Aleutian Basalts 64 Gd 2.28         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 64 Gd 4.31           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 64 Gd 0.92           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 64 Gd 0.14           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALHA 77257 Urelite 64 Gd 12.4           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 64 Gd 10.4           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
Allende Meteorite 64 Gd 0.42           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Andaman Trench 64 Gd 3.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andes Basalt 64 Gd 4.79         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 64 Gd 5.17           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 4.54           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 3.37         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 64 Gd 3.61         5 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 64 Gd 4.14           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 4.15           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 4.59           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 4.94           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Andesites 64 Gd 4.65           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Apure River   Ti/Gd 93.8             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Apure river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Archean Terrains 64 Gd 3.14           ppm Average compositions of Archean Continental Crust calculated from weighted percentages of supracrustal and plutonic rocks exposed in Precambrian provinces. This study in particular weighs the importance of HREE-depleted granitoids in the Archean crust which make these values the most representative of upper continental crust compositions. Condie 1991
Archean Terrains 64 Gd 3.2           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 64 Gd 3.4           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 64 Gd 3.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Ashy Clay 64 Gd 6.73         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Australian Granite   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.85         6   Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.25             Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.47         8   Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 64 Gd 7.52         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 64 Gd 12.4           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 64 Gd 4         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 64 Gd 0.26   0.03     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 64 Gd 0.33   0.21     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Basalts 64 Gd 4.22           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 4.03           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 4.52           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 3.84           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 4.01           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 3.57           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 3.26           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Basalts 64 Gd 7.09         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 64 Gd 6.97         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 64 Gd 8.43         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for European Rhine Graben Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Jung & Hoernes 2000
Basalts 64 Gd 4.69         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 64 Gd 6.92         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 64 Gd 6.75         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 64 Gd 6.08         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 64 Gd 7.75         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) Low Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 64 Gd 8.03         6 ppm Average major and trace element values for West African (Cameroon Line) High Sr Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Marzoli et al. 2000
Basalts 64 Gd 12         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 64 Gd 5.56         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 64 Gd 3.53         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Binda Eucrite 64 Gd 355           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 64 Gd 0.92         55 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brown Clay 64 Gd 11.65         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 64 Gd 12.28         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Gd is calculated from the REE pattern in the Java 211 pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 64 Gd 2.63         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 64 Gd 2.5         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Cascade Basalt 64 Gd 3.37         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 64 Gd 4.53           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 64 Gd 3.04           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 64 Gd 3.46         29 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Chassigny Meteorite 64 Gd 0.11           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chert 64 Gd 3.37         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 64 Gd 2.33         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 64 Gd 2.3           ppm Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 199           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 196.6   2.75     4 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 204           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 197           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 0.205           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 1.08   0.02         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 0.204   0.0102       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 0.1966           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 204   10.2       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 197   9.259     6 ppb Values estimated from unfractionated abundances of REE as are given in Evensen et al. 1978. Anders & Ebihara 1982 Evensen et al. 1978
CI Chondrites 64 Gd 0.293           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
Clastic Turbidites 64 Gd 4.53         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 64 Gd 3.34           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Congo River Particulates 64 Gd 2.5           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 64 Gd 3.55         107 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 64 Gd 3.92         26 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 64 Gd 3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 64 Gd 3.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.61             Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3300           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.1           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.3           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.7           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 5.4           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.7           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.09           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.052           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.47           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.052           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.99           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 1.68           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.042           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 6.53           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.36           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.004           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.52           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.001           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.004           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.85           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 6.22           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.016           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 78.8           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 64 Gd 3.35           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Shields & Platforms 64 Gd 3.1           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 64 Gd 3.