GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 92 U 70           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 92 U 0.3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 92 U 1.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 92 U 1.69           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aleutian Basalts 92 U 0.58         19 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 92 U 2.39           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 92 U 15   3       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 92 U 11   2       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amazon River Particulates 92 U 2.5           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 92 U 0.36         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 92 U 2.3           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andean Andesites 92 U 1.25           ppm Minor element values of the post Archaean Middle and Lower continental crust as estimated by Bailey 1981. The composition of the crust itself is found to be that of an average continental margin orogenic andesite. The trace element data are from the analyses of Bailey pertaining to Andean Andesite. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Bailey 1981
Andes Basalt 92 U 1.35         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 1.8           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 1.5           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 92 U 0.82         24 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 92 U 1.053         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Archean Amphibolites 92 U 2.2           ppm Middle crust compositon based on Weaver and Tarney 1981. According to this study the middle crustal composition is that of Archean Lewisian amphibolite facies gneisses. U content calculated using Th/U ratio of 3.8. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 92 U 0.75           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Archean Canadian Shield 92 U 1.2           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Archean Lower Crust 92 U 0.05           ppm Archean Lower Continental Crust composition as offered by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Also one of many models of LCC composition to compare current analyses, yet gives a good lower marker for some of the major and minor consitutents of LCC. Shaw et al. 1986 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Archean Terrains 92 U 2           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Shaw et al. 1967. Shaw et al. 1986 Shaw et al. 1967
Archean Terrains 92 U 0.7           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 92 U 1.5           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 92 U 0.75           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 92 U 2.28         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 92 U 1.94         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 92 U 0.971         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Atlantic Ocean 92 U       0.2 1.9 30 ppm Uranium concentration range as measured from 30 Atlantic basalts (in ppm) that have been altered. The alteration is what is believed to be the major sink for U in the ocean due to its values that are close to U concentrations for river input. MacDougall 1977 Aumento 1971
Aubres Aubrite 92 U 3.17           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 92 U 5           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 92 U 2.9         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 92 U 5         704 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 92 U 5         1074 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 92 U 0.37         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 92 U 0.003   0.002     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 92 U 0.002   0.001     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Bambui Group 92 U 30         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Basalts 92 U 1.5           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1.2           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1.3           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1.2           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1.2           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 92 U 1.57         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 92 U 1.13         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 92 U 19.1         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 92 U 3.76         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 92 U 1         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basalts 92 U 1.53         23 ppm Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 92 U 1.41         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 92 U 6.09         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 92 U 0.92         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 92 U 0.75         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basic Precambrian Granulites 92 U 0.7         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Binda Eucrite 92 U 27           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Bone Valley Formation 92 U 140         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Boninites 92 U 0.26         19 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brown Clay 92 U 2.037         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 92 U 0.6         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. U is calculated from U/Th for the Java 211 pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate 92 U 0.274         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 92 U 1.8         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 92 U 1.1         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 92 U 1.05         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 92 U 0.39         22 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 92 U 2.92           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 92 U 1.37           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 92 U 0.37         26 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton   K/U 16400             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 15800             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 15900             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 15800             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 16300             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 16900             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 19600             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   K/U 13800             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 5.76             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.05             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.18             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.72             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.18             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.06             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.72             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Th/U 6.6             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.26           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 0.86           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.13           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.39           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.02           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.08           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 0.74           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.19           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.17           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 1.55           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 92 U 0.63           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.072             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.087             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.079             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.079             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.077             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.066             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.074             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   U/Pb 0.07             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 92 U 14.9           ppb Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
