GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 72 Hf 120           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 72 Hf 2.6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 72 Hf 4.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 72 Hf 2.84           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aldan River 72 Hf 19.1             River water concentrations of Hf from the Aldan river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Aleutian Basalts 72 Hf 1.58         22 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 72 Hf 3.26           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 72 Hf 0.62   0.11       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 72 Hf 0.14   0.03       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 72 Hf 210           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 72 Hf 0.2           wt%ox Bulk meteorite composition values are from an unpublished reference by E. Jarosewich. Martin & Mason 1974
Amazon River Particulates 72 Hf 6.2           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 72 Hf 2.6         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 72 Hf 6.31           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Minor element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Bailey 1981. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. The trace element data are from the analyses of Bailey pertaining to Andean Andesite. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 72 Hf 2.76         26 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 72 Hf 2.2         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 72 Hf 3.06         23 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 72 Hf 3.5           ppm Condie 1993
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 72 Hf 2790           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 72 Hf 1170           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Apure River 72 Hf 3.2             River water concentrations of Hf from the Apure river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Archean Amphibolites 72 Hf 3.8           ppm Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Lower Crust 72 Hf 3.6           ppm Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 72 Hf 3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 72 Hf 2.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 72 Hf 3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 72 Hf 6.02         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 72 Hf 6.13         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 72 Hf 3.15         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Australian Granite 72 Hf 3.3         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Australian Granite 72 Hf 11.1           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 72 Hf 0.1         14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 72 Hf 0.13   0.04     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Barea Mesosiderite 72 Hf 190           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basalts 72 Hf 3.3           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 3.1           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 3.3           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 3.4           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 3.5           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 2.6           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 2.2           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 72 Hf 6.8         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 72 Hf 7.15         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 72 Hf 3.03         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 72 Hf 3.2         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 72 Hf 10         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 72 Hf 7.38         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 72 Hf 5.48         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 72 Hf 6.66         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 72 Hf 4.6         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 72 Hf 540         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 72 Hf 2.49         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 72 Hf 3.37         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basic Precambrian Granulites 72 Hf 3.2         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Bennett Co. Meteorite   182Hf/180Hf 0.000174   5.7e-05         Iron meteorite Bennett Co. Hafnium isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The 182Hf/180Hf at the time of formation of these early metals shown here is calculated from the W-isotopic composition of the metal, the W-isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, and the average 180Hf/184W for carbonaceous chondrites of 1.34. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Binda Eucrite 72 Hf 180           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Boninites 72 Hf 0.7         43 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brown Clay 72 Hf 3.62         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Hf was calculated from Zr/Hf = 35 based on unpublished ICP-MS data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 72 Hf 3.13         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Hf is calculated from Zr/Hf = 35. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 72 Hf 0.17         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Hf is calculated from the Zr/Hf = 35 ratio. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 72 Hf 2.7         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 72 Hf 0.79         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 72 Hf 0.76         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 72 Hf 2.22         22 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 72 Hf 3.68           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 72 Hf 0.84           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 72 Hf 1.53         25 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.79           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.07           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.91           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.45           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 3.43           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.63           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.22           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.71           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 5.12           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 72 Hf 4.44           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.067             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.07             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.071             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.068             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.091             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.079             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.067             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Lu/Hf 0.067             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 36             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 38             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 37             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 38             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 37             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 37             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 37             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Zr/Hf 37             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 72 Hf 0.1           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 72 Hf 540           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 72 Hf 0.59         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 72 Hf 1.42         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 72 Hf 1.4           ppm Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 107   5.35       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 104   1.98     3 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100%. