GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Active Continental Rifts 3 Li 6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 3 Li 12           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
ALH 77005 Meteorite 3 Li 1.5   0.2       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amazon River 3 d6Li -21.6             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Amazon River   d6Li -29.4   1.5         Chan et al. 1992
Amazon River 3 Li 96.5             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Amazon River 3 Li 0.11             Chan et al. 1992
Amphibolites 3 Li 9.5         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andesites 3 Li             ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Archean Terrains 3 Li 11           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 3 Li 19.7         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 3 Li 27.6         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 3 Li 2         14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 3 Li 2.4   0.4     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Battle Creek Formation 3 Li 10         7 ppm Silty aphanitic phosphorites of the intra-cratonic Georgina Basin; Battle formation of Australia. Detection Limit = 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Battle Creek Formation 3 Li 6         17 ppm Cherty and calcareous pelletal phosphorites, located in the intra-cratonic basin Battle Cratonic Formation (Georgina Basin), P2O5: 8-37% (mostly 24-37%). Detection Limit = 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 De Keyser & Cook 1972
Boninites 3 Li 7.61         14 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brahmaputra River 3 d6Li -19.6             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Brahmaputra River 3 Li 436             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Carbonates 3 Li 14         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 3 Li 7.9         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Caspian Sea   d6Li -31.1             Lithium concentrations of the Caspian Sea as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Caspian Sea 3 Li 41.2             Lithium concentrations of Lake Tanganyika as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 11.3             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 14             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 7             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 9.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 16.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Cl/Li 10.8             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 13           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 11.7           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 17           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 12           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 3 Li 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 3 Li 1.4   0.2       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.49   0.149       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.5           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.5   0.138     4 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.49   0.149       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 3 Li 3.3   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.57           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.45           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 3 Li 1.5           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Colorado River Particulates 3 Li 19           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Columbia River 3 d6Li -14.6             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Columbia River 3 Li 244             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Columbia River Particulates 3 Li 12           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Congo River 3 Li 125             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Continental Arc Andesite 3 Li 6.73         3 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 3 Li 5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 3 Li 10           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 17           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 18           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 11           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 13           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 17           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 3 Li 13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 20           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 3 Li 17           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 3 Li 18           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 11           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 16           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 3 Li 1.3           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 0.105           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 1.16           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 1.7           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 0.72           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 7.7           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 1.95           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 3 Li 1.31           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Shields & Platforms 3 Li 6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 3 Li 11           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 3 Li 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 3 Li 0.554           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 3 Li 0.451           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 3 Li 0.048           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 3 Li 6.9           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004
Dead Sea   d6Li -33.3             Lithium concentrations of the Dead Sea as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Dead Sea 3 Li 1969             Lithium concentrations of the Caspian Sea as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Depleted Mantle 3 Li 0.7   0.056       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Yb/Li is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 3 Li 13.6         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Archean Granulites 3 Li 15 15       10 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 3 Li 10.4         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 3 Li 7.4 7       21 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 3 Li 15.5         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Fraser River 3 d6Li -28.8             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Fraser River 3 Li 106             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 3 Li 10           ppm Lithium concentration as found in basalts, given for comparison to concentrations obtained during the Galapagos study. Considered a cyclic salt due to its input and impending uptake during low temperature alteration of the oceanic crust. Range values obtained according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with internal additions performed at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Galapagos Hydrothermal Vents 3 Li       28 59     Lithium concentration range at the Galapagos hydrothermal resirvoir. Considered a cyclic salt due to its input and impending uptake during low temperature alteration of the oceanic crust. Range values obtained according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with internal additions performed at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Ganges River 3 d6Li -22.6             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Ganges River 3 Li 579             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Granites 3 Li 26.2         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 3 Li 15         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granulites 3 Li 7 7       35 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 3 Li 19 13       45 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 3 Li 6         9 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Hydrothermal Vents   d6Li -9     -11 -9     Chan et al. 1992
Interior North China Craton 3 Li 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 3 Li 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 3 Li 8.9           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 3 Li 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 3 Li 10.3         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 3 Li 11 9       9 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 3 Li 10 10       2 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 3 Li 9 10       5 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intra Stellar Medium 3 Li 1.73   0.2595         Abundance of moderately volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Island Arc Andesite 3 Li             ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 3 Li 10           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Jordan River at Allenby   d6Li -18.5   1.2         Chan et al. 1992
Jordan River at Allenby 3 Li 11.7             Chan et al. 1992
Jordan River at Yarmouk   d6Li -16.2   1.2         Chan et al. 1992
Jordan River at Yarmouk 3 Li 4.74             Chan et al. 1992
Karatau 3 Li 3         10 ppm Dark, granular and oolitic phosphorites, cherty and dolomitic, in a sequence of black shales and dolomites of the Lesser Karatau geosyncline, Karatau, Kazakhstan U.S.S.R.  Averages of 5-10 specimens except for Cr, Mo and Li: P2O5 = 26-32%Detection Limit = 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Kholodov 1963
Lake Baikal   d6Li       -27.9 -32.2     Lithium Isotopic Concentrations of Lake Baikal as given first by Falkner et al. 1997. Huh et al. 1998 Falkner et al. 1997
Lake Baikal 3 Li 294             Lithium concentrations of the Dead Sea as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Falkner et al. 1997
