GERM Reservoir Database
Development and Maintenance by the EarthRef.org Database Team

GERM Database Search Results        
Reservoir Z Element Value Median SD Low High N Unit Info Reference Source(s)
Acapulcoite Primitive Achondrites 21 Sc 8.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Yanai & Kojima 1991
Zipfel et al. 1995
Active Continental Rifts 21 Sc 28           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Active Continental Rifts 21 Sc 20           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Alaska Trench 21 Sc 16.96           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Alborz Mountains 21 Sc 30         3 ppm Phosphorite sandstones, quartzose and ferruginous, in sequence of phosphatic black shales, sandstones and limestones, platform setting, P2O5: 24-28% from the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Aval et al. 1968
Aleutian Basalts 21 Sc 38.71         20 ppm Average major and trace element values for Aleutian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Aleutian Trench 21 Sc 17.57           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
ALH 77005 Meteorite 21 Sc 21   1       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH77005 meteorite, which is a lherzolitic shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84001 Meteorite 21 Sc 13   1       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by ALH84001 meteorite, which is an orthopyroxenite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
ALH 84025 Brachinite 21 Sc 13.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALH 84025 Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989a
ALHA 77257 Urelite 21 Sc 7.7           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA77257 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA 81101 Urelite 21 Sc 7.2           µg/g Trace element compositional data on ALHA81101 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Spitz & Boynton 1991
ALHA77081 Acapulcoite 21 Sc 10.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Acapulcoite ALHA77081. Mittlefehldt 2004 Schultz et al. 1982
Allende Meteorite 21 Sc 11.9           µg/g Concentratons of elements in the Allende chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Amazon River Particulates 21 Sc 18           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Amphibolites 21 Sc 43.2         189 ppm Average of 165 subsamples and 24 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Andaman Trench 21 Sc 11.74           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Andes Basalt 21 Sc 26.54         28 ppm Average major and trace element values for Andean Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 21 Sc 20           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 20           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 20           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 27.9         50 ppm Average Aleutian Andeiste major and minor element composition taken from Plank and Langmuir 1988. Andesite was used in this case to correct for the ash layer which was omitted from sampling of the upper unit of the Aleutian trench. Plank & Langmuir 1998 Plank & Langmuir 1988
Andesites 21 Sc 20           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 23           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 18           ppm Condie 1993
Andesites 21 Sc 17.55         25 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Aleutian Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Andesites 21 Sc 22           ppm Condie 1993
Angrite Angra Dos Reis 21 Sc 49.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Angra dos Reis Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Angrite LEW 87051 21 Sc 36           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Angrite LEW 87051. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt & Lindstrom 1990
Archean Terrains 21 Sc 30           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Archean Terrains 21 Sc 20           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Archean Terrains 21 Sc 14           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Arenaceous Rocks 21 Sc 14.8         121 ppm Average of 110 subsamples and 11 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Arenaceous Rocks 21 Sc 9.2         2754 ppm Average of 2628 subsamples and 126 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Ashy Clay 21 Sc 14.3         4 ppm Average of 4 ashy clays after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure SiO2 and CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is minor at 1.7% pure silica and 2.5% CaCO3 in this 85 m deep unit. Sc is calculated from Sc/Al in the nanno ooze. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Aubres Aubrite 21 Sc 6.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Aubres Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Wolf et al. 1983
Australian Granite 21 Sc 13         1074 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Hornblende Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Wormald & Price 1988
Australian Granite 21 Sc 15.2           ppm Analysis of A-type Lachlan Fold Belt Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Collins et al. 1982
Australian Granite 21 Sc 3         6 ppm Analysis of A-type Padthaway Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Turner et al. 1992
Australian Granite 21 Sc 11         704 ppm Analysis of Lachlan Fold Belt Cordierite Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Chappell & White 1992
Australian Granite 21 Sc 14         8 ppm Analysis of Oceanic Arc Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Whalen 1985
Baldissero Spinel Lherzolites 21 Sc 14.4   0.9     14 ppm Elements analyzed from Baldissero section of Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Balmuccia Spinel Lherzolites 21 Sc 15.9   3.1     18 ppm Elements analyzed from Balmuccia section of the Ivrea Complex in Northern Italy. Minor and trace elements analyzed by AAS, INAA, RFA, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Isotope dilution, Electrometry or Coulometry. Accuracy of all methods checked by USGS reference rocks. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Bambui Group 21 Sc 10         14 ppm Silty and clayey pelletal phosphorites located in the intra-cratonic basin Bambui group Minas Geraes in Brazil. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart 1974
Barea Mesosiderite 21 Sc 18.19           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Barea Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason & Jarosewich 1973
Mittlefehldt in press
Basalts 21 Sc 33           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 35           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 33           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 37           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 40           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 35           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 37           ppm Condie 1993