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 103           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 0.153           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 0.104           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 120           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 106           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 0.74   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 72 Hf 0.107   0.00535       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites   Zr/Hf 36             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Clastic Turbidites 72 Hf 3.68         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 72 Hf 1.24           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Congo River Particulates 72 Hf 5.1           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 72 Hf 2.14         133 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 72 Hf 3.56         32 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 72 Hf 3.3           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 72 Hf 1.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.7           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.7           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3000           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.7           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.9           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 5           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.7           ppm In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.71           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.9           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.7           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3           ppm Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 72 Hf 5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.7           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.2           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.9           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 33             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 4.85           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.48           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.063           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.035           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.99           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 7.54           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.045           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.73           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.004           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 2.07           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 1.02           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.003           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.0012           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 1.32           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.13           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 1.41           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.0002           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.78           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.02           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.187           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.022           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.007             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 3.957             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.1             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.18             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.2             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 3.757             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.099             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 1.66             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.425             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.275             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.128             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 1.19             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.911             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.025             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.003             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 1.457             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.097             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 1.26             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Shields & Platforms 72 Hf 1.9           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 72 Hf 3.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 72 Hf 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.088           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.114           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.159           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.18           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 407           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 28           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 1           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 2.7           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 14900           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 1.8           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.326           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.233           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.619           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 1.13           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 72 Hf 0.99           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.002             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.01             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 3             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.552             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.001             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.032             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.006             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.01             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.015             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   Lu/Hf 0.035             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
D'Orbigny Angrite 72 Hf 1480           ng/g Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Danube River Particulates 72 Hf 5.7           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted D-MORB basalts   176Hf/177Hf 0.2833             Isotopic compositions of Depleted Mantle (DM) according to Hafnium isotopes in the 'Average' present day MORB.  These average MORB compositions are calculated using a more restrictive set of filters in order to assure that MORB representing low degree melts or melts which have experienced large amounts of fractional crystallization do not affect the average.  Though degree of melting or fractional crystallization do not effect the average isotopic composition, for incompatible trace element ratios to reflect source compositions only high degree melts should be used.  These will be known as 'D-MORB' for Depleted Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts.  It is also noted that the values of the 'Average' and 'Extreme' D-MORB are very similar. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Sm/Hf 1.355             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Zr/Hf 39.83             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle 72 Hf 0.157     0.142 0.17   ppm Trace element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) with minimum and maximum estimates based on assuming initiation of continuous depletion at 2.5Ga (min) and 3.5Ga (max). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 72 Hf 0.199   0.01592       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Lu/Hf is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted MORB Mantle   176Hf/177Hf 0.28326             Average Hafnium Isotopic composition derived by averaging MORB values from Nowell et al., Chauvel and Blichert-Toft and Andres et al.  Workman & Hart 2005 Nowell et al. 1998
