GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
ALH 77005 Meteorite 48 Cd 2.1           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 48 Cd 77           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Amphibolites 48 Cd 114         189 ppb Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 48 Cd 77         2754 ppb Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 48 Cd 86         121 ppb Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Bereba Eucrite 48 Cd 8.7           ppb Elemental abundance of the B¿r¿ba meteorite.  Sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Bialystok Howardite 48 Cd 1.8           ppb Elemental abundance of the Bialystok meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of one or several chips between 500-300 mg. No cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Bone Valley Formation 48 Cd 16         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Carbonates 48 Cd 105         2038 ppb Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 48 Cd 130         50 ppb Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 75           ppb Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 61           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 102           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 97           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 75           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 60           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 83           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 75           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 48 Cd 79           ppb Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.04             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.89             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.71             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.42             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.51             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton   Se/Cd 1.64             Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 48 Cd 14.8           ppb Trace element abundances of the Chassigny meteorite given by Treiman et al. 1986.  These values along with those of the C1 Chondrites are used mainly for comparison and normalization of values taken from other sources pertaining to Urelites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Treiman et al. 1986
Chassigny Meteorite 48 Cd 14           ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 650           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 770           ppb C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 680   68       ppb Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 710           ppb Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 686   44.6     30 ppb Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 0.68   0.068       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 0.686           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 720           ppb C1 Chondrite trace element abundances as found by Anders and Ebihara 1982.  All Urelite values given by other sources are normalized to these values simply to put the data on a common scale. Janssens et al. 1987 Anders & Ebihara 1982
CI Chondrites 48 Cd 1.75   0.04         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Constantinople Eucrite 48 Cd 3.5           ppb Elemental abundance of the Constantinople meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.08           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 48 Cd 100           ppb UCC; LCC = calculated from rock averages of Heinrichs et al. (1980) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 48 Cd 98           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 48 Cd 98           ppb Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.08           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.1           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.08           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.2           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Core 48 Cd 0.15           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Core 48 Cd 0.15           ppm Elemental composition of the Earth's core as given in ppm unless stated as wt. %. McDonough 2004
Depleted Mantle 48 Cd 0.014   0.0042       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Cd/Dy is the element ratio/constraint used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diorite 48 Cd 89         260 ppb Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dyalpur Ureilite 48 Cd 22           ppb Trace element values for the Dyalpur meteorite as given in Higuchi et al. 1976.  Mainly used in this study as comparisons to the Kenna and Havero meteorites.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
East China Craton 48 Cd 76           ppb Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Granulites 48 Cd 58         137 ppb Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 48 Cd 64         972 ppb Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts   Zn/Cd   125900 2400     137   Hofmann & White 1983
Fresh MORB in Atlantic Ocean   Zn/Cd   128000 3300     78   Hofmann & White 1983
Fresh MORB in Pacific Ocean   Zn/Cd   123100 3800     54   Hofmann & White 1983
Goalpara Ureilite 48 Cd 1           ppb Trace element abundances of the Goalpara meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Granites 48 Cd 33         402 ppb Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 48 Cd 56         1226 ppb Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Havero Ureilite 48 Cd 20           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero (bulk) meteorite first reported by Higuchi et al. 1976.  These trace element values are given in an effort to resolve a disagreement about Ir and W values being associated with veins or bulk rock. These values are compared to other vein and bulk rock values obtained via other meteorites analyzed in this study. Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Havero Ureilite Vein Metal 48 Cd 105           ppb Trace element abundances of the Havero Vein sample B18-2 analyzed here by Janssens et al. 1987.  According to analysis of the siderophile elements of Havero, this sample is highly enriched in vein material as indicated by noble gas and this trace element data.  .. Janssens et al. 1987
Igneous Rocks 48 Cd 7.1           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of eucrites from Moore County which much like the Serra de Mage is cumulate and unbrecciated. However, Moore County eucrites have less plagioclase than Serra de Mage and the plagioclase that it does have is much less calcic.  According to Hess and Henderson 1949 this eucrite resembles a terrestrial norite in bulk composition. Moore County Morgan et al. 1978
Interior North China Craton 48 Cd 77           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 48 Cd 90           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 48 Cd 67           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 48 Cd 91           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 48 Cd 80           ppb Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Granulites 48 Cd 99         136 ppb Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intra Stellar Medium 48 Cd 1.67   0.167         Abundance of highly volatile elements in the gas phase of Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) as viewed in the direction of Ophiucus star. ISM is viewed as cool gas. Palme & Jones 2004 Sofia et al. 1999