Basalts 21 Sc 17         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taiwanese Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 1995
Basalts 21 Sc 23.7         27 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Western U.S. Sierra Nevada Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Farmer et al. 2002
Basalts 21 Sc 12.5         7 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Italian Roman V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Conticelli et al. 1997
Basalts 21 Sc 14.2         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Late Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 21 Sc 27.4         10 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Taiwanese Mt. Tsaoling Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Chung et al. 2001
Basalts 21 Sc 16         3 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central Anatolian (Turkey) Early Miocene continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Wilson et al. 1997
Basalts 21 Sc 19.5         6 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Chinese Tibetan Plateau Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Turner et al. 1996a
Basalts 21 Sc 30.4         16 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for African Virunga V.F. High Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Rogers et al. 1998
Basalts 21 Sc 20.6         4 ppm Average major and trace element values for NE China Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Chung 1999
Basalts 21 Sc 27.3         13 ppm Average major and trace element compositions for Aegean Sea Dodecanese V.F. Low Ti Cenozoic continental potassic alkali basalt along with selected elemental and isotopic ratio abundances associated with these provinces. Farmer 2004 Robert et al. 1992
Basalts 21 Sc 22         8 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Dubbo V.F. Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Zhang & O'Reilly 1997
Basalts 21 Sc 29.5         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Arabian Peninsula in Yemen Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Baker et al. 1997
Basalts 21 Sc 20.1         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Vietnamese Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Hoang & Flower 1998
Basalts 21 Sc 25.3         12 ppm Average major and trace element values for Taos Plateau, Rio Grande Rift Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Dungan et al. 1986
Basalts 21 Sc 19.2         23 ppm Average major and trace element values for N. Tanzania-East African Rift Cenozoic continental sodic alkali basalt as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Paslick et al. 1995
Basalts 21 Sc 19.3         7 ppm Average major and trace element values for SE Australian Newer V.P. Tholeiitic Basalts as well as selected elemental and isotopic ratios. Farmer 2004 Price et al. 1997
Basic Precambrian Granulites 21 Sc 36         25 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Binda Eucrite 21 Sc 14.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Binda Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Bone Valley Formation 21 Sc 6         8 ppm Pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey phosphorites reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the Hawthorn carbonate platform (Bone Valley Formation, Florida, U.S.A.); average eight composites: four pebble and four pellet concentrates composited from one week's production at each of four mining localities in Land Pebble Field, representative of approximately 100,000 tons, P2O5: 30-35%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Boninites 21 Sc 36.45         54 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Arc Boninites (High-Mg Andesites) given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Brachina Brachinite 21 Sc 12           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Brachina Brachinite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Nehru et al. 1983
Brown Clay 21 Sc 20.9         4 ppm Average of 4 brown clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Clay 21 Sc 13.6         29 ppm The brown clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Brown Rock 21 Sc 8         3 ppm Residually concentrated pelletal phosphorite from 'Brown Rock' Tennessee, U.S.A. Ordovician carbonate platform, decalcified during late Tertiary to Recent, P2O5 = 11, 27, 29%, samples include one production composite. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Al/Sc 0.15   0.009         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.16   0.009         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Sc/Yb 36.4   1.8         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonaceous Chondrites   Ti/Sc 75   6         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including CI, CM, CO, CV and CK. McDonough & Sun 1995
Carbonate 21 Sc 4.8         13 ppm The average Ca-carbonate in this unit is 80% based on Leg 67 shipboard carbonate bomb analyses. The analyses have been adjusted accordingly for 45% CaO. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonate Turbidites 21 Sc 7.2         87 ppm Average of 87 Cenozoic carbonate turbidites in 100 m of the total of 500 m ODP section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Carbonates 21 Sc 1.3         50 ppm Average of 45 subsamples and 5 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Carbonates 21 Sc 2         2038 ppm Average of 1922 subsamples and 116 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Cascade Basalt 21 Sc 34.24         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Cascades Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Cascadia Trench 21 Sc 17.06           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central America Trench 21 Sc 7.67           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Central American Basalts 21 Sc 33.2         13 ppm Average major and trace element values for Central American Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 24           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated according to 70% intermediate granulite plus 15% mafic granulite plus 15% metapelite from central East China (Appendix 1; for detailed explanation see text). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 26           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 13           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 23           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith using the median values of Rudnick & Fountain (1995). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 19           ppm Average composition for Central East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Central East China Craton 21 Sc 16           ppm Compostional estimate of the entire Central East China province. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Chassigny Achondrite 21 Sc 4.8   0.1       ppm Elemental abundances of the Chassigny Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Chassigny Meteorite 21 Sc 5.3   0.4       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Chassigny meteorite (chassignite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Chaunskij Mesosiderite 21 Sc 20.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Chaunskij Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Petaev et al. 2000