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 64 Gd 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.543           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 3.6           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 1.4           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.673           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.67           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Stachel et al. 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.25           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.079           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.54           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.324           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 2.23           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 19.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 64 Gd 0.718           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Ti/Gd 2020             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle 64 Gd 0.358     0.332 0.379   ppm Trace element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) with minimum and maximum estimates based on assuming initiation of continuous depletion at 2.5Ga (min) and 3.5Ga (max). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 64 Gd 0.395   0.0395       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Gd/Lu-Sm is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle 64 Gd 0.324           ppm Trace element composition of DDMM (Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Diatom Oozes & Clay 64 Gd 2.29         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. The REE's were calculated based on the REE pattern in piston core V14-57 using the Y/Yb = 10 to constrain the absolute abundances. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 64 Gd 3.8         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 64 Gd 4.38         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 64 Gd 4.14         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 800 64 Gd 4.02           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 64 Gd 4.37           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 64 Gd 4.4           ppm Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
E-MORB 64 Gd 5.26           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust 64 Gd 3.58           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 64 Gd 3.47           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 5.24           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 4.92           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
East Sunda Trench 64 Gd 5.27           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 64 Gd 310           ng/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle 64 Gd 0.397           ppm Trace element composition of EDMM (Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Felsic Archean Granulites 64 Gd 4 2.7       32 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Interpolated from the overall REE pattern. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 64 Gd 7.7 4.4       7 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Interpolated from the overall REE pattern. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 4.26           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 4.87           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 4.37           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 4.72           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 4.72           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 5.72           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 64 Gd 5.8           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 64 Gd 7.88         2 ppm The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 64 Gd 860           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 64 Gd 4.04         27 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Ti/Gd 1937             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 64 Gd 3.49           ppm Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Garnet Peridotites 64 Gd   0.35         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 64 Gd 6.1           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 64 Gd 260           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 64 Gd 5   1       ppb Rare earth element abundances of the Goalpara ureilite given in ppb. These analyses were performed by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to give more accurate abundances for the REE. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.15         8   Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites   (Gd/Yb)(N) 2.72             Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 64 Gd 8.17           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Granites 64 Gd 4.67           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Granites 64 Gd 2.34         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 64 Gd 5.1           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 64 Gd 7.63           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Granulites 64 Gd 7.2 4.12       63 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 64 Gd 5.88 3.46       99 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 64 Gd 3.58 3.26       71 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 64 Gd 4.34           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Graywackes 64 Gd 4.34           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Graywackes 64 Gd 4.34           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Graywackes 64 Gd 4.54           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Graywackes 64 Gd 3.69           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Graywackes 64 Gd 3.69           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 64 Gd 3.09         6 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 64 Gd 4.4         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 64 Gd 4           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Havero Urelite 64 Gd 25           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Hydrothermal Sediment 64 Gd 27.91         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ibitira Eucrite 64 Gd 1970           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 64 Gd 4.5         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 64 Gd 2.07         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 64 Gd 33.72         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 64 Gd 4.4 3.5       24 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 64 Gd 3.1 2.8       18 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 64 Gd 4.9 4.1       20 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Island Arc Andesite 64 Gd             ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 64 Gd 3.1         134 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 64 Gd 3.6           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Izu-Bonin Trench 64 Gd 5.46           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 64 Gd 5.03           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 64 Gd 6.23           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 64 Gd 240           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kamchatka Basalt 64 Gd 3.49         41 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 64 Gd 3.33           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 64 Gd 1250           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kerm Trench 64 Gd 16.32           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kolymar River   Ti/Gd 68.9             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Kolyma river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Komatiites 64 Gd 0.96           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 64 Gd 5.03           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Late Archean Upper Crust 64 Gd 3.74           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 64 Gd 3.58           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 5.24           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 4.92           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Lena River   Ti/Gd 72.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Lena river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Lesser Antilles Basalt 64 Gd 2.98         45 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lower Continental Crust   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.7             Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.13           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.1           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 6.8           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.31           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.67           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 5.4           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 5.4           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.1           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Luzon Basalt 64 Gd 3.38         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 64 Gd 130           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 64 Gd 2300           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 64 Gd 5.5 3.9       16 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 64 Gd 3.06 2.71       63 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 64 Gd 6.9 4.7       21 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 64 Gd 7.23           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Manganese Nodules 64 Gd 32           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Haynes et al. 1986
