GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Amphibolites 81 Tl 0.21         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Angra dos Reis Angrite 81 Tl 0.86           ppb Elemental abundance of the Angra dos Reis meteorite.  Classified as an Angrite, the sample itself consists of a thin slice of material most likely made with a cutoff wheel.  However, the high abundance of Cu in the sample indicates that the sample was contaminated from the wheel used to make the slice of material. Laul et al. 1972
Arenaceous Rocks 81 Tl 0.66         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 81 Tl 0.58         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Bereba Eucrite 81 Tl 0.31           ppb Elemental abundance of the B¿r¿ba meteorite.  Sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Bialystok Howardite 81 Tl 0.57           ppb Elemental abundance of the Bialystok meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of one or several chips between 500-300 mg. No cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Carbonates 81 Tl 0.14         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 81 Tl 0.37         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 146             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 178             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 145             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 142             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 245             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 177             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Rb/Tl 174             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 4.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.41           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.25           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.34           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.39           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.47           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.52           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 81 Tl 0.42           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 81 Tl 3.7           ppb Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 140           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 140           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 142   13.4     18 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 0.81   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 142           ppb C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 81 Tl 142           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
Constantinople Eucrite 81 Tl 1.97           ppb Elemental abundance of the Constantinople meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Continental Crust 81 Tl 360           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 81 Tl 520           ppb UCC; LCC = calculated from rock averages of Heinrichs et al. (1980) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 81 Tl 360           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Core 81 Tl 0.03           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Depleted Mantle 81 Tl 0.38           ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Rb/Tl is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 81 Tl 0.3         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dyalpur Ureilite 81 Tl 3.9           ppb Trace element values for the Dyalpur meteorite as given in Higuchi et al. 1976.  Mainly used in this study as comparisons to the Kenna and Havero meteorites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
East China Craton 81 Tl 0.38           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 81 Tl 0.26         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 81 Tl 0.32         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Frankfort Howardite 81 Tl 0.51           ppb Elemental abundance of the Frankfort meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of one or several chips between 500-300 mg. No cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Goalpara Ureilite 81 Tl 2.2           ppb Trace element abundances of the Goalpara meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Granites 81 Tl 0.79         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 81 Tl 0.74         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Havero Ureilite 81 Tl 2.6           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero (bulk) meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 81 Tl 96           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
Igneous Rocks 81 Tl 0.08           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
Interior North China Craton 81 Tl 0.32           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 81 Tl 0.16           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 81 Tl 0.39           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 81 Tl 0.36           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 81 Tl 0.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 81 Tl 0.22         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intra Stellar Medium 81 Tl 1.27   0.381         Abundance of highly volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Jonzac Eucrite 81 Tl 1.16           ppb Elemental abundance of the Jonzac meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 81 Tl 1.1           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Juvinas Eucrite 81 Tl 0.75           ppb Elemental abundance of the Juvinas meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 81 Tl 0.75           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardite 81 Tl 27           ppb Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Value suspect of contamination. Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardite 81 Tl 52           ppb Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of dark material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Value suspect of contamination. Laul et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 81 Tl 0.062         1 ppb Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 81 Tl 0.35           ppb Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Lafayette Nakhlite 81 Tl 7.2           ppb Elemental abundance of the Lafayette meteorite.  Classified as a Nakhlite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Lower Continental Crust 81 Tl 230           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 81 Tl 0.26           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Mafic Granulites 81 Tl 0.12         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 81 Tl 0.25         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 81 Tl 150           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 81 Tl 0.2           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979

Marine Pelagic Clay 81 Tl 0.8           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 81 Tl 1.8           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Baturin 1988
Marine Shales 81 Tl 1.2           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marowsky & Wedepohl 1971