Chassigny Meteorite 92 U 18   4       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chert 92 U 0.3           ppm Compositional estimates of the second of four layers from the sediment column of DSDP Leg 129's Hole 801 according to the methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Chert 92 U 0.306         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 92 U 1.486         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CI Chondrites 92 U 8.2           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 92 U 8.2           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 92 U 8.11           ppb C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 92 U -0.52   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 92 U 0.0078   0.00078       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 92 U 0.0081           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 92 U 7.8   0.78       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 92 U 8.1   0.68     16 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 92 U 7.4           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 92 U 0.012           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
Clastic Turbidites 92 U 2.919         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 92 U 0.62           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Congo River Particulates 92 U 3           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 92 U 0.53         102 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 92 U 1.57         29 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 92 U 0.1           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 92 U 1.2           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   K/U 10.1             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   Th/U 3.9             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 910           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 92 U 1.6           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 92 U 1.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.25           ppm Average crustal composition taken from Taylor and McLennan 1981. These values are referred to as the Andesite model and as compared to the values given by this study (Weaver & Tarney 1984) differs in only a handful of elements and ratios. The Andesite model is significantly less siliceous though, and also less correspondant to previous estimates of the Continental Crust. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           ppm In calculating the average crustal composition it is assumed that the proportions of upper, middle and lower crust are 2:1:3. The upper crustal average from Taylor & McLennan (1981) is presumed to be representative of upper crust of all geological ages. The middel and lower crust are presumed to be composed of 75% Archean material and 25% post-Archean material represented by average orogenic andesites. Thus the relative weightings for upper crust, Archean middle crust, Archean lower crust and post-Archean middle and lower crust become 8:3:9:4. Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 92 U 1.8           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 92 U 1.7           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 0.91           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.42           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 92 U 1.1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 2.7           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 92 U 1.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 92 U 1.7           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.4           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 92 U 1.8           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust   U/Pb 0.113             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.0063           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.003           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.136           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.0003           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.0002           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.16           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.001           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.017           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.0032           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.001           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 126           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.001           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.001           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Bedini & Bodinier 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.009           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.01           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 92 U 0.0004           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.027             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.251             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.001             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.029             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.007             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.16             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Shields & Platforms 92 U 0.2           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 92 U 1.3           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 92 U 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 0.03           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 0.21           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 0.088           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 0.022           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 0.28           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 92 U 86.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.02             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.065             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.02             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 4.659             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.007             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths   U/Pb 0.064             Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
D'Orbigny Angrite 92 U 116           ng/g Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Depleted D-MORB basalts   K/U 12654             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Nb/U 44.4             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted D-MORB basalts   Th/U 2.9             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the D-MORB (Depleted MORB) compilation as explained in Salters and Stracke 2003.  This compliation of 232 ratio values represent one method of removing low degree melts from MORB data.  All values have gone thru a series of tests and must meet certain criteria to be added to the D-MORB compilation.  This in turn leads to better estimates of values for the Depleted Mantle. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle   K 2.7             Present day depleted mantle trace elements are 10% of N-MORB abundances. Isotopic composition of the depleted mantle was chosen to lie near the depleted end of the Atlantic-Pacific MORB array. Parent/daughter ratios of the isotopic systems were calculated from the listed trace element and isotope data. Rehkamper & Hofmann 1997
Depleted Mantle 92 U 0.0032     0.0027 0.0036   ppm Trace element composition of DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) with minimum and maximum estimates based on assuming initiation of continuous depletion at 2.5Ga (min) and 3.5Ga (max). Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted Mantle 92 U 0.0071           ppm Present day depleted mantle trace elements are 10% of N-MORB abundances. Isotopic composition of the depleted mantle was chosen to lie near the depleted end of the Atlantic-Pacific MORB array. Parent/daughter ratios of the isotopic systems were calculated from the listed trace element and isotope data. Units of trace elements assumed to be in PPM. Rehkamper & Hofmann 1997
