GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
21¿N EPR   d18O -0.09   0.04     3   Shanks III et al. 1995
21¿N EPR Hydrothermal Vents   d18O 2             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids from the East Pacific Rise Hot Springs. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 350¿C. Temperature at this depth is taken according to adiabatic cooling and using silica concentrations in the fluids as a geobarometer. Bowers & Taylor 1985
41¿N Gorda Ridge   d18O -0.09   0.05     4   Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope values of ambient bottom waters from the Escanaba Trough 41¿N, Gorda Ridge.  Shanks III et al. 1995
9¿N EPR   d18O 0   0.05     10   Shanks III et al. 1995
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites   ?17O       -1.49 -0.85     Ultramafic chondritic Acapulcoite-Lodranite clan measurement range of ?17O. These primitive achondrites have a metamorphic equigranular texture and have their origins from metamorphism and partial melting. Mittlefehldt 2004
Atmosphere 8 O 3.7e+19             Global inventory for atmospheric volatiles as measured in moles. Based on dry tropospheric air. Porcelli & Turekian 2005 Ozima & Podosek 2001
Atmosphere 8 O 20.948             Mole fraction of O2: Oxygen gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 8 O       10 500   ppb Mole fraction of O3: Ozone (troposphere) gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Atmosphere 8 O       0.5 10   ppm Mole fraction of O3: Ozone (stratosphere) gas in dry air. Major sources for these gases in the atmosphere range from biological sources to antropogenic. Prinn 2004 Brasseur et al. 1999
Prinn et al. 2000
Axial Seamount   d18O -0.04   0.03     6   Shanks III et al. 1995
Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles 8 O 3.98         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Porous (CP) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Chondritic Smooth Interplanetary Dust Particles 8 O 4.49         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Chondritic Smooth (CS) Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
CI Chondrites 8 O 8.43   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 8 O 46.5   4.65       wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Elements imcompletely condensed in CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 8 O 46.4           wt% Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 8 O 7.64             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CI Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 8 O 46.5   4.65       wt% Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CM Chondrites 8 O 4.38             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk CM Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles 8 O 3.81         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for Coarse Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) as compared to values for all Chondrite IDPs. Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Comet Halley 8 O 9             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Delsemme 1988. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Delsemme 1988
Comet Halley 8 O 9.17             Elemental abundances found in Comet Halley as measured by Geiss 1987. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Geiss 1987
Comet Halley 8 O 8.99   0.05         Logarithmic abundance relative to log N(H) = 12.00. Normalized to Mg = 7.58. This estimates combines the measurement of both the dust and gas components in the comet Halley. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Jessberger et al. 1988
Continental Crust 8 O 47.2           wt% UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Core 8 O 5.8           wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Core 8 O 3           wt% Major element composition model for Earth Core assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core.  All values given in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Core 8 O 0           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Core. McDonough 2004
Core 8 O 4.1           wt% Geochemical constraints on light elements in the bulk Earth core as given by various sources. Li & Fei 2004 Allegre et al. 1995
Core 8 O 0           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 8 O 4.1   0.5       wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
Endeavour Segment   d18O -0.08   0.06     5   Shanks III et al. 1995
Gulf of California   d18O -0.04   0.03     2   Shanks III et al. 1995
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.8             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Halley Comet Tail   O/C 1.6             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 18.5             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust in the solar system as given in elemental ratios from Heubner 2002. Brownlee 2004 Huebner 2002
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 22.3             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Geiss 1988. Brownlee 2004 Geiss 1988
Halley Comet Tail   O/Mg 15             Relative atomic abundances of gas and dust from Comet Halley as given in elemental ratios from Grun & Jessberger 1990. Brownlee 2004 Grun & Jessberger 1990
Interplanetary Dust Particles 8 O 4.17         30   Mean atomic element/Si ratio for all Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Schramm et al. 1989
Intra Stellar Medium 8 O 8.48   1.272         Abundance of highly volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Savage & Sembach 1996
Juan de Fuca Megaplume   d18O -0.11   0.04     5   Shanks III et al. 1995
L Ordinary Chondrites 8 O 3.49             Mean atomic element/Si ratio for bulk L Chondritic Meteorites, these values are compared to those of the ratios for micrometeorites (IDPs). Bradley 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Mantle 8 O 44           wt% Major element composition of the Earth Mantle. McDonough 2004
Mars Atmosphere   18O/16O 0   50         Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Mars Atmosphere 8 O 48   8.64       ppm Mars surface chemistry from PC-3 Phobos-2 Gamma Ray spectra, where PC-3 (PeriCenter) refers to the trajectory of the Phobos-2 orbit. These values and those of PC-4 are both from USSR and USA science team analyses. McSween, Jr. 2004 Trombka et al. 1992
Mars Atmosphere 8 O 46   12.42       ppm Mars surface chemistry from PC-4 Phobos-2 Gamma Ray spectra, where PC-4 (PeriCenter) refers to the trajectory of the Phobos-2 orbit. These values and those of PC-3 are both from USSR and USA science team analyses. McSween, Jr. 2004 Trombka et al. 1992
Mars Atmosphere 8 O 0.13             Elemental and Isotopic composition of the Martian atmosphere as modeled by Bogard et al. 2001. Isotopic values are given as ratios where elements are given in respect to gas compounds such as CO2, N2, etc. McSween, Jr. 2004 Bogard et al. 2001
Mid-Atlantic Ridge   d18O 0.22   0.15     5   Shanks III et al. 1995