Lake Tanganyika   d6Li -32.2             Lithium Isotopic Concentrations of Lake Baikal as given first by Falkner et al. 1997. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Lake Tanganyika 3 Li 2.1             Lithium concentrations of Lake Tanganyika as given first by Chan and Edmond 1988. Huh et al. 1998 Chan & Edmond 1988
Lena River 3 d6Li -21             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Lena River 3 Li 221             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 13           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 11           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 6           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 11           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 6           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 14           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 3.3           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 13           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 3 Li 13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Ludigirka River 3 d6Li -25.5             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Ludigirka River 3 Li 122             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
MacKenzie River 3 d6Li -17.6             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
MacKenzie River 3 Li 766             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
MacKenzie River Particulates 3 Li 22           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Archean Granulites 3 Li 15 13       7 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 3 Li 8.49         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 3 Li 6 6       14 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 3 Li 6.9         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 3 Li 80           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 3 Li 5.4           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 3 Li 57           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 3 Li 57           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Phosphorites 3 Li 5 4.3   3 10 6 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 3 Li 66           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 3 Li 66           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 3 Li 18         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 3 Li 7           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 3 Li 12           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 3 Li 7           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 3 Li 11           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Metafelsic Volcanics 3 Li 6.7         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 3 Li 16           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 3 Li 7           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 3 Li 20.5           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 3 Li 12   6       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 3 Li 7           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mississippi River 3 d6Li -16.4             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Mississippi River 3 Li 813             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Mississippi River High Flow   d6Li -17.7   0.9         Chan et al. 1992
Mississippi River High Flow 3 Li 0.45             Chan et al. 1992
Mississippi River Low Flow   d6Li -15.3   1.4         Chan et al. 1992
Mississippi River Low Flow 3 Li 1.66             Chan et al. 1992
Mississippi River Particulates 3 Li 38           µg/g Elemental particulates in major North American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Nakhla Meteorite 3 Li 3.9           ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nile River Particulates 3 Li 25           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
North Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 30           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 28           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Ob River Particulates 3 Li 86           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Oceanic Crust 3 Li 8.8           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1981 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceans Surface water 3 Li 178           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 2 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Fabricand et al. 1967
Orgueil Chondrite 3 Li 1.49         3 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 3 Li 1.59         2 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orinoco River 3 d6Li -32.2             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Orinoco River 3 Li 53.3             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Oulad Abdoun Basin 3 Li 3.6         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Paleozoic Orogens 3 Li 6           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 3 Li 10           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Pelites 3 Li 41.9         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 3 Li 21.8         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Precambrian Canadian Shield 3 Li 22           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 1.6   0.32       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Data on mantle rocks Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Ryan & Langmuir 1987
Seitz and Woodland 2000
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 2.6           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 2.4           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 2.7           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 2.2           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Ryan & Langmuir 1987
Seitz and Woodland 2000
Primitive Mantle 3 Li 1.6   0.48       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Pungo River Formation 3 Li 5         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 30 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Rifted Continental Margins 3 Li 5           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 3 Li 11           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 3 Li 25           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers   d6Li -19     -25 -14     Chan et al. 1992
Rivers 3 Li 3           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Rivers 3 Li 0.43             Lithium concentration in rivers, given as a comparison to values obtained at the Galapagos study. Considered a cyclic salt due to its input and impending uptake during low temperature alteration of the oceanic crust. Range values obtained according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy with internal additions performed at MIT. Edmond et al. 1979
Seawater   d6Li -32.3     -32.8 -31.8     Chan et al. 1992
Seawater 3 Li 178           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Fabricand et al. 1967
Seawater 3 Li 25             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 3 Li 180000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 3 Li 180           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 3 Li 25             Conservative distribution type. Li[1+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Shergotty Meteorite 3 Li 4.5   0.9       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 3 Li 1.6   0.48       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 3 Li 1.6           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 3 Li 1.6           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Solar Photosphere 3 Li 1.16   0.1         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 3 Li 1.1   0.1         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 3 Li 60             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 3 Li 57.1   5.25     4   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 3 Li 59.7   0.2025     3   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 3 Li 3.3   0.33         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Moderately volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solid Earth 3 Li 1.1           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 3 Li 1.1           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 3 Li 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 22           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 3 Li 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 3 Li 1.5 1.5 0.3     6 ppm McDonough 1990
Tonalites 3 Li 19           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 3 Li 14.4         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 3 Li 16.9         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 22           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 20           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 22           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 20           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 20           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 21           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 24   5       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text









Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 20           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 3 Li 22           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Yana River 3 d6Li -27.1             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Yana River 3 Li 101             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 3 Li 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 3 Li 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 3 Li 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 3 Li 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 3 Li 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze River 3 d6Li -31.9             Average values of Lithium Isotopic flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium Isotopic flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
Yangtze River 3 Li 572             Average values of Lithium flux from major world rivers into the ocean, which in total account for roughly one third of the global runoff. Lithium flux values are measured according to the ID-TIMS method (Isotope Dilution and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectromerty). Huh et al. 1998
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