Marianas Basalt 64 Gd 3.47         36 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 64 Gd 4.2           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Apatites 64 Gd 12.8         13 ppm Average contents of Rare Earth Elements in sedimentary marine apatites as based from 13 sample analyses from a range of different localities. Data was obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis or Quantitative spectroscopy following chemical separation. Altschuller 1980
Marine Apatites 64 Gd       4 20 13 ppm Range of rare earth element contents in ppm for sedimentary marine apatites. Values based on analyses of 13 rock samples from different localites. Altschuller 1980
Marine Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 7.8           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982 Piper 1974
Marine Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 13           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Rankin & Glasby 1979
Marine Shales 64 Gd 5.2           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Haskin & Haskin 1966
Marine Shales 64 Gd 6         36 ppm Average rare earth elemental contents of European paleozoic shales as taken from Hermann 1970. Contents based on analyeses from 36 shales sampled. Altschuller 1980 Hermann 1970
Mekong River Particulates 64 Gd 5.3           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 64 Gd 3.1     2.2 4 10 ppm Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 64 Gd 4           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 64 Gd 3.9           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 5.11           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 4.81           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Metalliferous Clay 64 Gd 73.33         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 64 Gd 6.88 7.2       15 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 64 Gd 8.19           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.5             Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 64 Gd 2.11           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 5.19           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 4.85           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Moore County Eucrite 64 Gd 1260           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
N-MORB 64 Gd 3.97           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 64 Gd 2.44           ppm Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 64 Gd 3.5           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 64 Gd 5.077   1.853     26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
Nakhla Meteorite 64 Gd 0.86   0.08       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 64 Gd 5.13           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nanno Ooze 64 Gd 2.865         2 ppm Based on the nanno ooze of the nearby Site 320 (Hole et al., 1984) since no geochemical data exists for Site 321. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 64 Gd 2.59         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
New Hebrides Islands 64 Gd 2.86         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 64 Gd 5.2           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 64 Gd 5.09           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Atlantic Ocean Deep Water 64 Gd 7.19             North Atlantic deep water at 2500 m after Elderfield & Greaves (1983). Bruland 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1983
North Atlantic Ocean Surface Water 64 Gd 3.41             North Atlantic surface water at 100m after Elderfield & Greaves (1983). Bruland 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1983
North Pacific Ocean Deep Water 64 Gd 5.8             North Pacific deep water at 1690 m after Masuda & Ikeuchi (1979) as measured at 30¿28'N and 138¿49'E. Bruland 1983 Masuda & Ikeuchi 1979
Novo-Urei Ureilite 64 Gd 20   2       ppb Rare earth element abundances of the Novo-Urei ureilites given in ppb. These analyses were performed by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to give more accurate abundances for the REE. Boynton et al. 1976
Oceanic Crust 64 Gd 4.6           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2031 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 3.5           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 3.46           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 2.07           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 2.87           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 1.58           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 8.9           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 1.87           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 3.54           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 3.39           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 4.51           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 2.94           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 1.5           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 4.76           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 4.14           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 2.67           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 64 Gd 0           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceans Deep water 64 Gd 0.82           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 900 m Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Oceans Surface water 64 Gd 0.54           ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 100 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 64 Gd 3.65           ppm This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by ICPM. Staudigel et al. 1995
Olivine Chondrules 64 Gd 0.75     0.46 1.1 3 ppm Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite 64 Gd 11.4         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 64 Gd 199         7 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 64 Gd 196         5 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orinoco River   Ti/Gd 91.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Orinoco river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Paleozoic Orogens 64 Gd 3.8           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 64 Gd 3.4           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 4.71           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 64 Gd 5.04           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Parguaza River   Ti/Gd 81.2             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Parguaza river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 41.44         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 8.43         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 5.8         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 29.2         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 5.13         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 5.8         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 13         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 64 Gd 29.2           ppm The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Peninsular Range Batholith   (Gd/Yb)(N) 5.51             Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peninsular Range Batholith 64 Gd 3.4           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 64 Gd   0.304         ppm McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 64 Gd 3.85           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 64 Gd 6.56         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 64 Gd 4.09         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 64 Gd 3.91         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Philip Trench 64 Gd 12.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Post-Archean Terrrains 64 Gd 4.93           ppm Average compositions of Early Proterozoic continental crust which were calculated from weighted percentages of supracrustal and plutonic rocks in exposed Precambrian provinces. Condie 1991