Chauvel & Blichert-Toft 2001
Andres et al. 2002
Depleted MORB Mantle   Lu/Hf 0.369             Average Lu/Hf ratio for DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as calculated by Workman and Hart 2005. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle   176Hf/177Hf 0.2835             Hafnium isotopic ratios of Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off isotopes that are 2s depleted from the average MORB value. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle 72 Hf 0.127           ppm Trace element composition of DDMM (Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle   Lu/Hf 0.439             Lutetium/Hafnium ratio of Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s depleted from the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Workman & Hart 2005
Diatom Oozes & Clay 72 Hf 2.37         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Hf is calculated based on the Hf/Zr ratio in piston core V14-57. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 72 Hf 2.79         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 72 Hf 3         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Hf is calculated from the Zr/Hf = 35 ratio. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 72 Hf 3.06         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 72 Hf 6.42         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 800 72 Hf 1.36           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 72 Hf 2.4           ppm Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 72 Hf 2.44           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Duel Hill-1854 Meteorite   182Hf/180Hf 0.000207   6.8e-05         Iron meteorite Duel Hill-1854 Hafnium isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The 182Hf/180Hf at the time of formation of these early metals shown here is calculated from the W-isotopic composition of the metal, the W-isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, and the average 180Hf/184W for carbonaceous chondrites of 1.34. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
E-MORB 72 Hf 2.06           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust 72 Hf 3.8           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 72 Hf 3.7           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.066             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.072             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 5.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.9           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.075             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.074             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 36             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 35             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
East China Craton 72 Hf 4.68           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 72 Hf 4.37           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 72 Hf 3.33           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle   176Hf/177Hf 0.2831             Hafnium isotopic ratios of Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off isotopes that are 2s enriched over the average MORB value. Workman & Hart 2005
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle 72 Hf 0.186           ppm Trace element composition of EDMM (Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle   Lu/Hf 0.325             Lutetium/Hafnium ratio of Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s enriched over the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Workman & Hart 2005
Estherville Mesosiderite 72 Hf 420           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Extreme Depleted D-MORB basalts   176Hf/177Hf 0.2836             Isotopic compositions of Depleted Mantle (DM) according to Hafnium isotopes in the 'Extreme' present day MORB.  'Extreme' merely refers to the fact that these isotopic compositions are from the most depleted end of the MORB field. These average MORB compositions are calculated using a more restrictive set of filters in order to assure that MORB representing low degree melts or melts which have experienced large amounts of fractional crystallization do not affect the average.  Though degree of melting or fractional crystallization do not effect the average isotopic composition, for incompatible trace element ratios to reflect source compositions only high degree melts should be used.  These will be known as 'D-MORB' for Depleted Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts.  It is also noted that the values of the 'Average' and 'Extreme' D-MORB are very similar. Salters & Stracke 2004
Felsic Archean Granulites 72 Hf 4.5 3.9       61 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 72 Hf 4.11         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 72 Hf 8.3 6.2       10 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 6.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 6.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 6.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 5.7           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 5.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 6           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 6.48         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 72 Hf 5.1           ppm Condie 1993
Frankfort Howardites 72 Hf 490           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   176Hf/177Hf 0.28328             Isotopic compositions of Depleted Mantle (DM) according to Hafnium isotopic values from the 'All MORB' data compilation.  To achieve an average isotopic composition of the Depleted Mantle the PetDB database was utilized. All eruptive products from mid-ocean spreading centers were compiled and filtered to include only samples that were erupted in water depths in excess of 2000 m.  All samples that contained more than 55 wt.% SiO2 were excluded as well. Samples with non-smooth REE patterns were excluded wherever applicable.  With these minimal steps of filtering, this ensures that at least part of the plume influenced basalts are excluded.    Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 72 Hf 2.31         41 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 72 Hf       0.28304 0.283311     Range in 176 to 177 Hf ratio as shown in 'normal' ridge segments, which is show to be a more defined/limited range of values. Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Sm/Hf 1.32             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Zr/Hf 39.03             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh MORB in Atlantic Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283211545   6.89104e-05 0.283063 0.283311 22   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 22 different Atlantic localities. These values are averaged over Atlantic Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 22 values.  Values as found in the Carribean Sea were also not taken into consideration in this particular average of values. For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al.  Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh MORB in Atlantic Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283211545   6.89104e-05 0.283063 0.283311 22   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 22 different Atlantic localities. These values are averaged over Atlantic Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 22 values.  Values as found in the Carribean Sea were also not taken into consideration in this particular average of values. For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al.  Nowell et al. 1998 Patchett 1983
Patchett & Tatsumoto 1980
Salters & Hart 1991
Blichert-Toft et al. 1997
Salters 1996

Fresh MORB in Atlantic Ocean   e-Hf 15.135   0.799030663 14.57 15.7 2   Average eHf value calculated from the multiple values for eHf given in Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998.  The average is taken from eHf values from samples taken from 2 different localities in the Atlantic Ocean.  For actual sample information and individual values for those samples please see Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998 (Ref. No. 2622 in Earth Ref Reference Database). Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283209583   4.77978e-05 0.283129 0.283298 12   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 12 different Indian Ocean localities along the South West Indian Ridge. These values are averaged over Indian Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622: Nowell et al. 1998) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 12 values.   For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al. 1998. Nowell et al. 1998 Salters 1996