Chert 21 Sc 2.7         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Chert 21 Sc 4.4         4 ppm Average of 4 brown chert analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
CI Chondrites   Al/Sc 0.145             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.156             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.9   0.177       ppm Composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as based on CI Chondritic major and trace element compositions from Chapter 1.03 Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.82   0.501     18 ppm Mean C1 chondrite from atomic abundances based on C = 3.788E-3*H*A where C = concentration; H = atomic abundance and A = atomic weight. Values are not normalised to 100% Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.92           ppm Based on measurements on 3 out of 5 carbonaceous chrondrites namely Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.82           ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system from Anders & Grevesse 1989 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Anders & Grevesse 1989
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.9   0.177       ppm Abundance of elements in the solar system based off of Palme & Beer 1993 study of CI meteorites. Palme & Jones 2004 Palme & Beer 1993
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 8.55           ppm Average calculated for volatile-free C1 chondrites after McDonough (1987). McDonough et al. 1992
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.9           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Palme 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Palme 1988
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.8           ppm C1 Carbonaceous chondrite major and minor element compositions as given in Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988. These values are given in an effort to accurately represent the C1 chondrites as based on an array of sources and derive a revised model for the composition of the Earth. McDonough & Sun 1995 Wasson & Kallemeyn 1988
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 5.98           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on C1 Chondrite compositions analyzed by various sources. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme et al. 1981
Anders & Ebihara 1982
Beer et al. 1984
Jochum et al. 1986
CI Chondrites 21 Sc 3.08   0.01         CI Meteorite derived solar system abundances of various elements. Palme & Jones 2004
CI Chondrites   Sc/Yb 36.8             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74.3             Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites. McDonough & Sun 1995
CI Chondrites   V/Sc 9.4             Selected ratios for C1 Chondrite averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Clastic Turbidites 21 Sc 17.1         28 ppm In this homogeneous turbidite unit 28 analyses were used to calculate an average by weighting interval height and lithology. Proportions of sand, silt and clay were estimated from core descriptions. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Colombia Trench 21 Sc 2.15           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Congo River Particulates 21 Sc 12           µg/g Elemental particulates in major African rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Continental Arc Andesite 21 Sc 32.51         110 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Continental Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arc Andesite 21 Sc 20.98         41 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Continental Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Continental Arcs 21 Sc 33           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Arcs 21 Sc 24           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust   Cu/Sc 1.23             Elemental ratios as found in the Continental Crust according to Rudnick and Gao 2003.  As in the text these values are used as comparisons to the Elemental ratios found in Primitive Upper Mantle from McDonough and Sun 1995. Salters & Stracke 2004
Continental Crust 21 Sc 30           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 21.9           µg/g Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 21 Sc 22           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 30           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 16           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976); LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 13           ppm Simple average between the LCC and UCC estimates. The LCC is based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3); the UCC is given in Table 1. Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust 21 Sc 17.4           ppm Bulk continental crust concentrations of minor and trace elements as based on Wedepohl 1991 and considering a Upper to Lower crust ratio of 43:57 respectively. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Continental Crust 21 Sc 16           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Continental Crust as based on the study by Wedepohl 1994. Major elements are given as Oxides whereas the minor elements are given in singularly in ppm. Rudnick & Fountain 1995 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 22           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Taylor 1964. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor 1964
Continental Crust 21 Sc 19           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Continental Crust 21 Sc 16           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Wedepohl 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 22           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 21.9           µg/g Recommended composition of the Bulk Continental Crust where the total-crust composition is calculated according to the upper, middle and lower-crust compositions obtained in this study and corresponding weighing factors of 0.317, 0.296 and 0.388. The weighing factors are based on the layer thickness of the global continental crust, recalculated from crustal structure and areal proportion of various tectonic units given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Crust 21 Sc 30           ppm Enrichment of elements in the bulk continental crust given by Rudnick & Gao from Chapter 3.1 of the Treatise on Geochemistry 2004. Palme & O'Neill 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 21 Sc 21.9           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Bulk Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Continental Crust 21 Sc 13           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Shaw et al. 1986. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1986