Precambrian Canadian Shield 64 Gd 2.79           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.506           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.5128           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 571           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 571   57.1       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 544   54.4       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.74           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.605           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd   0.595         ppm McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.584           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.459           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.513           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.44           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 64 Gd 0.5           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle   Ti/Gd 36             Element ratios from the Primitive Mantle as given by Hofmann 1988. Gao et al. 1998 Hofmann 1988
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 64 Gd 2.2         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
QUE 94201 Meteorite 64 Gd 4.3           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 64 Gd 5.11         11 ppm This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 64 Gd 9.13         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 64 Gd 5.32         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 64 Gd 5.32         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 64 Gd 1.9           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 64 Gd 2.93         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 64 Gd 1.85         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 64 Gd 2.3     0.84 3.8 5 ppm Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 64 Gd 4.6     4.5 4.6 2 ppm CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Rifted Continental Margins 64 Gd 3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 64 Gd 3.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rio Negro River   Ti/Gd 68.5             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Rio Negro in Argentina. Godfrey et al. 1996
River Particulates 64 Gd 5           µg/g Composition average value is unsubstantiated estimate. World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 64 Gd 0.008           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ryuku Trench 64 Gd 45.75           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 64 Gd 1.52           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Sandstones 64 Gd 1.04           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 64 Gd 3.34         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 64 Gd 0.8           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Elderfield & Greaves 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 6e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 64 Gd 1.3             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 64 Gd 6     3.4 7.2     Surface depletion. GdCO3[+] and Gd[3+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 64 Gd 0.0007           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Serra De Mage Eucrite 64 Gd 407           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 64 Gd 5.6           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Shales 64 Gd 4.55           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Shales 64 Gd 5.22           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Shergotty Meteorite 64 Gd 2.54   0.26       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 544   54.4       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.54           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.459           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.5128           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.74           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.595           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 64 Gd 0.54           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicified Limestone 64 Gd 3.93           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Calculated based on the Peru REE pattern. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 64 Gd 5.77         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Gd is calculated from the REE pattern in the Aleutian clastic turbidite. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 64 Gd 2070           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Photosphere 64 Gd 1.12   0.04         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 64 Gd 1.12   0.04         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 64 Gd 0.42             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 64 Gd 0.33   0.00462     4   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 64 Gd 0.331             Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 64 Gd 0.37           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 64 Gd 0.37           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solimoes River   Ti/Gd 73.4             Zirconium, Hafnium ratio values of the Solimoes river in Brazil. Godfrey et al. 1996
South Antilles Trench 64 Gd 6.36           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Sandwich Trench 64 Gd 2.29           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 64 Gd   0.31         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 64 Gd 0.6 0.31 0.83     67 ppm McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 64 Gd 4010           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 64 Gd 5.26   2.04       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 64 Gd 4.01           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 1.35   0.033     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 4.26   0.041     42 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 0.244   0.013     16 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 4.264   0.174     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 2.667   0.274     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 64 Gd 2.16   0.282     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonalites 64 Gd 4.2           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites   (Gd/Yb)(N) 3.3         355   Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 64 Gd 4.67           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 64 Gd 2.98           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 64 Gd 2.2         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 64 Gd 4.09           ppm Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Tonga Trench 64 Gd 38.22           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 64 Gd 3.49         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 64 Gd 4.32           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 64 Gd 3.67         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 64 Gd 3.05         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Upper Continental Crust   (Gd/Yb)(N) 1.65             Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 2.8           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.45           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.21           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Interpolated from Sm and Tb. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.8           ppm Upper crust Rare Earth Element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 2.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.8           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4   0.3       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 4.21           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 64 Gd 3.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust   Ti/Gd 41             Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Vanuatu Trench 64 Gd 3.91           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Sediment 64 Gd 3.89         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 64 Gd 3.7           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 64 Gd 3.32         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 64 Gd 3.71         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Y-74450 Eucrites 64 Gd 3400           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Zeolite Clay 64 Gd 3.59         3 ppm This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
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