GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Allende Meteorite 44 Ru 1200           ng/g Concentratons of elements in the Allende chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
CAI Inclusions Allende Meteorite 44 Ru 11.8   0.826       ppm Bulk composition of an 111.1mg Ca-Al-rich inclusion from the Allende Meteorite named A37. Analyses performed on A37 were by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, all values given in ppm. This particular analysis performed included all ranges of sections from A37 which therin yielded the best approximation of where particular elements were best located. Bischoff & Palme 1987
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 1.8   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 712   38.5     9 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 0.683   0.02049       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
Jochum 1996
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 690           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 0.712           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 683   20.49       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 710           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 44 Ru 710           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.57           ng/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.6           ng/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.1           ng/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.1           ppb UCC; LCC = from composite sample of 17 European greywackes analysed by ICP-MASS in nickel sulfide extract after Te co-precipitation (Hartmann, 1995). Wedepohl 1995
Core 44 Ru 4           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 44 Ru 4           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Depleted Mantle 44 Ru 5.7   0.912       ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Ir/Ru is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Greywackes 44 Ru 0.1           ppb Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
LL Ordinary Chondrites 44 Ru 500           ng/g Concentratons of elements in mean LL chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Lower Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.75           ng/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Manganese Nodules 44 Ru 0.008           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Pelagic Clay 44 Ru 0.0002           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Baturin 1988
Oceans Deep water 44 Ru 0.5           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 880 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Dixon et al. 1966
Oceans Surface water 44 Ru 0.7           ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 10 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Dixon et al. 1966
Orgueil Chondrite 44 Ru 714         5 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 44 Ru 714         5 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 44 Ru 780           ng/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Primitive Mantle 44 Ru 5   1.5       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 44 Ru 4.55   0.182       ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: HSE, Ru/Ir = CI-chondrite Palme & O'Neill 2004
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 44 Ru 1040           ng/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
Seawater 44 Ru         0.005     Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1986
Koide et al. 1987

Seawater 44 Ru 0.5           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Dixon et al. 1966
Silicate Earth 44 Ru 0.005           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 44 Ru 5   1.5       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 44 Ru 0.005           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solar Photosphere 44 Ru 1.84   0.07         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 44 Ru 1.84   0.07         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 44 Ru 1.86   0.10044     9   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 44 Ru 1.9             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 44 Ru 1.86   0.1     9   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solid Earth 44 Ru 1.3           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 44 Ru 1.3           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Spinel Peridotites 44 Ru 12.4 12 4.1     3 ppb McDonough 1990
Upper Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.34           ng/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Jahn 2001 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Peucker-Eherenbrink & Jahn 2001
Upper Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.34           ng/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 44 Ru 0.34   0.02       ng/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text
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