Continental Crust   Zn/Sc 3.29             Elemental ratios as found in the Continental Crust according to Rudnick and Gao 2003.  As in the text these values are used as comparisons to the Elemental ratios found in Primitive Upper Mantle from McDonough and Sun 1995. Salters & Stracke 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 60.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 21.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 3.9           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 31.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 1.5           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 94.4           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 5.1           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov et al. 1997
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 4.42           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 2.1           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Eggins et al. 1998
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 15.9           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Glaser et al. 1999
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 12 12 4     273   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Intraplate Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 29           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 111           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Intraplate Xenoliths 21 Sc 8.2           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Ionov 1996
Continental Rift Xenoliths 21 Sc 11 10 5     23   Mean and median whole rock composition of Continental Rift Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Continental Shields & Platforms 21 Sc 22           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Continental Shields & Platforms 21 Sc 30           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Core 21 Sc 0           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Cratonic Xenoliths 21 Sc 4 4 3     232   Mean and median whole rock composition of Cratonic Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Cratonic Xenoliths 21 Sc 43           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gergoire et al. 2002
Cratonic Xenoliths 21 Sc 24           ppm Representative trace element analyses of minerals from peridotite xenoliths from different lithologies and different regions. These minerals vary from garnet, cpx, and spinel to amphibole, phlogopite and carbonate and vary from being cratonic to 'off cratonic' generally from a region of continental intraplate xenoliths. Pearson et al. 2004 Gregoire et al. 2002
D'Orbigny Angrite 21 Sc 40.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on D'Orbigny Angrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt et al. 2002
Danube River Particulates 21 Sc 16           µg/g Elemental particulates in major European rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Depleted Mantle 21 Sc 16.3   2.119       ppm Estimate for the concentrations in the Depleted Mantle of most of the elements of the Periodic Table.  Sc-CaO is the element ratio used to make this estimate. Salters & Stracke 2004
Diatom Oozes & Clay 21 Sc 9.9         15 ppm Weighted average based on DCP analyses for 200 m of diatom oozes. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Clay 21 Sc 14.6         6 ppm Upper 240 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by diatom clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Mud 21 Sc 17.1         6 ppm Based on smear slides an average of 35% biogenic opal (SiO2) has been estimated, which is consistent with 17 wt% biogenic opal estimated from shipboard logs. The 6 analyses have simply been averaged since the SiO2 content is consistently ~57%. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diatome Ooze 21 Sc 16.7         4 ppm This ash-rich diatom ooze contains 50% diatoms and 7% ash particles. The individual analyses therefore have been diluted with 65% SiO2 based on an average 75% SiO2 in the diatoms. The analyses were further enriched by adding an average Aleutian andesite (Plank & Langmuir, 1988) to represent the ash layers in this section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Diorite 21 Sc 20.6         260 ppm Average of 243 subsamples and 17 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Dover Sandstone 21 Sc 18         4 ppm Phosphatic pebbles and cements from nearshore, quartzose sandstones and siltstones of the mid-Paleozoic platform: Neptune Range (Dover Sandstones in the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica). P2O5 = greater than 26%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Cathcart & Schmidt 1974
DSDP/ODP Site 800 21 Sc 6.4           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
DSDP/ODP Site 801 21 Sc 7.48           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
E-MORB 21 Sc 36           ppm Compositie analyses on E-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this E-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-004-002. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 22             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 21             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.2             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.7             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 21 Sc 11           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust 21 Sc 13.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.71             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Archean Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.57             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 4.2             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 4.1             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.1             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 14.5           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 16.3           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.56             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Early Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.72             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
East China Craton 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average worldwide mafic granulite xenolith (Rudnick & Fountain, 1995). Gao et al. 1998
