GERM Reservoir Database
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GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Amphibolites 80 Hg 4.9         189 ppb Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 80 Hg 26         2754 ppb Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 80 Hg 5.9         121 ppb Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Bone Valley Formation 80 Hg 0.025         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Altschuller 1980
Carbonates 80 Hg 5.3         50 ppb Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 80 Hg 25         2038 ppb Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 5.1           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 7.9           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 9           ppb Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 12.3           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 6.3           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 9.2           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 6.7           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 11.5           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 80 Hg 9.4           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 310   62       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 0.31   0.062       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 1.15   0.08         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 390           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 5300           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 0.258           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 258   30.96       ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 80 Hg 300           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.009           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.08           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.03           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 80 Hg 40           ppb UCC; LCC = calculated from rock averages compiled by the present author partly from Marowski & Wedepohl (1971) and partly from unpublished data of Heinrichs in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.04           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.03           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   Hg/Mn 9.2e-06             Elemental ratios as found in the Continental Crust according to Rudnick and Gao 2003.  As in the text these values are used as comparisons to the Elemental ratios found in Primitive Upper Mantle from McDonough and Sun 1995. Salters & Stracke 2004
Core 80 Hg 0.05           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 80 Hg 0.05           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Depleted Mantle 80 Hg 10           ppb Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Hg/Mn is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 80 Hg 12         260 ppb Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 80 Hg 8.9           ppb Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 80 Hg 8.2           ppb Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 80 Hg 6.4         137 ppb Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 80 Hg 7.2         972 ppb Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 80 Hg 7.2         1226 ppb Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 80 Hg 4.9         402 ppb Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 80 Hg 4.9           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 80 Hg 9.4           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 80 Hg 7.9           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 80 Hg 9.52           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 80 Hg 8.1           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 80 Hg 4.8         136 ppb Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Lower Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.021           ppm LCC = calculated from rock averages of Hamaguchi & Kuroda (1959) in the proportions of Figure 2; Cu/Ag in felsic rocks ranges between 300 and 450. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.0063           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.021           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.014           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Mafic Granulites 80 Hg 5.4         128 ppb Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 80 Hg 9.3         308 ppb Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 80 Hg 0.15           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Haynes et al. 1986
Marine Organisms 80 Hg 0.03           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 80 Hg 0.1           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Pelagic Clay 80 Hg 0.1           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marowsky & Wedepohl 1971
Marine Phosphorites 80 Hg 55 55   25 85 3 ppb Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 80 Hg 400           ppb Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 80 Hg 16         632 ppb Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metafelsic Volcanics 80 Hg 7.3         41 ppb Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.0079           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.0079           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Nakhla Meteorite 80 Hg 0.7           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 24.1           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 11           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 15.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 24.2           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 18           ppb Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Oceans Deep water 80 Hg 4           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 1000 m Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Mukherji & Kester 1979
Oceans Surface water 80 Hg 3           ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = above thermocline. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Mukherji & Kester 1979
Orgueil Chondrite 80 Hg 258           ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Orgueil Chondrite 80 Hg 390         1 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Oulad Abdoun Basin 80 Hg 0.055         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Altschuller 1980
Pelites 80 Hg 29         1341 ppb Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 80 Hg 6.4         69 ppb Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Precambrian Canadian Shield 80 Hg 96           ppb Analyst: Barringer Research Inc. in Bradshaw et al. (1970). Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 80 Hg 6           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Hg/Se = 0.075. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 80 Hg 10           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Pungo River Formation 80 Hg 0.085         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Altschuller 1980
Rivers 80 Hg 0.07           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 80 Hg 5     2 10     Unknown distribution type. HgCl4[2-] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Accuracy and concentration range are uncertain. Bruland 1983
Seawater 80 Hg 5e-06             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 80 Hg 6           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Mukherji & Kester 1979
Seawater 80 Hg 0.42             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 80 Hg 0.005           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Matsunaga et al. 1975
Mukherji & Kester 1979
Silicate Earth 80 Hg 10           ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 80 Hg 0.01           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 80 Hg 0.01           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solar System 80 Hg 0.34   0.0408         Solar atomic abundances. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 80 Hg 0.52   0.26         Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 80 Hg 0.21             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solid Earth 80 Hg 0.02           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 80 Hg 0.02           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 80 Hg 7.7           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 80 Hg 5.4           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 80 Hg 8.1           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 80 Hg 6.4           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 80 Hg 5.3           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 15.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 13.3           ppb Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 22           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 80 Hg 26.6           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 80 Hg 8.2         641 ppb Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 80 Hg 5.9         553 ppb Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.056           ppm UCC = calculated from rock averages of Hamaguchi & Kuroda (1959) in the proportions of Figure 2; Cu/Ag in felsic rocks ranges between 300 and 450. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.056           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.0123           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.096           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.05   0.04       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 80 Hg 0.05           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Yangtze Craton 80 Hg 10.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 80 Hg 12.9           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 80 Hg 8.8           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 80 Hg 10           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 80 Hg 6.2           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
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