Jonzac Eucrite 48 Cd 3           ppb Elemental abundance of the Jonzac meteorite.  Classified as a eucrite the sample consisted of one or several chips between 500-300 mg, and no cleaning was attempted before irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Juvinas Eucrite 48 Cd 65           ppb Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Morgan & Lovering 1973
Juvinas Eucrite 48 Cd 29           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances of the Juvinas eucrite, which is a typical brecciated sample.  Juvinas was analyzed according to various types of Neutron Activation Analysis and it was found to be compositionally similar to Ibitira eucrite. Other characteristics that define Juvinas are its mineral assemblages and oriented textures with lithic clasts several centimeters wide, and positive Eu anomalies which resembles rocks from a layered igneous intrusion.  Morgan et al. 1978
Kapoeta Howardite 48 Cd 1.6           ppb Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Laul et al. 1972
Kapoeta Howardite 48 Cd 7.6           ppb Elemental abundance of the Kapoeta meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of dark material from the gas-rich, brecciated meteorite were obtained by Dr. Brian Mason (U.S. National Museum). Laul et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 48 Cd 12.8         1 ppb Abundances of the trace elements found in the Kenna Meteorite taken from sample H159.23 from the American Meteorite Laboratory.  This bulk urelite sample is the richest in siderophile elements. Janssens et al. 1987
Kenna Ureilite Vein Metal 48 Cd 20.2           ppb Trace element abundances of the Kenna Vein material which in fact was a hand picked separate of only 33mg.  According to this analysis of the siderophile elements it is only slightly enriched in vein material.  Janssens et al. 1987
Lafayette Nakhlite 48 Cd 92           ppb Elemental abundance of the Lafayette meteorite.  Classified as a Nakhlite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.101           ppm Interpolated from smooth curve of chondrite normalized REE distribution in the continental crust. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.097           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.1           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.101           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 98           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.098           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
MacKenzie River Particulates 48 Cd 0.81           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mafic Granulites 48 Cd 121         128 ppb Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Intrusions 48 Cd 96         308 ppb Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Manganese Nodules 48 Cd 10           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Marine Organisms 48 Cd 0.72           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 48 Cd 0.42           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 48 Cd 0.42           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Phosphorites 48 Cd 18 18   0 40 8 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Phosphorites   Zn/Cd 10             Trace element ratios for Marine Phosphorite using values given in a previous table (table 4). Ratio values used to differentiate Phosphorites, Shales and Apatite. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 48 Cd 0.3           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 48 Cd 0.3           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales   Zn/Cd 300             Ratios of trace element values given in table 5 for Shale according to Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Values used to differentiate Shale, Phosphorite and Apatite. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 48 Cd 130         632 ppb Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 48 Cd 0.005         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 48 Cd 2           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Metafelsic Volcanics 48 Cd 94         41 ppb Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.061           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.061           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Mississippi River Particulates 48 Cd 1.4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Molteno Howardite 48 Cd 88           ppb Elemental abundance of the Molteno meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of light material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Monterey Formation 48 Cd 200         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Chemically determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Nakhla Meteorite 48 Cd 93   31       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nakhla Nakhlite 48 Cd 71           ppb Elemental abundance of the Nakhla meteorite.  Classified as a Nakhlite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 48 Cd 30           ppb Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 78           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 81           ppb Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 86           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 89           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 77           ppb Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
Novo-Urei Ureilite 48 Cd 13           ppb Trace element abundances of the Novo Urei meteorite originally given by Higuchi et al. 1976. Novo Urei happens to be the second in line as far as richest in siderophile element abundances, second only to Kenna Meteorite.  Janssens et al. 1987 Higuchi et al. 1976
Ocean Island Basalts   Zn/Cd   94000 2800     18   Hofmann & White 1983
Oceans Deep water 48 Cd 117           ng/kg Deep ocean water is ~1,000 m depth. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 985 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Oceans Surface water 48 Cd 0.3           ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Depth = 0 m. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Orgueil Chondrite 48 Cd 673         17 ppb Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 48 Cd 680         21 ppb Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Oulad Abdoun Basin 48 Cd 10         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10ppm. Altschuller 1980
Pacific Ocean Deep Water 48 Cd 1.1             Maximum Pacific deep-water concentration. Bruland 1983
Pacific Ocean Surface Water 48 Cd       0.001 0.002     Minimum central gyre surface concentration. Bruland 1983
Pelites 48 Cd 92         69 ppb Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 48 Cd 100         1341 ppb Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Phosphoria Formation 48 Cd         0.005 61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 48 Cd 40         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Chemically determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 48 Cd 75           ppb Weighted mean calculated from Heinrichs et al. (1980). Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 48 Cd 40   12       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 48 Cd 64           ppb Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 48 Cd 64           ppb Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: Cd/Zn = 1.2 ¿ 0.5E-3. Standard deviations are uncertain and greater than 50%. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 210000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Larimer 1971