East China Craton 21 Sc 19           ppm Compostional estimate of East China. Assuming that the lowermost crust is represented by the average mafic granulite from Archean high-grade terrains in Central East China (Appendix 1). Gao et al. 1998
East Sunda Trench 21 Sc 11.7           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
EET 83309 Urelite 21 Sc 7.8           µg/g Trace element compositional data on EET 83309 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1989b
EET 84302 Acapulcoite 21 Sc 7.35           µg/g Trace element compositional data on achondrite EET84302 which is between Acapulcoite and lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Enstatite Chondrites   Al/Sc 0.145   0.007         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.143   0.014         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Sc/Yb 37.9   3.1         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Enstatite Chondrites   Ti/Sc 74   7         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including EL and EH. McDonough & Sun 1995
Estherville Mesosiderite 21 Sc 19.88           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Estherville Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Felsic Archean Granulites 21 Sc 6 5       91 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Granulites 21 Sc 14.7         137 ppm Average of 116 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Post-Archean Granulites 21 Sc 13 13       59 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 16           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 16           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 12.3         972 ppm Average of 895 subsamples and 77 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 16           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 13           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 10           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 15           ppm Condie 1993
Felsic Volcanics 21 Sc 17           ppm Condie 1993
Frankfort Howardites 21 Sc 20.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Frankfort Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Palme et al. 1978
Fresh Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 21 Sc 36.75         45 ppm Average major and trace element values for Primitive MORB given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Fresh MORB in Indian Ocean 21 Sc 30.3           ppm Analyses on MORB glasses from the Indian Ocean as given by Klein et al. 1991. Klein 2004 Klein et al. 1991
Ganges River Particulates 21 Sc 11.5           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Garnet Peridotites 21 Sc   6         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Gibson Lodranite 21 Sc 10.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Gibson Lodranite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Goalpara Ureilite 21 Sc 6.3   0.1       ppm Elemental abundances of the Goalpara Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Granites 21 Sc 5.4         402 ppm Average of 369 subsamples and 33 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 21 Sc 3.9         1226 ppm Average of 1140 subsamples and 86 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Granites 21 Sc 5         8 ppm Analysis of Glenelg River Complex Leucogranite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Kemp 2001
Granites 21 Sc 4.7           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Granites 21 Sc 5           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 21 Sc 5           ppm Condie 1993
Granites 21 Sc 4           ppm Condie 1993
Granulites 21 Sc 26 24       159 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulites 21 Sc 13 8       152 ppm Average of granulite facies terrains. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Granulitic Xenolites 21 Sc 34 35       98 ppm Average of granulite facies xenoliths. Rudnick & Presper 1990
Graywackes 21 Sc 14           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 21 Sc 15           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 21 Sc 17           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 21 Sc 15           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 21 Sc 14           ppm Condie 1993
Graywackes 21 Sc 14           ppm Condie 1993
Greater Antilles Basalt 21 Sc 33.21         14 ppm Average major and trace element values for Greater Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Green Clay 21 Sc 19.3         3 ppm Silty clay (37.5%), clay (50%) and nannofossil ooze (12.5%) make up this section. Two analyses have been made for silty clay and the clay lithologies, whereas the ooze is assumed to contain 56% CaO, 44% CO2 and 1000 ppm Sr. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Greywackes 21 Sc 16           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka and Germany using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Havero Urelite 21 Sc 4.9           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Havero Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Hydrothermal Sediment 21 Sc 12.7         4 ppm Average of 4 hydrothermal sediments or clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
IAB Campo del Cielo 21 Sc 5.9           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Campo del Cielo. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Landes 21 Sc 9.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Landes. Mittlefehldt 2004 Bild 1977
IAB Udei Station 21 Sc 12.6           µg/g Trace element compositional data on IAB from Udei Station. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Ibitira Eucrite 21 Sc 29.1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Ibitira Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Jarosewich 1990
Barrat et al. 2000
Igneous Rocks 21 Sc 24           ppm Element abundances of Moore County eucrites as found by various other sources.  These values are used for comparison to values obtained in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to some form of Neutron Activation Analysis. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Interior North China Craton 21 Sc 23           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 21 Sc 17           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
