GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
ALH 77005 Meteorite 53 I 1720           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chassigny Meteorite 53 I 10           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 53 I 433   90.9     11 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100%. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 53 I 560           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 53 I 500           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 53 I 1.5   0.08         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 53 I 0.433   0.0866       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 53 I 0.433           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 53 I 450           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 53 I 434   92     30 ppb Average Iodine abundances in C1 chondrites based on indirect estimates according to Iodine ratios in other chondrite classes (C2, C3 and E4). Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 53 I 433   86.6       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
Continental Crust 53 I 0.7           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 53 I 0.7           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 53 I 0.5           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 53 I 0.8           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 53 I 800           ppb UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Fuge (1974b) and Becker et al. (1972) in the proportions of Figure 2 considering accumulation in C-rich sediments and by using the C/I correlation of Price et al. (1970); LCC = estimated. Wedepohl 1995
Core 53 I 0.13           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 53 I 0.13           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Lower Continental Crust 53 I 0.1           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 53 I 0.14           ppm LCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Fuge (1974a) in the proportions of Figure 2 partly corrected with CI/Br = 1000 ratio. Sedimentary rocks calculated with CI/Br = 290 in seawater. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 53 I 0.14           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Manganese Nodules 53 I 400           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 53 I 1020           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 53 I 28           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Baturin 1988
Marine Pelagic Clay 53 I 0.05           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Shales 53 I 19           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Nakhla Meteorite 53 I 180           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Oceans Deep water 53 I 60           µg/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 1036 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Oceans Surface water 53 I 48           µg/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 2 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Orgueil Chondrite 53 I 430           ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 53 I 433           ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Pacific Ocean Deep Water 53 I 450             Maximum Pacific deep-water concentration. Bruland 1983
Pacific Ocean Surface Water 53 I 250             Minimum central gyre surface concentration. Bruland 1983
Primitive Mantle 53 I 7           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Mass balance. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004 O'Neill & Palme 1998
Primitive Mantle 53 I 10           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
QUE 94201 Meteorite 53 I 4600           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Rivers 53 I 7           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 53 I 0.4     0.2 0.5     Nutrient distribution type. IO3[1-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 53 I 0.01             Ionic composition of seawater as measured in mmol/L. The numbers are constant with time due to the long residence times of the ions in the oceans. von Glasow & Crutzen 2004 Jaenicke 1988
Seawater 53 I 4.4             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = -1. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 53 I 58000             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Valence = 4. Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 53 I 0.44             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 53 I 60           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Seawater 53 I 59           µg/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = PO4 corrected. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Wong & Brewer 1974
Seawater 53 I 60           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Shergotty Meteorite 53 I 43   10       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 53 I 0.01           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 53 I 10           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 53 I 0.01           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Solar System 53 I 0.9   0.189     11   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Average includes meteorites from other than chondrite classes. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 53 I 1.27             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 53 I 0.9   0.189     11   Similarly to Bromine, Iodine abundances were measured via C3's and E4's due to the high level of variance in I abundances from one meteorite to the next. This high variance of I is believed to be caused by the same hydrothermal transport in the meteorite parent body as was found in the Bromine analyses. Using E4's and C3's is a more reliable route to estimating I solar system abundances since they are hydrothermally unaltered meteorites and are rich in other volatiles such as In, Cd, F and Br which correlate well with Iodine. C1's and C2's were also used to counteract the relatively low amounts of data on I/Cd ratios. Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 53 I 0.05           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 53 I 0.05           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Stony Meteorites 53 I 0.0003             Typical activity of selected cosmogenic radionuclides in stony meteorites. Herzog 2004
Upper Continental Crust 53 I 1.4           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by Fuge (1974a) in the proportions of Figure 2 partly corrected with the Cl/Br = 1000 ratio. Sedimentary rocks calculated with CI/Br = 290 in seawater. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 53 I 1.4           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 53 I 1.4           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text
Upper Continental Crust 53 I 1.4           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
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