GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 65 Tb 62           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Aleutian Basalts 65 Tb 0.43         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
ALH 77005 Meteorite 65 Tb 0.17   0.01       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 65 Tb 0.038   0.005       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALHA 77257 Urelite 65 Tb 4.1           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 65 Tb 2.1           ng/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 65 Tb 80           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 65 Tb 0.08           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Amphibolites 65 Tb 0.92         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andean Andesites 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Minor element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Bailey 1981. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. The trace element data are from the analyses of Bailey pertaining to Andean Andesite. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 65 Tb 0.6         26 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 65 Tb 0.74           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.73           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.85           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.7           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.75           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 65 Tb 0.43         23 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 65 Tb 0.69           ppm Condie 1993
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 65 Tb 1390           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 65 Tb 360           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Archean Amphibolites 65 Tb 0.41           ppm Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Terrains 65 Tb 0.46           ppm Average compositions of Archean Continental Crust calculated from weighted percentages of supracrustal and plutonic rocks exposed in Precambrian provinces. This study in particular weighs the importance of HREE-depleted granitoids in the Archean crust which make these values the most representative of upper continental crust compositions. Condie 1991
Archean Terrains 65 Tb 0.59           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 65 Tb 0.57           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 65 Tb 0.87         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 65 Tb 0.74         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Aubres Aubrite 65 Tb 25.2           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 65 Tb 0.56         13 ppm Analysis of Himalayan Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Inger & Harris 1993
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 65 Tb 0.06   0.01     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 65 Tb 0.08   0.04     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Barea Mesosiderite 65 Tb 101           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basalts 65 Tb 0.75           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.68           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.72           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.55           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 65 Tb 0.82         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 65 Tb 1.17         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 65 Tb 0.86         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 65 Tb 0.957         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 65 Tb 0.99         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 65 Tb 0.85         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 65 Tb 1.03         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 65 Tb 0.67         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 65 Tb 1.23         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 65 Tb 2.2         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 65 Tb 0.5         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 65 Tb 1.53         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Binda Eucrite 65 Tb 70.5           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 65 Tb 0.17         38 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 65 Tb 47           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Carbonates 65 Tb 0.12         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 65 Tb 0.22         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 65 Tb 0.49         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central American Basalts 65 Tb 0.43         17 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.73           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.69           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.74           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.79           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.86           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 65 Tb 0.76           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 65 Tb 0.03   0.02       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 65 Tb 206           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 65 Tb 0.4           ppm Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 37.5   3.75       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 0.0363           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 0.0375   0.00375       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 0.34   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 0.0374           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 35.5           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 37           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 35.5   4.26     6 ppb Anders & Ebihara 1982 Evensen et al. 1978
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 0.053           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 36.1           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 65 Tb 36.3   0.799     21 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100%. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Congo River Particulates 65 Tb 1.6           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 65 Tb 0.51         47 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 65 Tb 0.51         122 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.67           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.56           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.65           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 600           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.6           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.53           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 65 Tb 650           ppb UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.56           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.6           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.53           ppm In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.82           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.9           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.54           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.01           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.013           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.39           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.232           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.715           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.45           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.0008           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.006           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 10.4           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.54           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Shields & Platforms 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 65 Tb 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.39           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.125           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.113           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.0849           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.09           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Stachel et al. 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.025           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.06           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.087           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.164           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 5.88           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 65 Tb 0.082           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
D'Orbigny Angrite 65 Tb 511           ng/g Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Danube River Particulates 65 Tb 0.62           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted Mantle 65 Tb 0.075   0.0075       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Tb/Lu-Sm is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle 65 Tb 0.07     0.065 0.073   ppm Trace element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) with minimum and maximum estimates based on assuming initiation of continuous depletion at 2.5Ga (min) and 3.5Ga (max). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle 65 Tb 0.064           ppm Trace element composition of DDMM (Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Diorite 65 Tb 0.7         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 65 Tb 0.73           ppm Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Early Archean Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.55           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.53           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