Interior North China Craton 21 Sc 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the interior of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Interlayerd Clay & Chert 21 Sc 3.3         2 ppm Bottom 65 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by interlayered clay and chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Chert & Limestone 21 Sc 2.7         5 ppm Average of 5 chert and limestone analyses. Due to the poor recovery of these notoriously hard chert beds, this chert section may be overdiluted by silica causing an underestimation of the geochemical abundances. The dilution factors have therefore been based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. The logging data was also used to determine the average CaO as calcium carbonate to dilute all elements (except Sr) accordingly. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Interlayered Clay & Chert 21 Sc 19         12 ppm This interval is estimated to be 25% chert based on core descriptions. Average clay from 30-58 m depth is diluted with 25% chert at 100% Si. Average of 12 cherts and clays using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Intermediate Granulites 21 Sc 21.8         136 ppm Average of 115 subsamples and 21 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Intermediate Mafic Archean Granulites 21 Sc 17 17       15 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 21 Sc 22 19       19 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 21 Sc 27 27       41 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Intermediate Precambrian Granulites 21 Sc 20         26 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Island Arc Andesite 21 Sc 26.14         18 ppm Average major and trace element values from Primitive Oceanic Arc Andesites given by Kelemen et al. 2004. All major element oxide values are given in wt. % and trace elements in ppm. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arc Andesite 21 Sc 36.37         112 ppm Average major and trace element values for Average Oceanic Arc Basalt given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Island Arcs 21 Sc 30           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Island Arcs 21 Sc 14         323 ppm Analysis of Continental Arc Granite from the Peninsula Range Batholith represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Silver & Chappell 1998
Izu-Bonin Trench 21 Sc 3.81           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Japan Trench 21 Sc 12.29           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Java Trench 21 Sc 14.8           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Johnstown Diogenite 21 Sc 15.8           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Johnstown Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Juvinas Eucrite 21 Sc 29           ppm Element concentrations for Juvinas eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  This particular sample has been studied quite a bit, so relevant data to compare to values found by this study (Morgan et al. 1978) are in great abundance. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Wanke et al. 1972
Kamchatka Basalt 21 Sc 35.33         40 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kamchatka Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kamchatka Trench 21 Sc 5.09           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kapoeta Howardites 21 Sc 20.7           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Kapoeta Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1972
Kenna Ureilite 21 Sc 8.5   0.1       ppm Elemental abundances of the Kenna Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Kerm Trench 21 Sc 18.8           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Kermadec Basalts 21 Sc 35.8         10 ppm Average major and trace element values for Kermadec Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Kimberlite 21 Sc 14         22 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic ratio data for Koidu Kimberlites from Sierra Leone. Farmer 2004 Taylor et al. 1994
Komatiites 21 Sc 28           ppm Condie 1993
Kuriles Trench 21 Sc 12.29           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
La Caja Formation 21 Sc 6         8 ppm Gray, calcareous, pelletal phosphorites in a sequence of offshore cherty and silty limestones of the Mexican geosyncline, La Caja Formation in Concepcion del Oro of the Zacatecas province, Mexico. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Rogers et al. 1956
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 13             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 13             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.3             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 21 Sc 10.7           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust 21 Sc 12.5           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.76             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Archean Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.63             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.3             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.3             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.2             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 14.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 15.7           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.61             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Late Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.75             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Lesser Antilles Basalt 21 Sc 34.76         44 ppm Average major and trace element values for Lesser Antilles Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
LL Ordinary Chondrites 21 Sc 10           µg/g Concentratons of elements in mean LL chondrites which were determined by both INAA and RNAA. After analyses, the sameples were then prepared in thin section and prepared for optic analyses by electron microprobe. Grossman & Wasson 1985
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 31           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 36           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 25.3           ppm LCC = Rudnick & Presper (1990) in the proportions of Figure 2. Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 19           ppm Based on the mean values of estimates of the regional abundances of high metamorphic grade Precambrian rock types ad divided by SiO2 contents into ultrabasis, basic, intermediate and silica-rich (see Table 3). Shaw et al. 1986
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 40           ppm Present day Lower Continental Crust composition as given in Taylor & McLennan 1981. Values are used as one of many models of Lower Continental crustal composition to which other such analyses are compared. Shaw et al. 1986 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 31           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Lower Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 29           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Presper 1990 using median worldwide lower crustal xenoliths. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Presper 1990