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 1020000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Ganapathy & Anders 1974
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 370000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Ringwood & Kesson 1977
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 270000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Smith 1977
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 350000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone. Hofmann & White 1983 Sun & Nesbitt 1977
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 126000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba according to analysis performed by Hofmann and White 1983.  Abundance values found to be in agreement with published values for these same elements, aside from Cs, which was far from previously published data.  Hofmann & White 1983
Primitive Mantle   Zn/Cd 920000             Abundances for K, Rb, Cs and Ba in the primitive mantle published in various different sources, used by Hofmann and White 1983 to validate abundance values attained by their analysis.  Most all values are in general agreement between all sources and the analysis of Hofmann and White, except for Cs/Rb which has major discrepancies with previously published data which cannot be deciphered using the Hofmann & White analysis alone.  Hofmann & White 1983 Palme et al. 1981
Pungo River Formation 48 Cd 20         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Chemically Determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 48 Cd         0.005 20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
River Particulates 48 Cd 1           µg/g Composition average value is unsubstantiated estimate. World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 48 Cd 0.01           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle et al. 1982
Seawater 48 Cd 70           ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Bruland 1980
Seawater 48 Cd 0.0007             Broeker & Peng 1982
Seawater 48 Cd 0.7     0.001 1.1     Nutrient distribution type. CdCl2[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 48 Cd 0.07           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982 Boyle 1976
Bruland 1980
Seawater 48 Cd 79             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Sera de Mage Eucrite 48 Cd 5.3           ppb Element abundances of the Serra de Mage eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  These values are placed against the values found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to INAA. Morgan et al. 1978 Laul et al. 1972
Sera de Mage Eucrite 48 Cd 5.3           ppb Elemental abundance of the Serra de Mag¿ meteorite.  Classified as an unbrecciated eucrite, the sample used was a powder which had been reconstituted in the original proportions from magnetically separated pyroxene and feldspar fractions. Laul et al. 1972
Sera de Mage Eucrite 48 Cd 10           ppb Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Shergotty Meteorite 48 Cd 28   16       ppb Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Shergotty Shergottite 48 Cd 44           ppb Elemental abundance of the Shergotty meteorite.  Classified as a Shergottite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Silicate Earth 48 Cd 0.04           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 48 Cd 0.04           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 48 Cd 40   12       ppb Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Solar Photosphere 48 Cd 1.8   0.15         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00 Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 48 Cd 1.77   0.11         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar System 48 Cd 1.77   0.531         Solar system abundance of volatile and refractory elements based on calculations from Palme & Jones 2004 on Highly Volatile elements. Palme & Jones 2004
Solar System 48 Cd 1.61   0.1047     30   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 48 Cd 1.55             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solar System 48 Cd 1.69   0.10985     24   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solid Earth 48 Cd 0.08           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Solid Earth 48 Cd 0.08           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
South Margin of North China Craton 48 Cd 86           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 48 Cd 83           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 48 Cd 86           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 48 Cd 87           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 48 Cd 94           ppb Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 89           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 78           ppb Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 77           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 48 Cd 98           ppb Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Spinel Peridotites 48 Cd 41 37 14     16 ppb McDonough 1990
Stannern Trend Eucrites 48 Cd 1.7           ppb Elemental abundance of the Stannern  meteorite sample 2.  Classified as a eucrite the sample was taken from a region of the meteorite that has a pure white/grey color.  Conversley to sample 1, this sample has lower abundances of trace elements. Laul et al. 1972
Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk 48 Cd 30         38 ppm Siliceous and clayey phosphorites from the Altai-Sayan geosyncline Tamalyk Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. Chemically determined, U.S. Geological Survey Lab. Detection Limit = 10 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Chaikina & Nikolskaya 1970
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 48 Cd 58         553 ppb Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 48 Cd 66         641 ppb Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 98           ppb Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.102           ppm Interpolated from smooth curve of chondrite normalized REE distribution in the continental crust. Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.09           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.102           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.09   0.01       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text








Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.079           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.098           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 48 Cd 0.075           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Washougal Howardite 48 Cd 15           ppb Elemental abundance of the Washougal meteorite.  Classified as a Howardite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
Yangtze Craton 48 Cd 77           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 48 Cd 78           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 48 Cd 50           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 48 Cd 70           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 48 Cd 81           ppb Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Zagami Shergottite 48 Cd 71           ppb Elemental abundance of the Zagami meteorite.  Classified as a Shergottite, the sample itself consists of material from one or several chips between 500 and 300 mg. No cleaning was attempted prior to irradiation. Laul et al. 1972
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