GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
ALH 77005 Meteorite 74 W 84           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 74 W 79           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amphibolites 74 W 0.53         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 74 W 0.91         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 74 W 1.09         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Bennett Co. Meteorite   e182W -4.6   0.9         Iron meteorite Bennett Co. Tungsten isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The W-isotopic compositions of iron meteorites are maxima for the 182W Bulk Solar System Initial value of W, and therefore provide a limit on the minimum 182Hf/180Hf Bulk Solar System Initial value. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Binda Eucrite 74 W 20           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Brachina Brachinite 74 W 91.5           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
CAI Inclusions Allende Meteorite 74 W 2.43   0.0972       ppm Bulk composition of an 111.1mg Ca-Al-rich inclusion from the Allende Meteorite named A37. Analyses performed on A37 were by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, all values given in ppm. This particular analysis performed included all ranges of sections from A37 which therin yielded the best approximation of where particular elements were best located. Bischoff & Palme 1987
Carbonates 74 W 1.72         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 74 W 0.3         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Nd/W 43.7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Nd/W 33.6             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Nd/W 39.9             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Nd/W 39.3             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Nd/W 52.3             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.69           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.54           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.82           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.73           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.51           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.91           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.69           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.5           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 74 W 0.6           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 74 W 46           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 74 W 0.66   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 74 W 100           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 74 W 93           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 74 W 90.3   3.612       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 74 W 93           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 74 W 92.6   4.72     3 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 74 W 0.0903   0.003612       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Jochum 1996
CI Chondrites 74 W 0.0926           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Continental Crust 74 W 1           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 74 W 1           ppm UCC; LCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Krauskopf (1970) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 74 W 1           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 74 W 1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 74 W 1000           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 74 W 1           ppm Elemental data on selected ore metals of Skarn deposit type. All values are taken from Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 74 W   0.66         wt% Elemental data on selected ore metals of Skarn deposit type. These values are consistent with median crustal abundance values given by Rudnick & Gao 2004 of the Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier. Candela 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 74 W 1           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 74 W 1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 74 W 0.7           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 74 W 1.5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Core 74 W 0.47           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 74 W 0.47           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Depleted Mantle 74 W 0.11             Tungsten abundances in the upper mantle normalized to the C1 Chondrite value of 89ppb taken from Orgueil Chondrite values in Anders & Ebihara 1982. Jones & Drake 1986 Newsom & Palme 1984
Depleted Mantle 74 W 3.5   1.82       ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  W/Ba is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 74 W 0.53         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Duel Hill-1854 Meteorite   e182W -5.1   1.1         Iron meteorite Duel Hill-1854 Tungsten isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The W-isotopic compositions of iron meteorites are maxima for the 182W Bulk Solar System Initial value of W, and therefore provide a limit on the minimum 182Hf/180Hf Bulk Solar System Initial value. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
East China Craton 74 W 0.68           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 74 W 510           ng/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Felsic Granulites 74 W 0.4         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 74 W 0.69         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Frankfort Howardites 74 W 126           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Gibson Lodranite 74 W 190           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Granites 74 W 0.39         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 74 W 0.51         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Havero Urelite 74 W 180           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Ibitira Eucrite 74 W 80           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Interior North China Craton 74 W 0.79           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 74 W 0.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 74 W 0.43           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 74 W 0.73           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 74 W 0.66           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 74 W 0.31         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 74 W 3.5           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Kapoeta Howardites 74 W 36           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Lombard Meteorite   e182W -4.3   0.3         Iron meteorite Lombard Tungsten isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The W-isotopic compositions of iron meteorites are maxima for the 182W Bulk Solar System Initial value of W, and therefore provide a limit on the minimum 182Hf/180Hf Bulk Solar System Initial value. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.51           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.7           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           ppm LCC = estimated. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see table notes











Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 74 W 0.5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lunar Mantle   e182W 0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 4.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 7.1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 2.9             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 1.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 0.7             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 0.9             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 5.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 2.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -0.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W 0.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Lunar Mantle   e182W -0.1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
MAC 88177 Lodranite 74 W 140           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Mafic Granulites 74 W 0.46         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 74 W 0.49         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 74 W 100           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 74 W 0.035           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979