Depleted Mantle 92 U 4.7   1.41       ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Th/U is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Depleted Mantle   ¿ 10             Present day depleted mantle trace elements are 10% of N-MORB abundances. Isotopic composition of the depleted mantle was chosen to lie near the depleted end of the Atlantic-Pacific MORB array. Parent/daughter ratios of the isotopic systems were calculated from the listed trace element and isotope data. Rehkamper & Hofmann 1997
Depleted MORB Mantle   Th/U 2.5             Average Th/U ratios for DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as taken from U-Series disequilibrium studies on MORBs. Workman & Hart 2005 Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Sims et al. 2003
Depleted MORB Mantle   U/Pb 0.172             Average U/Pb ratio for DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) as calculated by Workman and Hart 2005. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle   Th/U 2.2             Thorium/Uranium ratio of Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s depleted from the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Th/U ratios taken from U-Series disequilibrium studies on MORBs. Workman & Hart 2005 Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Sims et al. 2003
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle 92 U 0.0018           ppm Trace element composition of DDMM (Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Depleted-Depleted MORB Mantle   U/Pb 0.131             Uranium/Lead ratio of Depleted Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s depleted from the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Workman & Hart 2005
Diatom Oozes & Clay 92 U 1.2         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. U is calculated based on the U/La ratio in piston core V14-57. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 92 U 1.872         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 92 U 4.889         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 92 U 2.017         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 92 U 2.23         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dover Sandstone 92 U 260         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
DSDP/ODP Site 800 92 U 0.66           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 92 U 0.5           ppm Compositional estimates of Bulk Marianas sediment as observed from the sediment column of DSDP Hole 801. Values derived according to methods given in Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
DSDP/ODP Site 801 92 U 0.51           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Dyalpur Ureilite 92 U 6.9           ppb Trace element values for the Dyalpur meteorite as given in Higuchi et al. 1976.  Mainly used in this study as comparisons to the Kenna and Havero meteorites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
E-MORB 92 U 0.28           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust   Th/U 3.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Th/U 3.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 92 U 2           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 92 U 1.9           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 4             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.6           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
East China Craton 92 U 1.1           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 92 U 1.15           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 92 U 0.991           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 92 U 70           ng/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle   Th/U 3             Thorium/Uranium ratio of Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s enriched over the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Th/U ratios taken from U-Series disequilibrium studies on MORBs. Workman & Hart 2005 Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Sims et al. 2003
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle 92 U 0.0052           ppm Trace element composition of EDMM (Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle) in ppm. Workman & Hart 2005
Enriched-Depleted MORB Mantle   U/Pb 0.217             Uranium/Lead ratio of Enriched Depleted MORB Mantle which is based off ratios that are 2s enriched over the average MORB value. Present-day parent daughter ratios, calculated with a continuous depletion model starting 3 Ga. Workman & Hart 2005
Felsic Archean Granulites 92 U 1.44 1       121 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 92 U 0.4         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 92 U 0.81 0.7       48 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 1.47         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 0.6           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 2.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 0.6           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 2.3           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 2.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 2.5           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 92 U 2.3           ppm Condie 1993
Ferruginous Clay 92 U 1.025         2 ppm The proportions of the Fe-rich and carbonate-rich clays are roughly equal based on barrel sheet descriptions. One analysis of each rock type is simply averaged. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Frankfort Howardites 92 U 38           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 13             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from Juan de Fuca ridge located 44-48¿ N at a depth of 2,200 m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Goldstein et al. 1991
Goldstein et al. 1993
Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Lundstrom et al. 1995
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 2             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) located at 50¿S and at a depth of 4,200m.  These analyses are taken from Bourdon et al. 1996b. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Bourdon et al. 1996b
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 6             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge located at 33¿S at a depth of 3,500 and 2,700m.  These analyses are taken from Lundstrom et al. 1998a. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Lundstrom et al. 1998a
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 2             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge located at 29-30¿N at a depth of 3,300-4,000m.  These analyses are taken from Bourdon et al. 1996b. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Bourdon et al. 1996b
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 3             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (specifically the FAMOUS location) located at  36¿50'N at a depth of 2,550m.  These analyses are taken from Condomines et al. 1981. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Condomines et al. 1981
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 23             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (specifically the FAZAR area) located at  37-41¿N at a depth of 950-3,000m.  These analyses are taken from Bourdon et al. 1996a,b, 2000. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Bourdon et al. 1996a
Bourdon et al. 1996b
Bourdon et al. 2000
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 7             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (specifically the Reykjanes Ridge) located at  57-63¿N at a depth of 600-1,825m.  These analyses are taken from Peate et al. 2001. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Peate et al. 2001
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 2             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the East Pacific Rise located 26-28¿S and 35¿S at a depth of 2,450m.  These analyses are taken from Rubin and McDougall 1988 & 1990. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Rubin & Macdougall 1988
Rubin & Macdougall 1990