East China Craton 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 65 Tb 0.74           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 65 Tb 65           ng/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle 65 Tb 0.076           ppm Trace element composition of EDMM (Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Estherville Mesosiderite 65 Tb 146           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Felsic Archean Granulites 65 Tb 0.56 0.32       91 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 65 Tb 0.49         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 65 Tb 0.84 0.6       11 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 1           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 1           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.94         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.8           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.78           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.71           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.7           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Condie 1993
Frankfort Howardites 65 Tb 150           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 65 Tb 0.68         42 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Ganges River Particulates 65 Tb 0.7           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 65 Tb   0.05         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Garonne River Particulates 65 Tb 0.9           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 65 Tb 50           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Granites 65 Tb 0.9         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 65 Tb 0.6         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 65 Tb 0.73           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 65 Tb 1.15           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 65 Tb 1.28           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Condie 1993
Granulites 65 Tb 0.43           ppm Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 65 Tb 0.74 0.43       158 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 65 Tb 1.18 0.83       75 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 65 Tb 0.58 0.54       118 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.58           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.58           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 65 Tb 0.51         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Greywackes 65 Tb 630           ppb Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Ibitira Eucrite 65 Tb 380           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Interior North China Craton 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 65 Tb 0.67           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 65 Tb 0.62           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 65 Tb 0.69         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 65 Tb 0.66 0.5       19 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 65 Tb 0.58 0.48       17 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 65 Tb 0.8 0.6       22 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Interpolated from the overall REE pattern. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Island Arc Andesite 65 Tb             ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 65 Tb 0.52         97 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Juvinas Eucrite 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke et al. 1972
Kamchatka Basalt 65 Tb 0.51         27 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kapoeta Howardites 65 Tb 290           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kermadec Basalts 65 Tb 0.48         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 65 Tb 0.71         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 65 Tb 0.19           ppm Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.55           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.58           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Lesser Antilles Basalt 65 Tb 0.43         18 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.28           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.79           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.72           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.33           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.59           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.48           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.81           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.48           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.86           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.43           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.81           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.48           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.59           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Luzon Basalt 65 Tb 0.38         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 65 Tb 35           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 65 Tb 414           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 65 Tb 1 0.6       27 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 65 Tb 1.05         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 65 Tb 0.47 0.41       87 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 65 Tb 0.77         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 65 Tb 1 0.8       27 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Malvern Howardites 65 Tb 350           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 65 Tb 5.4           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marianas Basalt 65 Tb 0.55         16 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marine Apatites 65 Tb 3.2         13 ppm Average contents of Rare Earth Elements in sedimentary marine apatites as based from 13 sample analyses from a range of different localities. Data was obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis or Quantitative spectroscopy following chemical separation. Altschuller 1980
Marine Apatites 65 Tb       1 6 13 ppm Range of rare earth element contents in ppm for sedimentary marine apatites. Values based on analyses of 13 rock samples from different localites. Altschuller 1980
Marine Pelagic Clay 65 Tb 1           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982 Piper 1974
Marine Pelagic Clay 65 Tb 1.9           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Rankin & Glasby 1979
Marine Shales 65 Tb 0.85           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Haskin & Haskin 1966
Marine Shales 65 Tb 1         36 ppm Average rare earth elemental contents of European paleozoic shales as taken from Hermann 1970. Contents based on analyeses from 36 shales sampled. Altschuller 1980 Hermann 1970
Mavic Volcanics 65 Tb 1.01         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mekong River Particulates 65 Tb 0.9           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 65 Tb 0.53     0.41 0.71 10 ppm Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.8           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.76           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Metafelsic Volcanics 65 Tb 0.72         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 65 Tb 1.05 0.9       40 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.28           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.41           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.58           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.58           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.7   0.1       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.76           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.81           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.76           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mincy Mesosiderite 65 Tb 58           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Moore County Eucrite 65 Tb 239           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
N-MORB 65 Tb 0.93           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 65 Tb 0.72           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 65 Tb 0.48           ppm Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 65 Tb 0.885   0.3372     26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 65 Tb 0.885           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 65 Tb 0.12   0.01       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
New Hebrides Islands 65 Tb 0.47         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 65 Tb 0.85           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Pacific Ocean Deep Water 65 Tb 0.92             North Pacific deep water at 1690 m after Masuda & Ikeuchi (1979) as measured at 30¿28'N and 138¿49'E. Bruland 1983 Masuda & Ikeuchi 1979
North Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.78           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.75           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.81           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.84           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.83           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 65 Tb 0.0007           wt% Rare Earth Distribution in the Blake Plateau depostis, more specifically Manganese/Iron Nodules, determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Manheim et al. 1980 Ehrlich 1968