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283209583   4.77978e-05 0.283129 0.283298 12   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 12 different Indian Ocean localities along the South West Indian Ridge. These values are averaged over Indian Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622: Nowell et al. 1998) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 12 values.   For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al. 1998. Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean   e-Hf 13.405   0.954594155 12.73 14.08 2   Average eHf value calculated from the multiple values for eHf given in Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998.  The average is taken from eHf values from samples taken from 2 different localities in the Indian Ocean along the Southwest Indian Ridge.  For actual sample information and individual values for those samples please see Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998 (Ref. No. 2622 in Earth Ref Reference Database). Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh MORB in Pacific Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283192786   5.87055e-05 0.283091 0.283269 14   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 14 different Pacific localities along the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These values are averaged over Pacific Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622: Nowell et al. 1998) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 14 values.   For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al. 1998. Nowell et al. 1998
Fresh MORB in Pacific Ocean   176Hf/177Hf 0.283192786   5.87055e-05 0.283091 0.283269 14   Average value for Hf isotopes as found in MORB and NAIP samples taken from 14 different Pacific localities along the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These values are averaged over Pacific Ocean MORB and NAIP values given in table 2 and appendix 1 of this particular reference (2622: Nowell et al. 1998) without consideration of the standard deviation given by the authors according to these 14 values.   For latitude and longitude of samples used as well as sample numbers/names please see the actual values as printed in both Table 2 and Appendix 1 of Nowell et al. 1998. Nowell et al. 1998 Patchett & Tatsumoto 1980
Blichert-Toft et al. 1997

Fresh MORB in Pacific Ocean   e-Hf 15.36444444   2.087235679 11.39 17.68 9   Average eHf value calculated from the multiple values for eHf given in Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998.  The average is taken from eHf values from samples taken from 9 different localities in the Pacific Ocean along the East Pacific Rise.  For actual sample information and individual values for those samples please see Table 2 of Nowell et al. 1998 (Ref. No. 2622 in Earth Ref Reference Database). Nowell et al. 1998
Ganges River Particulates 72 Hf 8.4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 72 Hf 50           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Granites 72 Hf 9.05         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 72 Hf 5.05         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 72 Hf 2.29         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 72 Hf 6.5           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 72 Hf 7           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Condie 1993
Granulites 72 Hf 3.74 3.18       108 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 72 Hf 3.6           ppm Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 72 Hf 6.3 3.1       66 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Zr/Hf 43 39       30   Average of granulite facies terrains. Excludes data set from Coolen (1980) that has an average Zr/Hf = 150 ratio. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Zr/Hf 38 36       89   Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 72 Hf 2.5 1.5       108 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites   Zr/Hf 42 35       88   Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 72 Hf 3.9           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 72 Hf 3.6           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 72 Hf 3.7           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 72 Hf 4.2           ppm Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 72 Hf 1.4         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 72 Hf 2.98         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 72 Hf 3.5           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Hydrothermal Sediment 72 Hf 4.59         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ibitira Eucrite 72 Hf 1210           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 72 Hf 0.61           ppm Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Jerome 1970
Interior North China Craton 72 Hf 3.6           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 72 Hf 4.1           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 72 Hf 4.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 72 Hf 4.61           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 72 Hf 4.11           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 72 Hf 0.42         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 72 Hf 0.61         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 72 Hf 3.01         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Hf was calculated from Zr/Hf = 35 based on unpublished ICP-MS data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 72 Hf 3.81         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 72 Hf 3.8 3.4       10 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 72 Hf 3.8 1.6       16 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 72 Hf 4.8 2.9       22 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 72 Hf 3.3         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Island Arc Andesite 72 Hf 1.83         5 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 72 Hf 1.65         87 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 72 Hf 3           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Izu-Bonin Trench 72 Hf 0.88           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 72 Hf 2.1           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 72 Hf 4.73           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Juvinas Eucrite 72 Hf 1.3           ppm Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke et al. 1972
Jerome 1970
Kamchatka Basalt 72 Hf 2.39         32 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 72 Hf 0.86           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 72 Hf 600           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kerm Trench 72 Hf 3.62           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 72 Hf 1.73         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 72 Hf 5.71         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Kolymar River 72 Hf 19.6             River water concentrations of Hf from the Kolyma river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Komatiites 72 Hf 1.5           ppm Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 72 Hf 2.1           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Late Archean Upper Crust 72 Hf 3.9           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 72 Hf 3.9           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.072             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.066             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 5.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.9           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.077             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.076             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 35             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 35             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Lena River 72 Hf 25.4             River water concentrations of Hf from the Lena river in Russia. Godfrey et al. 1996