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 40             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the East Pacific Rise as well as the Siqueiros transform located 8-10¿N at a depth of 2,600m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 9             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from Gorda Ridge located 41-42¿N at a depth of 3,000m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Goldstein et al. 1991
Goldstein et al. 1993
Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Cooper et al. 2003
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 6             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the East Pacific Rise located 20-21¿N at a depth of 2,600m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Newman et al. 1983
Rubin & Macdougall 1988
Rubin & Macdougall 1990
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   230Th/238U 6             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the East Pacific Rise located 11-13¿N at a depth of 2,600m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Rubin & Macdougall 1988
Reinitz & Turekian 1989
BenOthman & Allegre 1990
Goldstein et al. 1991
Goldstein et al. 1993
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   231Pa/235U 1             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (specifically the FAZAR area) located at  37-41¿N at a depth of 950-3,000m.  These analyses are taken from Bourdon et al. 1996a,b, 2000. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Bourdon et al. 1996a
Bourdon et al. 1996b
Bourdon et al. 2000
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   231Pa/235U 20             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the East Pacific Rise as well as the Siqueiros transform located 8-10¿N at a depth of 2,600m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   231Pa/235U 4             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from Gorda Ridge located 41-42¿N at a depth of 3,000m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Goldstein et al. 1991
Goldstein et al. 1993
Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Cooper et al. 2003
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   231Pa/235U 5             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from Juan de Fuca ridge located 44-48¿ N at a depth of 2,200 m.  These analyses are taken from various sources. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Goldstein et al. 1991
Goldstein et al. 1993
Volpe & Goldstein 1993
Lundstrom et al. 1995
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   231Pa/235U 6             Isotopic analyses from axial MORB samples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge located at 33¿S at a depth of 3,500 and 2,700m.  These analyses are taken from Lundstrom et al. 1998a. Elliott & Spiegelman 2004 Lundstrom et al. 1998a
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   K/U 14674             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Nb/U 45.74             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Th/U 3.26             Constant' ratios in MORB as taken from the 'All MORB' data set according to Salters and Stracke 2003.  The 'All MORB' data set is a compilation of 639 sample ratios to represent the MORB composition.  In using these values and applying a simple mathematical process order to remove the outliers, which are found by calculating the upper and lower quartile range, then applying the outlier criterion (explained in Salters and Stracke 2003 pg.7).  In addition to this method all the samples with La > 5 ppm were rejected.  This, much like with the tests and criteria of the D-MORB values, is a method of removing low degree melts from the MORB data in order to come closer to a value for Depleted Mantle.  Salters & Stracke 2004
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 92 U 0.23         26 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Ganges River Particulates 92 U 2.8           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garonne River Particulates 92 U 3.6           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Gibson Lodranite 92 U 50           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 92 U 22       1.1   ppb Trace element abundances of the Goalpara meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Granites 92 U 2.09         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 92 U 2.11         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 92 U 2.92         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 92 U 2.4           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 92 U 5           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 92 U 4.5           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 92 U 3.5           ppm Condie 1993
Granulites   K/U 46700 28200       149   Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   K/U 58500 39400       236   Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Th/U 13.9 7.6       175   Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites   Th/U 16.8 9       142   Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 92 U 0.8 0.4       187 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Excludes XRF values. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 92 U 0.05           ppm Lower crust composition based on the estimates of Weaver and Tarney 1982. The lower crust itself was found to have the composition of Archaean Lewisian granulite facies gneiss. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Weaver & Tarney 1982
Granulites 92 U 1.7 0.7       152 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Excludes XRF values. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites   K/U 74600 33500       52   Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites   Th/U 3.19 2.69       55   Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 92 U 0.38 0.08       55 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Excludes XRF values. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 92 U 1.7           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 92 U 1.8           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 92 U 1.7           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 92 U 1.3           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 92 U 1.8           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 92 U 1.7           ppm Condie 1993
Green Clay 92 U 2.364         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 92 U 2           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Havero Ureilite 92 U         0.9   ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero (bulk) meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 92 U         1.2   ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
Havero Urelite 92 U 6           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Hydrothermal Sediment 92 U 0.635         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. stimated from the U/Al2O3 ratio from distal hydrothermal sediment around drill Site 596 (Zhou, 1990). Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ibitira Eucrite 92 U 73           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 92 U 48           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
Igneous Rocks 92 U 45           ppb Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Clark Jr. et al. 1967
Igneous Rocks 92 U 20           ppb Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Morgan & Lovering 1973
Igneous Rocks 92 U 14           ppb Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Reed & Jovanovic 1969
Igneous Rocks 92 U 25           ppb Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Fisher 1969
Interior North China Craton 92 U 0.46           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 92 U 0.93           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 92 U 0.72           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 92 U 1.23           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 92 U 1.36           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 92 U 0.525         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 92 U 0.356         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 92 U 1.152         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Calculated based on U/Th in metalliferous clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 92 U 0.27         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 92 U 0.54 0.4       24 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 92 U 0.15 0.08       10 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 92 U 0.95 0.8       21 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 92 U 1.1         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Island Arc Andesite 92 U 0.37         6 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 92 U 0.59         105 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 92 U 1           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 92 U 1.5         323 ppm Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 92 U 1.19           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 92 U 1.39           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 92 U 1.471           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 92 U 2.8           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Juvinas Eucrite 92 U 99           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Morgan & Lovering 1973