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 65 Tb 540           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Oceanic Crust 65 Tb 0.61           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2033 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Crust 65 Tb 0.89           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2032 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.63           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.94           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.58           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.41           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.52           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.29           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.69           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.81           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.93           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.73           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.65           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 0.68           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 65 Tb 1.25           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceans Deep water 65 Tb 0.1           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
ODP Site 735 65 Tb 0.73 0.59       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 65 Tb 0.713           ppm This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 65 Tb 0.75           ppm Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by ICPM. Staudigel et al. 1995
Olivine Chondrules 65 Tb 0.12     0.08 0.17 3 ppm Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite 65 Tb 1.01         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 65 Tb 35.3         4 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 65 Tb 35.3         4 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Paleozoic Orogens 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.79           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 65 Tb 0.74           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Pelagic Clay 65 Tb 4.9           ppm The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelites 65 Tb 0.87         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 65 Tb 0.97         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 65 Tb 6.65           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 65 Tb 0.41           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 65 Tb   0.061         ppm McDonough 1991
Petersburg Eucrites 65 Tb 392           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 0.63         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 1.54         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 0.9         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 0.62         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 0.65         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 65 Tb 1.12         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Post-Archean Terrrains 65 Tb 0.72           ppm Average compositions of Early Proterozoic continental crust which were calculated from weighted percentages of supracrustal and plutonic rocks in exposed Precambrian provinces. Condie 1991
Precambrian Canadian Shield 65 Tb 0.481           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.126           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.0924           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.094           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.093           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 105           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 105   15.75       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 99   9.9       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.107           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.09           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.087           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.1           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.094           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb   0.108         ppm McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 65 Tb 0.11           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 65 Tb 0.41         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
QUE 94201 Meteorite 65 Tb 0.87   0.09       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarites 65 Tb 0.32           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 65 Tb 0.31     0.12 0.52 5 ppm Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 65 Tb 0.82     0.81 0.82 2 ppm CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Rifted Continental Margins 65 Tb 0.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 65 Tb 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 65 Tb 1           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 65 Tb 0.001           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Martin & Meybeck 1979
Sandstones 65 Tb 0.14           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 65 Tb 0.23           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 65 Tb 0.61         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 65 Tb 0.1           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Sastry et al. 1969
Seawater 65 Tb 9e-07             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 65 Tb 0.21             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 65 Tb 0.001           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 65 Tb 0.9             Surface depletion. TbCO3[1+], Tb[3+] and TbOH[2+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Serra De Mage Eucrite 65 Tb 83.9           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 65 Tb 0.71           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 65 Tb 0.81           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 65 Tb 0.9           ppm Condie 1993
Shergotty Meteorite 65 Tb 0.48   0.05       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.126           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.087           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.094           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.108           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.1           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 0.1           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 65 Tb 99   9.9       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Sioux County Eucrite 65 Tb 398           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Photosphere 65 Tb -0.1   0.3         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 65 Tb -0.1   0.3         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 65 Tb 0.076             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 65 Tb 0.0589             Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 65 Tb 0.0603   0.001327     21   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 65 Tb 0.067           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 65 Tb 0.067           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 65 Tb 0.78           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 65 Tb 0.94           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 65 Tb 0.78           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 65 Tb 0.83           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.83           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.85           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.77           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 65 Tb 0.83           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 65 Tb 0.07 0.056 0.064     146 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 65 Tb   0.056         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 65 Tb 724           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.776   0.008     42 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.049   0.002     16 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.777   0.033     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.484   0.046     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.253   0.006     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 65 Tb 0.41   0.052     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonalites 65 Tb 750           ppb Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.76           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.63           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.45           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.55         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.49         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 65 Tb 0.31         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tongan Basalts 65 Tb 0.49         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.64           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.69           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.66           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.75           ppm Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.64           ppm Upper crust Rare Earth Element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.5           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.7           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.7   0.1       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.481           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.66           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.82           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 65 Tb 0.5           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Veramin Mesosiderite 65 Tb 31           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 65 Tb 0.61           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Watson IIE Iron 65 Tb 59.8           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Y-74450 Eucrites 65 Tb 660           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Y-791491 Lodranite 65 Tb 13           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 65 Tb 0.82           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 65 Tb 0.85           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 65 Tb 0.9           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 65 Tb 0.69           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 65 Tb 0.8           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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