N-MORB   d18O 5.71             Average isotopic values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro isotopic composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Oceans Deep water 8 O 47             Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Dissolved 02. Depth = 891m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Oceans Surface water 8 O 205             Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Species = Dissolved 02. Depth = 22 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
ODP Site 735   d18O 4.35 4.5       22   Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418 8 d18O 9.87             Oxygen isotopic composition of integrated composites from DSDP Site 417/418. These values were taken from analysis of 16 different composites in order to reflect the composition of distinct lithologies over a broad range of depth.  The composites themselves are composed of 6% volcaniclastics, 30% massive flows and 64% pillows (where all proportions were chosen to reflect the crustal composition of the cores taken). Smith et al. 1995
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d18O 9.96             Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by UNOCAL. Staudigel et al. 1995
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d18O 9.96             This analysis represents a super-composite for DSDP Sites 417 and 418 combined. The recipe for this composite can be found in Appendix 1. Staudigel et al. 1996
ODP/DSDP Site 417/418   d18O[cc] 28.33             Super composite DSDP/ODP Site 417/418. Analyses by UNOCAL. Staudigel et al. 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 8 O 46.4         4 wt% Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 8 O 46.4         4   Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982 Wiik 1969
Primitive Mantle 8 O 44.79           wt% Elements of the primitive mantle (PRIMA) measured in weight percent. Allegre et al. 1995
Primitive Mantle 8 O 44.33   0.8866       wt% Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Stoichiometry, with Fe{3+}/SFe = 0.03 Palme & O'Neill 2004 Chaussidon & Jambon 1994
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735   d18O 5.46         8   Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Seawater   d18O 0             Chemical and isotopic compositions of Seawater as based on calculated hydrothermal fluids. Seawater has a high pH and is generally supersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen as well as dolomite and quartz at 2¿C. These elements do not precipitate from seawater at this temperature most likely due to kinetic inhibitions. Elemental concentrations given in mmol/kg at 2¿C.  Bowers & Taylor 1985
Seawater 8 O 54000000             O (as H20). Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 8 O 220             Dissolved 02. Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 8 O 150             This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Species = Dissolved 02. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bainbridge 1979
Seawater 8 O       0 300     Mirror image of nutrient distribution type. O2 and also as H2O is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Silicate Earth 8 O 44           wt% Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 8 O 44           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solar Corona 8 O 8.35   0.2         Coronal spectroscopic results apply variously to the ordinary quiet coronas, active regions, coronal holes or prominences. Found that coronal abundances do not differ from photospheric abundances by more than their uncertainties. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Meyer 1985
Solar Corona 8 O 8.3   0.03         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 8 O 8.3   0.06         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 8 O 8.93   0.035         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 8 O 8.69   0.05         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Allende Prieto et al. 2001
Solar System 8 O 8.69   1.738         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Highly Volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 8 O 14.13             Solar system abundances of major rock forming elements relative to silicon and taken from Palme & Jones Chapter 1.03 of the Treatise of Geochemistry 2004. Clayton 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 8 O 20100000   4020000         Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 8 O 23800000   2380000         Solar atomic abundances. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 8 O 18400000             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar Wind 8 O 8.25   0.15         Anders & Grevesse 1989 Bochsler 1987
Solid Earth 8 O 29.7           wt% Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 8 O 29.7           wt% Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 8 O 29.7           wt% Major element composition of the Bulk Earth. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 8 O 29.7           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Silicon is the light element in the Core. All values given are in wt.%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 8 O 30.7           wt% Major element composition model for Bulk Earth assuming Oxygen is the light element in the Core. All values given in wt%. McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 8 O 32.436           wt% Renormalized elemental compositions of the Earth's Core given in wt.%. These compositions were obtained by using elemental ratio diagrams to extract values for each particular element then using those values in a series of equations derived by the authors. Allegre et al. 1995
South Juan de Fuca Ridge   d18O -0.09   0.04     3   Shanks III et al. 1995
Upper Continental Crust   d18O 9.96             Average isotopic composition of the Upper Crust as derived from composites taken from ODP sites 417/418. Values are taken from varying sources on the same composites in order to compare and contrast with 735B gabbroic isotopic composition which should closeley resemble 417/418. Hart et al. 1999 Staudigel et al. 1995
Smith et al. 1995
Hart & Staudigel 1989
Staudigel et al. 1989
Venus Atmosphere   16O/18O 500   25         Isotopic composition of Venus' atmosphere as obtained by Pioneer Venus Mass Spectroscopy. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Atmosphere   16O/18O 500   80         Isotopic composition of Venus' atmosphere as obtained by IR spectroscopy. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
Wieler 2002
Venus Core 8 O 0           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Condritic Meteorites in Morgan & Anders 1980. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Morgan & Anders 1980
Lodders & Fegley 1998
Venus Core 8 O 9.8           wt% Bulk elemental core composition model for Venus as studied from Equilibrium condensation given by the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project version 4. Fegley, Jr. 2004 Lodders & Fegley 1998
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