Juvinas Eucrite 92 U 200           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Clark Jr. et al. 1967
Juvinas Eucrite 92 U 57           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Juvinas Eucrite 92 U 89           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke et al. 1972
Kamchatka Basalt 92 U 0.43         31 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 92 U 0.71           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 92 U 51           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 92 U         0.1 1 ppb Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 92 U         0.4   ppb Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Kerm Trench 92 U 2.397           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 92 U 0.28         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 92 U 3.91         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 92 U 0.1           ppm Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 92 U 1.39           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Late Archean Upper Crust   Th/U 3.8             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Th/U 3.9             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 92 U 2.1           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 92 U 2.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 4             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 4             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.6           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Lesser Antilles Basalt 92 U 1.07         39 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Lower Continental Crust   K/U 23800             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust   Th/U 5.9             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 1.1           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.93           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.2           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.28           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.86           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.63           ppm Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.2           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.05           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984 using Scourian granulites from Scotland. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.66           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.21           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 1.38           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.47           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.53           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.2           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 92 U 0.93           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust   U/Pb 0.047             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Luzon Basalt 92 U 0.62         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 92 U 10           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 92 U 70           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 92 U 0.7 0.5       24 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 92 U 0.45         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 92 U 0.21 0.08       36 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 92 U 1.09         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 92 U 2 0.55       13 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Makran Trench 92 U 1.25           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Manganese Nodules 92 U 5           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marianas Basalt 92 U 0.17         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 92 U 0.58           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Organisms 92 U 0.8           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 92 U 2.6           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982 Ku 1966
Marine Pelagic Clay 92 U 2.6           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Ku 1966
Marine Phosphorites   Th/U 0.055             Trace element ratios for Marine Phosphorite using values given in a previous table (table 4). Ratio values used to differentiate Phosphorites, Shales and Apatite. Altschuller 1980
Marine Phosphorites 92 U 120 105   30 260 7 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales   Th/U 3.2             Ratios of trace element values given in table 5 for Shale according to Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Values used to differentiate Shale, Phosphorite and Apatite. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 92 U 3.7           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 92 U 3.7           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 92 U 0.79         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mekong River Particulates 92 U 5.8           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 1500             Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. These values given by Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. These values given by Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004 using the preferred model from Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates   Th/U 3.6             Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004 using the refractory end member. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 258           ng/g Estimates for the bulk composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. These values given by Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 58           ng/g Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 26           ng/g Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 0.2           ng/g Suggested bulk major element chemical composition in weight percent of the Silicate portion of Mercury. These values are taken according to the Vaporizaiton Model of Fegley and Cameron 1987. Taylor & Scott 2004 Fegley & Cameron 1987
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 34           ng/g Model composition of the silicate portion of Mercury given in wt% and taken from the study by Morgan and Anders 1980. Taylor & Scott 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 81           ng/g Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004 using the refractory end member. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U 340           ng/g Estimates for the bulk composition of Mercury using surface magma compositions. These values given by Taylor & Scott 2004. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mercury Crustal Silicates 92 U       17 33   ng/g Estimates for the bulk chemical composition in wt% of the silicate portion of Mercury from Taylor & Scott 2004 using the preferred model from Goettel 1988. Taylor & Scott 2004
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 92 U 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 92 U 2.1           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 92 U 1.8           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 92 U 0.5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.7             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.7           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Metafelsic Volcanics 92 U 0.95         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 92 U 2.072         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 92 U 0.58 0.5       35 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 92 U 3.01           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust   K/U 10.7             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust   Th/U 3.9             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 1.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 1.6           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 1.02           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 0.9           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 2.2           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Weaver and Tarney 1984. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Weaver & Tarney 1984