Lesser Antilles Basalt 72 Hf 1.54         13 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lombard Meteorite   182Hf/180Hf 0.000155   3.7e-05         Iron meteorite Lombard Hafnium isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The 182Hf/180Hf at the time of formation of these early metals shown here is calculated from the W-isotopic composition of the metal, the W-isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, and the average 180Hf/184W for carbonaceous chondrites of 1.34. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 2.1           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.6           ppm Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 4           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 4           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 2.8           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 2.1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 1.9           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 72 Hf 4           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 36             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Luzon Basalt 72 Hf 1.88         6 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 72 Hf 70           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 72 Hf 1440           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 72 Hf 1.8 2       21 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 72 Hf 3.29         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 72 Hf 1.87 1.01       75 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 72 Hf 2.86         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 72 Hf 5.2 2.5       26 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Magdalena River Particulates 72 Hf 6.9           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Makran Trench 72 Hf 4.56           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 72 Hf 900           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 72 Hf 8           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marianas Basalt 72 Hf 1.61         14 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 72 Hf 1.9           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.1           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.1           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Shales 72 Hf 4.6           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Govindaraju 1989
Mavic Volcanics 72 Hf 4.36         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mekong River Particulates 72 Hf 4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Melitite-rich Chondrules 72 Hf 1.3     0.83 1.5 10 ppm Melilite-rich chondrules which are spherical aggregates of melilite, Ti-rich fassaite, spinel and anorthite with a coarsely crystalline igneous texture.  These chondrules have high Al2O3 content as well as CaO and an unfractionated REE pattern that averages 10-15 times normal chondritic abundances. Martin & Mason 1974
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 72 Hf 3.3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 72 Hf 5.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 72 Hf 3.3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.7           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.092             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.096             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 37             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 37             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Metafelsic Volcanics 72 Hf 4.11         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 72 Hf 4.93         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Hf was calculated from Zr/Hf = 35 based on unpublished ICP-MS data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 72 Hf 6.88 6       42 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 72 Hf 3.77           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 4           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 4           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.79           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.3           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 3.8           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.4   0.6       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.4           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 31             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 5.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.9           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.072             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.072             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 35             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 35             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 72 Hf 660           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 72 Hf 226           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Moore County Eucrite 72 Hf 530           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Mt. Edith Meteorite   182Hf/180Hf 0.000168   4.6e-05         Iron meteorite Mt. Edith Hafnium isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The 182Hf/180Hf at the time of formation of these early metals shown here is calculated from the W-isotopic composition of the metal, the W-isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, and the average 180Hf/184W for carbonaceous chondrites of 1.34. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
N-MORB 72 Hf 2.974   1.27     26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 72 Hf 3.7           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 72 Hf 2.14           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 72 Hf 1.44           ppm Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 72 Hf 2.9           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 72 Hf       0.28304 0.283311     Range in 176 to 177 Hf ratio as shown in 'normal' ridge segments, which is show to be a more defined/limited range of values. Nowell et al. 1998
N-MORB 72 Hf 2.974           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 72 Hf 0.27   0.03       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 72 Hf 4.29           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nanno Ooze 72 Hf 0.09         2 ppm Based on the nanno ooze of the nearby Site 320 (Hole et al., 1984) since no geochemical data exists for Site 321. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 72 Hf 2.02         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
New Hebrides Islands 72 Hf 1.58         18 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 72 Hf 1.1           ppm Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 72 Hf 6.3           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 72 Hf 4.18           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.8           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.3           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.98           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.82           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.81           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 72 Hf 1600           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Oceanic Crust 72 Hf 2           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2041 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Crust 72 Hf 3           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2040 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 13.47           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 13.43           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 11.41           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 3.89           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1.89           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1.05           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1.16           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 10.82           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 12.75           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.64           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 13.44           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.05           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 15.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1.74           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 12.44           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 3.14           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 14.01           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 10.66           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 10.62           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.5           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 13.34           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 11.06           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.34           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 8.77           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 9.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 12.4           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 11.95           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.63           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 12.52           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 10.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 2.16           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 14.62           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 12.62           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 72 Hf 1.92           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceans Surface water 72 Hf         8   ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
