GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
ALH 77005 Meteorite 9 F 22           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amphibolites 9 F 659         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andesites 9 F         500   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Andesites. Note that it is particularly difficult to quantify pre-eruptive volatile abundances for Andesites because most are erupted subaerially after significant degassing has taken place and contain abundant phenocrysts such that liquid compositions are more silicic than bulk rock. Mineral disequilibria also hamper experimental work. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Arenaceous Rocks 9 F 482         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 9 F 489         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 9 F 5   2     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 9 F 6   2     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Carbonates 9 F 464         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 9 F 454         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 524           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 675           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 628           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 548           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 564           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 526           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 602           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 561           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 9 F 703           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 28.1             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 21.9             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 19.7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 22.2             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 20             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   F/Nd 18.4             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 9 F 15           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 9 F 58.2   8.73       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 9 F 60.7   9.105     7 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 9 F 58.2   8.73       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 9 F 60.7           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 9 F 60           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 9 F 4.45   0.06         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 9 F 64           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 9 F 54           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
Continental Crust 9 F 525           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 9 F 553           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 9 F 602           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 9 F 553           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 9 F 567           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 9 F 625           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 9 F 525           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Wedepohl (1987) in the proportions of Figure 2; LCC = averages of granulites and gabbro. Wedepohl 1995
Core 9 F 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Depleted Mantle 9 F 11   4.51       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  F/P is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 9 F 631         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 9 F 604           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 9 F 413         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 9 F 441         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 9 F 100           ppm Edmond et al. 1979
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 9 F       100 600   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of MORB settings.  The values reported are generally for the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 9 F       0.072 0.074     Edmond et al. 1979
Granites 9 F 692         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 9 F 533         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Inner Blake Plateau Phosphorites 9 F 3.25           wt%ox 10 samples of phosphorites from the inner Blake Plateau, analyzed by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. yielded the following analyses (Pilkey, 1967): 20.1, 22.2, 31.9, 27.7, 22.8, 24.8, 22.6, 20.5, 21.6, 26.5% P2O5. A sample of whale earbone assayed 31.9% P2O5. The phosphorites averaged 24.97% or 52.5% PBL (bone phosphate of lime). Manheim et al. 1980
Interior North China Craton 9 F 601           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 9 F 741           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 9 F 731           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 9 F 578           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 9 F 682           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 9 F 582         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intra Stellar Medium 9 F 4.26   2.556         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Snow & York 1981
Lower Continental Crust 9 F 429           ppm LCC = averages of granulites and gabbro. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 9 F 553           ppm Lower continental crust concentration for Fluorine as based on Wedepohl 1991. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Lower Continental Crust 9 F 703           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 9 F 429           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 9 F 570           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Mafic Granulites 9 F 845         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 9 F 660         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 9 F 200           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Apatites 9 F       3.8 4.2   wt%ox Approximate range in composition of apatite in the Phosphoria phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Marine Organisms 9 F 4.5           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 9 F 1300           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 9 F 1300           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 9 F 740           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 9 F 681         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 9 F 2.99         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Metafelsic Volcanics 9 F 846         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 9 F 524           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 9 F 524           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 9 F 57           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 9 F 595           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 9 F 630           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 9 F 429           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 9 F 615           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 9 F 941           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 9 F 2.5         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Ocean Island Basalts 9 F 35           ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in magmas of OIB setting. The values reported are typically that of the melt phase (dissolved). These volatile abundances are taken from Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii. Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oceanic Crust 9 F 160           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1982 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Oceans Surface water 9 F 1.3           mg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bewers et al. 1973
Orgueil Chondrite 9 F 58.2         5 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 9 F 58.2         5 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 9 F 1.5           wt% Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Peralkaline Rhyolites (pantellerites). The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Oversaturated Acid Rocks 9 F       200 1500   ppm Averages of typical pre-eruptive volatile abundances in Metaluminous Dacites and Rhyolites. The values reported are typically of the melt phase (dissolved). Oppenheimer 2004 Johnson et al. 1993
Wallace & Anderson 2000
Pelites 9 F 940         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 9 F 780         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Phosphoria Formation 9 F 3.1         61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 9 F 0.05           wt% Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 9 F 13.5           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 9 F 19           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 9 F 25           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 9 F 25   10       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: F/K = 0.09 ¿ 0.03, F/P = 0.3 ¿ 0.1 Palme & O'Neill 2004
QUE 94201 Meteorite 9 F 40           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 9 F 3.26         20 wt% Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rivers 9 F 100           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Rivers 9 F 5.3             Edmond et al. 1979
Seawater 9 F 1.3           mg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bewers et al. 1973
Seawater 9 F 68             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 9 F 68             Conservative distribution type. F[1-] and MgF[1+] are the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 9 F 1300           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 9 F 1300000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Shergotty Meteorite 9 F 46   6       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 9 F 25           ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 9 F 15           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 9 F 15           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Solar Corona 9 F 4   0.3         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Very Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 9 F 4   0.3         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Very uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 9 F 4.56   0.3         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 9 F 4.56   0.3         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Abundances are not derived from the photosphere. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 9 F 780             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 9 F 843   126.5     7   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 9 F 4.45   4.005         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 9 F 843   126.45         Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 9 F 10           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 9 F 10           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 9 F 578           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 9 F 594           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 9 F 634           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 9 F 575           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 9 F 564           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 9 F 486           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 9 F 499           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 9 F 508           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 9 F 429           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 9 F 88 100 71     15 ppm McDonough 1990
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 9 F 564         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 9 F 514         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 586           ppm Upper continental crust concentration for Fluorine as based on Wedepohl 1991 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 611           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 611           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Wedepohl (1987) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 561           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 500           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 9 F 557   56       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 9 F 557           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Yangtze Craton 9 F 493           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 9 F 542           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 9 F 570           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 9 F 503           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 9 F 401           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
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