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 1.3   0.4       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 92 U 1.3           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust   U/Pb 0.103             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.7           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mishash Formation 92 U 105         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Moore County Eucrite 92 U 64           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
N-MORB   Th/U 2.632             Elemental ratio values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB 92 U 0.061           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 92 U 0.03           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 92 U 0.0711   0.0372     26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 92 U 0.0711           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
N-MORB   U/Pb 0.1454             Elemental ratio values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 92 U 52   9       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 92 U 0.99           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 92 U 0.593         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
New Hebrides Islands 92 U 0.41         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 92 U 81           ppb Element concentrations of the Ibitira eucrite as found by Wanke et al. 1974 which in this case is the only other source that has comparative data on this sample. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke & Palme 1974
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 92 U 104           ppb Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 92 U 2.7           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 92 U 1.36           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.08           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 92 U 2.25           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 92 U 2.07           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.56           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Northern Blake Plateau Phosphorites 92 U 0.005         8 wt%ox Composition of Blake plateau phosphorite and comparable deposits. Data was taken from analyses of composites of 8 phosphorites. Manheim et al. 1980
Novo-Urei Ureilite 92 U 1           ppb Trace element abundances of the Novo Urei meteorite originally given by Higuchi et al. 1976. Novo Urei happens to be the second in line as far as richest in siderophile element abundances, second only to Kenna Meteorite.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 92 U 140           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Oceanic Crust 92 U 0.12           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2045 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Crust 92 U 0.07           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 2044 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.88           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.55           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.08           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.034           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.98           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.048           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.89           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.094           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.43           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.99           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.148           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.011           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.6           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.06           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.89           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.89           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.29           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.21           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.12           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.32           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.91           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.38           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.097           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 3.08           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.9           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.43           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 2.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 3.42           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 0.047           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 4.72           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 92 U 1.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceans Surface water 92 U 3.2           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Turekian & Chan 1971
ODP Site 735   232Th/238U 1.9             Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   238U/204Pb 4.5             Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   Th/U 3.39 2.33       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735 92 U 43.6 33       22 ppb Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP Site 735   U/Pb 0.092 0.069       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 92 U 0.3           ppm This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 92 U 0.275           ppm Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by ICPM. Staudigel et al. 1995
Orangeite 92 U 5         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 92 U 8.1         7 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 92 U 8.1         7 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orinoco River Particulates 92 U 4.5           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Oulad Abdoun Basin 92 U 140         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Paleozoic Orogens 92 U 0.3           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 92 U 1.4           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Th/U 3.8             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 92 U 2.7           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Pelagic Clay 92 U 1.866         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 1.97         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 2           ppm The uppermost layer of the sediment from Hole 801 of ODP Leg 129. Values given are estimates of the composition of this 65m layer based on the methodology of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Pelagic Clay 92 U 1.867         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 0.985         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. U is calculated from theU/Th ratio in the Antilles ferruginous clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 0.806         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 1.11         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 92 U 0.806         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 92 U 2.51         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 92 U 3.04         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Peninsular Range Batholith 92 U 3.3           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Peru Trench 92 U 2.37           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 92 U 1.08         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 92 U 0.99         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 92 U 0.36         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 92 U 0.71         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 92 U 1.34         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Philip Trench 92 U 0.85           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phosphoria Formation 92 U 90         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Arithmetic Average. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 92 U 90           ppm Rare-metal contents with modes above threshold values in phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Post-Archean Terrrains 92 U 2.2           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by Eade and Fahrig 1971. Shaw et al. 1986 Eade & Fahrig 1971