ODP Site 735 72 Hf 2.12 1.2       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 72 Hf 1.92           ppm This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
Olivine Chondrules 72 Hf         0.3 3 ppm Olivine rich chondrules and aggregates that have an REE abundance pattern averaging three times that of chondrites with a slight Ce anomaly and a slight negative Eu anomaly. Martin & Mason 1974
Orangeite 72 Hf 7         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 72 Hf 100           ng/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Orgueil used as standard. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 72 Hf 108         3 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 72 Hf 119         3 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orinoco River 72 Hf 3.5             River water concentrations of Hf from the Orinoco river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Paleozoic Orogens 72 Hf 4.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 72 Hf 2.6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 72 Hf 4.6           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.084             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Lu/Hf 0.086             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Zr/Hf 38             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Parana River Particulates 72 Hf 7.4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Parguaza River 72 Hf 7.5             River water concentrations of Hf from the Parguaza river in Venezuela. Godfrey et al. 1996
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.33         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.29         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Hf is calculated from the Zr/Hf = 35 ratio. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 3.4         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 5.03         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.35         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 3.4         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.23         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 72 Hf 4.2           ppm The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelites 72 Hf 6.19         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 72 Hf 6.05         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Peninsular Range Batholith 72 Hf 4.6           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peru Trench 72 Hf 1.69           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 72 Hf 1170           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 2.15         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 5.4         18 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Kolhapur (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 3.7         6 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Deccan Traps Flood Basalts Mahabaleshwar (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Lightfoot et al. 1990
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 4.24         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 2.46         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 7.97         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 2.71         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 72 Hf 2.94         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Philip Trench 72 Hf 2.42           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Precambrian Canadian Shield 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 72 Hf 4.2         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 300           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 300   30       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 283   28.3       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.2676           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.268           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.2           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.26           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.31           ppm Concentration of the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. Values given are placed next to average concentrations of Continental lithospheric mantle in an effort to calculate the proportional contribution to the Primitive mantle. This calculation assumes that the Continental lithospheric mantle is 1.45% the mass of the Primitive mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 72 Hf 0.34           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle   Zr/Hf 36             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 72 Hf 0.9         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 72 Hf 127           ng/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 72 Hf 3.41   0.02       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 72 Hf 3.25         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 72 Hf 4.49         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 72 Hf 4.49         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 72 Hf 1.06         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 72 Hf 1.23         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 72 Hf 1.2           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
REE Fractionated CAI Inclusions 72 Hf         0.3 5 ppm Ca-Al rich aggregates with fractionated chondrite normalized REE abundance patterns composed mainly of spinel, fassaite, melilite and/or grossular and minor amounts of nepheline and sodalite. Martin & Mason 1974
REE Unfractionated CAI Inclusions 72 Hf 2.4     2.2 2.5 2 ppm CaAl-rich aggregates with unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE abundance patterns except for negative Eu and Yb anomalies.  This group is similar to the Group II aggregates with only small differences. Martin & Mason 1974
Rifted Continental Margins 72 Hf 1.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 72 Hf 4           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rio Negro River 72 Hf 22.3             River water concentrations of Hf from the Rio Negro in Argentina. Godfrey et al. 1996
River Particulates 72 Hf 6           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Ryuku Trench 72 Hf 4.49           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 72 Hf 3.1           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 72 Hf 2.5           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 72 Hf 2.7           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 72 Hf 2.15         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 72 Hf 3.4             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Boswell & Elderfield 1988
Seawater 72 Hf 0.0008     0.0004 0.02     Assumed average value. Godfrey et al. 1996
Seawater 72 Hf         4e-05     Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 72 Hf         40     Unknown distribution type. Hf(OH)4[0+] and Hf(OH)5[1-] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 72 Hf 0.007           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 72 Hf         8   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Schutz & Turekian 1965