Mavic Volcanics 81 Tl 0.27         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 81 Tl 0.31         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Molteno Howardite 81 Tl 4.3           ppb Elemental abundance of the Molteno meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Nakhla Nakhlite 81 Tl 3.1           ppb Elemental abundance of the Nakhla meteorite.  Classified as a Nakhlite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 81 Tl 0.41           ppb Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.54           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.86           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.77           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.45           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Novo-Urei Ureilite 81 Tl 0.38           ppb Trace element abundances of the Novo Urei meteorite originally given by Higuchi et al. 1976. Novo Urei happens to be the second in line as far as richest in siderophile element abundances, second only to Kenna Meteorite.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Oceans Surface water 81 Tl       11 13   ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 0 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983
Orgueil Chondrite 81 Tl 143         12 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 81 Tl 143         12 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Pelites 81 Tl 0.54         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 81 Tl 0.66         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pesyanoe Aubrite 81 Tl 2200           ppb Elemental abundance of the Pesyanoe meteorite.  Classified as an Angrite, the sample itself consists of dark material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite which was obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum).  Value suspect of contamination. Laul et al. 1972
Pesyanoe Aubrite 81 Tl 90           ppb Elemental abundance of the Pesyanoe meteorite.  Classified as an Angrite, the sample itself consists of light material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite which was obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum).  Value suspect of contamination. Laul et al. 1972
Precambrian Canadian Shield 81 Tl 499           ppb Weighted mean calculated from Heinrichs et al. (1980). Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Canadian Shield 81 Tl 524           ppb Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 81 Tl 3.5   1.4       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 81 Tl 3           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Hertogen et al. 1980
Seawater 81 Tl 60             Conservative distribution type. Tl[1+], TlCl[0+] and Tl(OH)3[0+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 81 Tl 6e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 81 Tl 0.01           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 81 Tl 14             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 81 Tl 12           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983
Seawater 81 Tl       12 16   ng/kg Range for numerous locations. Flegal & Patterson 1985
Sera de Mage Eucrite 81 Tl 0.03           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Sera de Mage Eucrite 81 Tl 0.12           ppb Elemental abundance of the Serra de Mag¿ meteorite.  Classified as an unbrecciated eucrite, the sample used was a powder which had been reconstituted in the original proportions from magnetically separated pyroxene and feldspar fractions. Laul et al. 1972
Sera de Mage Eucrite 81 Tl 0.12           ppb Element abundances of the Serra de Mage eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  These values are placed against the values found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to INAA. Morgan et al. 1978 Laul et al. 1972
Shergotty Shergottite 81 Tl 13.4           ppb Elemental abundance of the Shergotty meteorite.  Classified as a Shergottite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Silicate Earth 81 Tl 0.004           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 81 Tl 3.5   1.4       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Sioux County Eucrite 81 Tl 0.2           ppb Elemental abundance of the Sioux County meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Solar Photosphere 81 Tl 0.9   0.2         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 81 Tl 0.9   0.2         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 81 Tl 0.184   0.0173     18   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 81 Tl 0.81   0.486         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Highly Volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 81 Tl 0.184   0.017296     18   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 81 Tl 0.19             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solid Earth 81 Tl 0.012           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 81 Tl 0.012           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 81 Tl 0.32           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 81 Tl 0.35           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 81 Tl 0.39           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 81 Tl 0.41           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 81 Tl 0.36           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.41           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.27           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 81 Tl 0.41           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 81 Tl 1.2 0.9 1     13 ppb McDonough 1990
Stannern Trend Eucrites 81 Tl 0.58           ppb Elemental abundance of the Stannern  meteorite sample 2.  Classified as a eucrite the sample was taken from a region of the meteorite that has a pure white/grey color.  Conversley to sample 1, this sample has lower abundances of trace elements. Laul et al. 1972
Stannern Trend Eucrites 81 Tl 24           ppb Elemental abundance of the Stannern  meteorite sample 1.  Classified as a eucrite the sample was taken from a region of the meteorite that was stained yellow.  This sample turned out to have higher concentrations of 10 trace elements, upwards of two orders of magnitude, than other eucrites. Laul et al. 1972
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 81 Tl 0.49         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 81 Tl 0.35         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 81 Tl 750           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 81 Tl 1           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 81 Tl 0.75           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Washougal Howardite 81 Tl 1.8           ppb Elemental abundance of the Washougal meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Yangtze Craton 81 Tl 0.44           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 81 Tl 0.52           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 81 Tl 0.23           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 81 Tl 0.47           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 81 Tl 0.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Zagami Shergottite 81 Tl 11           ppb Elemental abundance of the Zagami meteorite.  Classified as a Shergottite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
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