Precambrian Canadian Shield 92 U 2.45           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 92 U 1.1         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle   K/U 1             Element ratios from the Primitive Mantle as given by Hofmann 1988. Gao et al. 1998 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle   Th/U 4             Element ratios from the Primitive Mantle as given by Hofmann 1988. Gao et al. 1998 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 92 U 0.0203           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 92 U 0.026           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 92 U 0.02           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Primitive Mantle 92 U 0.036           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 92 U 20.3   4.1       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 92 U 0.024           ppm Concentration of the Primitive mantle as given by McDonough & Frey 1989 and Sun 1982. Values given are placed next to average concentrations of Continental lithospheric mantle in an effort to calculate the proportional contribution to the Primitive mantle. This calculation assumes that the Continental lithospheric mantle is 1.45% the mass of the Primitive mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 92 U 21.8           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 92 U 21.8   3.27       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 92 U 8         8 ppb Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pungo River Formation 92 U 65         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 300 ppm. Altschuller 1980
QUE 94201 Meteorite 92 U 50           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 92 U 1.643         11 ppm This section contains 17% biogenic opal but the analyses were not diluted based on there SiO2 content. Since the average Rb concentratio is equal to the simple average in 11 analyses, simple averaging is applied here. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 92 U 1.62         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. U is based on U/Al2O3 = 0.12 in the Java fore-arc sediments. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 92 U 1.78         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 92 U 1.78         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 92 U 0.4           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Radiolarite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. This section comprises the final layer of the column and all element values were estimated according to methods of Plank and Ludden 1992. Elliot et al. 1997
Radiolarites 92 U 0.86         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 92 U 0.442         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 92 U 0.009         20 wt% Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 92 U 0.01         20 wt% Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rifted Continental Margins 92 U 0.1           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 92 U 1.6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 92 U 3           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 92 U 0.03           ppb Initial riverine alkali and Uranium concentrations input to the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Rivers 92 U 0.3             Uranium concentrations for river input to the oceans. Given the ratio of K/U in rivers is close to that of altered basalt, it is estimated that altered basalt is the major sink of both K and U in the ocean. MacDougall 1977 Livingstone 1973
Turekian & Chan 1971
Rivers 92 U 0.04           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 92 U 2.01           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 92 U 1.1           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 92 U 1.2           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 92 U 1.1           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 92 U 0.23         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater   234U/238U 625800   600     9   Chen et al. 1986
Seawater   238U/235U 137.89   0.075     21   The 238U/235U ratio for natural U is 137.88. Chen et al. 1986
Seawater   d234U 144   1     9   Chen et al. 1986
Seawater 92 U 0.013             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 92 U 3.3           ppb Initial alkali and Uranium seawater concentrations in the world oceans. Used for an initial parameter for calculation of alkali/uranium sink alteration processes by oceanic crust. Hart & Staudigel 1982
Seawater 92 U 3.2           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Turekian & Chan 1971
Seawater 92 U 3.2           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 92 U 3.238         21 ng/g Normalized to 35¿ salinity. Chen et al. 1986
Seawater 92 U 3200             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Sera de Mage Eucrite 92 U 16           ppb Element abundances of the Serra de Mage eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  These values are placed against the values found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to INAA. Morgan et al. 1978 Morgan & Lovering 1973
Sera de Mage Eucrite 92 U 8.2           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Serra De Mage Eucrite 92 U 19           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales 92 U 2.4           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 92 U 2.9           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 92 U 3.4           ppm Condie 1993
Shergotty Meteorite 92 U 105   20       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth   Th/U 3.9             Th/U ratios taken from U-series disequilibrium studies on MORBs. Workman & Hart 2005 Lundstrom et al. 1999
Sims et al. 2002
Sims et al. 2003
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.02           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.021           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.02           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.0203           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.018           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicate Earth 92 U 0.029           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 92 U 20.3   4.1       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth   U/Pb 0.13             U/Pb ratio as calculated by Workman & Hart 2005 using MORBs Workman & Hart 2005
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 92 U 1.3         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 92 U 0.7           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. U is calculated based on U/Th in the Guatemala diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 92 U 4.44         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. U is calculated from U/Th for the Aleutian clastic turbidite. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 92 U 74           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Solar Photosphere 92 U         -0.47     Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 92 U         -0.47     Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Values are defined as uncertain by Grevesse and Sauval 1998. Uncertain Value Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 92 U 0.009   0.000756     16   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 92 U 0.027             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 92 U 0.009   0.000756     16   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth   232Th/238U 4.2             Parent/daughter ratios of Bulk Earth from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 Allegre et al. 1988
Solid Earth   232Th/238U 2.25             Parent/daughter ratios of Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 White 1993