Serra De Mage Eucrite 72 Hf 190           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 72 Hf 4.6           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 72 Hf 5.2           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Condie 1993
Shergotty Meteorite 72 Hf 2.3   0.3       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   176Hf/177Hf 0.28276             Bulk Silicate Earth Hafnium ratios as measured from MORB mantle. Workman & Hart 2005
Silicate Earth   176Hf/177Hf 0.282843             Isotopic compositions of Depleted Mantle (DM) according to Hafnium isotopes in the Bulk Silicate Earth.  The composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) has been estimated by McDonough & Sun 1995.  For these Hafnium values the average for C-Chondrites (from Patchett et al. 2004) were used.  This results in a BSE composition that falls within the Hf-Nd array on an isotope correlation diagram.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 283   28.3       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.28           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.27           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.2676           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.28           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.309           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 72 Hf 0.28           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth   Lu/Hf 0.239             Lu/Hf ratio as calculated by Workman & Hart 2005 using MORBs Workman & Hart 2005
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 72 Hf 5         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 72 Hf 1.46           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Hf is calculated based on the Zr/Hf = 35 ratio. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 72 Hf 4.15         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Hf is calculated from Zr/Hf = 35. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 72 Hf 1160           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Photosphere 72 Hf 0.88   0.08         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain standard deviation. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 72 Hf 0.88   0.08         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System   182Hf/180Hf 0.00014             Bulk solar system initial value of Hafnium isotope ratios base from a e182W value of -4.0. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Solar System   182Hf/180Hf 0.00017             Bulk solar system initial value of Hafnium isotope ratios base from a e182W value of -4.5. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Solar System   182Hf/180Hf 0.0002             Bulk solar system initial value of Hafnium isotope ratios base from a e182W value of -5.0. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Solar System   182Hf/180Hf 0.0001             Bulk solar system initial value of Hafnium isotope ratios base from a e182W value of -3.5. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Solar System 72 Hf 0.176   0.011616     3   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 72 Hf 0.17             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 72 Hf 0.154   0.00293     3   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 72 Hf 0.19           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 72 Hf 0.19           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solimoes River 72 Hf 9.9             River water concentrations of Hf from the Solimoes river in Brazil. Godfrey et al. 1996
South Antilles Trench 72 Hf 4.86           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 72 Hf 4.45           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 72 Hf 5.02           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 72 Hf 4.61           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 72 Hf 4.64           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 72 Hf 4.71           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 5.23           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.98           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 4.71           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 72 Hf 5.14           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 72 Hf 2.37           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 72 Hf 0.27 0.17 0.3     71 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   Zr/Hf 35 35 2     5   Data exclusively from Jochum et al. (1989). McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 72 Hf 2350           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 72 Hf 4.06   0.3       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 72 Hf 6.18           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 0.385   0.014     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 2.61   0.038     42 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 0.052   0.004     16 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 3.381   0.143     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 0.978   0.247     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 72 Hf 0.463   0.1     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tlacotopec Meteorite   182Hf/180Hf 0.000168   4.1e-05         Iron meteorite Tlacotopec Hafnium isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The 182Hf/180Hf at the time of formation of these early metals shown here is calculated from the W-isotopic composition of the metal, the W-isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, and the average 180Hf/184W for carbonaceous chondrites of 1.34. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Tonalites 72 Hf 4.6           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 4.5           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 4.2           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 4.5         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 4.41         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 4           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 72 Hf 5.45         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonga Trench 72 Hf 3.51           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 72 Hf 1.53         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 72 Hf 2.12           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 72 Hf 6.41         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 72 Hf 2.49         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 72 Hf 4.3         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.12           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.3           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.3   0.7       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.4           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 4.3           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           ppm Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.3           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 72 Hf 5.3           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust   Lu/Hf 0.076             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Lu/Hf 0.074             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 37             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 37             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Zr/Hf 33             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Vanuatu Trench 72 Hf 2.98           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Veramin Mesosiderite 72 Hf 107           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Sediment 72 Hf 3.16         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 72 Hf 3.8           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 72 Hf 2.05         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 72 Hf 3.79         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Winonaite Pontlyfni 72 Hf 110           ng/g Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Y-74450 Eucrites 72 Hf 2080           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Yangtze Craton 72 Hf 5.42           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 72 Hf 5.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 72 Hf 5.26           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 72 Hf 4.55           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 72 Hf 5.19           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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