Marine Pelagic Clay 74 W 4           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 74 W 1           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Shales 74 W 1.8           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 74 W 5.32         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 74 W 0.3         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 74 W 0.6           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Moon   e182W -0.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W 0.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moon   e182W -1.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Moore County Eucrite 74 W 18           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Mt. Edith Meteorite   e182W -4.5   0.6         Iron meteorite Mt. Edith Tungsten isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The W-isotopic compositions of iron meteorites are maxima for the 182W Bulk Solar System Initial value of W, and therefore provide a limit on the minimum 182Hf/180Hf Bulk Solar System Initial value. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Nakhla Meteorite 74 W 120   80       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 74 W 1.07           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.3           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.96           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 74 W 1.05           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.74           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Oceans Surface water 74 W 0.1           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Ishibashi 1953
Chan & Riley 1967
Orgueil Chondrite 74 W 89         1 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 74 W 92.3         3 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Pelites 74 W 1.58         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 74 W 1.48         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Primitive Mantle 74 W 16           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Newsom et al. 1996
Primitive Mantle 74 W 16   4.8       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: W/Th = 0.19 ¿ 0.03 Palme & O'Neill 2004 Newsom et al. 1996
Primitive Mantle 74 W 29           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Rivers 74 W 0.03           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 74 W 100             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 74 W 0.1           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 74 W 6e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 74 W         1   µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Ishibashi 1953
Chan & Riley 1967
Seawater 74 W 0.5             Unknown distribution type. WO4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Serra De Mage Eucrite 74 W 14           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shergotty Meteorite 74 W 460   53       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.9             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.7             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 1.7             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 1.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.7             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 0.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.2             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 0.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.5             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 40 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.4             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 30 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 70 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W 1             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.6             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 45 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -0.8             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 50 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth   e182W -1.3             Predicted 182W isotopic compositions for Lunar initial, present-day lunar mantle, and present-day Silicate Earth given the parameters of a Bulk Solar system initial 182W value ranging from -5.0 to -3.5 and that a giant impact occured at 60 million years. Halliday 2004 Walter et al. 2000
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom 1990
Halliday 2000
Silicate Earth 74 W 0.029           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 74 W 29           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 74 W 0.029           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 74 W 43           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Photosphere 74 W 1.11   0.15         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 74 W 1.11   0.15         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 74 W 0.137   0.010001     1   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 74 W 0.3             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 74 W 0.133   0.00678     3   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 74 W 0.17           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 74 W 0.17           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 74 W 0.33           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 74 W 0.33           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 74 W 2.47           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 74 W 2.62           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 74 W 1.34           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.56           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 74 W 1.07           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.96           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 74 W 0.76           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 74 W 7.2 4 5.2     6 ppb McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 74 W 220           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Tlacotopec Meteorite   e182W -4.4   0.4         Iron meteorite Tlacotopec Tungsten isotope compositon as given by Horan et al. 1998. The W-isotopic compositions of iron meteorites are maxima for the 182W Bulk Solar System Initial value of W, and therefore provide a limit on the minimum 182Hf/180Hf Bulk Solar System Initial value. Halliday 2004 Horan et al. 1998
Kleine et al. 2002
Newsom et al. 1996
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 74 W 0.27         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 74 W 0.46         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 2           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 1.4           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Fuge (1974b) and Becker et al. (1972) in the proportions of Figure 2 considering accumulation in C-rich sediments and using the C/I correlation of Price et al. (1970). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 1.5           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 1.4           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 2           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 1.9   1       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text











Upper Continental Crust 74 W 0.91           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 3.3           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Sims et al. 1990 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Sims et al. 1990
Upper Continental Crust 74 W 1.9           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Y-74450 Eucrites 74 W 85           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Y-791491 Lodranite 74 W 540           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 74 W 0.51           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 74 W 0.69           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 74 W 0.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 74 W 0.54           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 74 W 0.65           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
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