Solid Earth   232Th/238U 2.4             Parent/daughter ratios of Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 Allegre et al. 1988
Solid Earth   238U/204Pb         4.5     Parent/daughter ratios of Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 White 1993
Solid Earth   238U/204Pb 7.8             Parent/daughter ratios of Bulk Earth from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 Allegre et al. 1988
Solid Earth   238U/204Pb 4.5             Parent/daughter ratios of Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) from a number of different sources. Ratio values used as models for comparison to ratio values from Oceanic Gabbroic composites. Hart et al. 1999 Allegre et al. 1988
Solid Earth 92 U 0.015           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 92 U 0.015           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Antilles Trench 92 U 4.27           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 92 U 1.59           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 92 U 1.58           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 92 U 1.35           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 92 U 1.41           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 92 U 1.4           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.35           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.59           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.57           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 92 U 1.2           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 92 U 1.16           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 92 U 0.12 0.04 0.23     48 ppm McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 92 U 172           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 92 U 1.68   0.18       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 92 U 2.26           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.048   0.016     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.877   0.044     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.008   0     16 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.064   0.022     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.669   0.012     42 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 92 U 0.043   0.003     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonalites 92 U 1.7           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 1.6         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 2.3           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 2           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 1.78         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 0.75         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 92 U 2.5           ppm Condie 1993
Tonga Trench 92 U 1.428           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 92 U 0.51         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 92 U 0.11           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 92 U 1.123         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 92 U 2.385         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 92 U 3.8         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust   K/U 10             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Upper Continental Crust   Th/U 0.225             Elemental ratios of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust   Th/U 4.2             Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust   Th/U 3.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Th/U 3.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Th/U 3.8             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 0.321           ppm Average composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.2           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.4           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.8           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.8           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.5           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 1.55           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.5           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.5           ppm Major and minor element composition of present day Upper Continental Crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1981. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.5           ppm Upper crust composition based on Taylor and McLennan 1981. Weaver & Tarney 1984 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.7           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.5           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.7           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.45           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.7   0.6       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text

Upper Continental Crust 92 U 1.5           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Eade and Fahrig 1973 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Eade and Fahrig 1973
Upper Continental Crust 92 U 2.2           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   U/Pb 0.14             Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Upper Continental Crust   U/Pb 0.465             Elemental ratios of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic composition which should closeley resemble each other. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Vanuatu Trench 92 U 0.436           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Venus Surface   K/U 18200     9700 34700     Potassium/Uranium ratio abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 8 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface   K/U 6500     1900 23000     Potassium/Uranium ratio abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 10 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface   K/U 7800     5100 12500     Potassium/Uranium ratio abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 9 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface   K/U 5900     1900 20000     Potassium/Uranium ratio abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Vega 2 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface   K/U 7000     2100 39400     Potassium/Uranium ratio abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Vega 1 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface 92 U 2.2   0.7       wt% Uranium abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 8 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface 92 U 0.6   0.16       ppm Uranium abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 9 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface 92 U 0.68   0.38         Uranium abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Vega 2 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface 92 U 0.64   0.47       ppm Uranium abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Vega 1 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Venus Surface 92 U 0.46   0.26       ppm Uranium abundance of Venus as given by gamma ray analyses from Venera 10 space probe, given in wt%. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Surkov et al. 1987
Volcanoclastic Sediment 92 U 0.348         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 92 U 0.574         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 92 U 0.424         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 92 U 0.4           ppm Estimates of the composition of the Volcaniclastic Turbidite section of the sediment column from DSDP Hole 801. Elliot et al. 1997
Watson IIE Iron 92 U 13.5           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Y-74450 Eucrites 92 U 163           ng/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Yangtze Craton 92 U 1.62           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 92 U 1.38           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 92 U 1.1           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 92 U 1.4           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 92 U 1.31           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Zeolite Clay 92 U 1.021         3 ppm This unit contains a mixture of 50% zeolite clay, 20% Mn-bearing clay and 30% normal clay based on barrel sheet descriptions. The three analyses are weighted accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
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