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 31           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995 using global average seismic velocities and granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 16           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994 using Kapuskasing Structural Zone granulites. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 33           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Rudnick and Taylor 1987 using lower crustal xenoliths from the McBride Province, Queensland, Australia. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Taylor 1987
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 28           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Condie and Selverstone 1999 using lower crustal xenoliths from the four corners region, Colorado Plateu, USA. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie & Selverstone 1999
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 17           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Villaseca et al. 1999 using lithologic proportions of lover crustal xenoliths from Central Spain. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Villaseca et al. 1999
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 20           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Liu et al. 2001 using lower crustal xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Liu et al. 2001
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 31           µg/g Recommended composition of the Lower Continental crust as given by various sources. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace element concentrations are given in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 25           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Wedepohl 1995 using lower crust in Western Europe derived from siesmic data and granulite xenolith composition. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 26           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a using seismic velocities and granulite data from the North China craton. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998a
Lower Continental Crust 21 Sc 35           µg/g Major and trace element compositional estimates of the lower continental crust as given by Taylor and McLennan 1985, 1995 using average lower crustal abundances. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements in either ng/g or ¿g/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Luzon Basalt 21 Sc 36.32         5 ppm Average major and trace element values for Luzon Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
MAC 88177 Lodranite 21 Sc 8.97           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite MAC 88177. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Macibini Eucrites 21 Sc 29.2           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Macibini Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1973
Buchanan et al. 2000b
Mafic Archean Granulites 21 Sc 39 41       23 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Granulites 21 Sc 43.7         128 ppm Average of 93 subsamples and 35 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Granulitic Xenolites 21 Sc 35 34       92 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mafic Intrusions 21 Sc 31.8         308 ppm Average of 276 subsamples and 32 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mafic Post-Archean Granulites 21 Sc 45 43       33 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Magdalena River Particulates 21 Sc 21           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Makran Trench 21 Sc 17.63           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Malvern Howardites 21 Sc 26.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Malvern Howardite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Palme et al. 1978
Manganese Nodules 21 Sc 10           ppm Average concentrations of various elements found in deep sea Manganese nodules.  Sea salt components are subtracted assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Baturin 1988
Mantle Xenoliths 21 Sc 12           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Xenolith mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough 1990
Marianas Basalt 21 Sc 33.64         15 ppm Average major and trace element values for Marianas Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Marianas Trench 21 Sc 6.94           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Marine Organisms 21 Sc 0.07           ppm Concentration values of various elements found in marine organisms. Element concentrations are mainly from brown algae data from Bowen 1979, which are also indicative of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Li 1991 Bowen 1979
Marine Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 19           ppm Average concentrations for various elements enriched in Oceanic Pelagic Clays.  Compared to the element values of Shales, the Pelagic Clays are relatively similar with few exceptions.   All sea salt components are subtracted from the sample analysis assuming all chloride is of seawater origin. Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 19           ppm Average concentrations of elements in oceanic pelagic clays.  The elemental values found in the Pelagic clays give good indications on river input of elements to the oceans.  From river sources to mid oceanic ridge sinks this is also a good indicator of atmospheric conditions for varying periods of world history.   Li 1982
Marine Phosphorites 21 Sc 11 10   5 18 12 ppm Average trace element abundances in Marine Phosphorite as based on 18 regional averages and various number of analyses averaged. All Comp low values of '0' are actually 'N.D.' values. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 21 Sc       0.3 5.8 6 ppm Range of contents of Scandium in sedimentary marine apatites as based from 6 sample analyses from a range of different localities. All values in ppm. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 21 Sc 2         6 ppm Average contents of Scandium in sedimentary marine apatites as based from 6 sample analyses from a range of different localities. All values in ppm. Altschuller 1980
Marine Shales 21 Sc 13           ppm Concentrations of trace elements in shale as given by Turekian and Wedepohl 1961. Altschuller 1980 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Marine Shales 21 Sc 13           ppm Average concentrations of various elements in shales, note that the values are within a factor of two or better as compared to Oceanic Pelagic Clays with a few exceptions.  The exceptions, as far as this reference is concerned, are not critical and any conclusions drawn are applicable to both Oceanic Pelagic Clays and Shales.  Li 1991 Turekian & Wedepohl 1961
Mavic Volcanics 21 Sc 37         632 ppm Average of 538 subsamples and 49 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Mead Peak Phosphatic Shale Member 21 Sc 0.001         41 ppm Average phosphorite of Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale member of Phosphoria Formation. Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Mekong River Particulates 21 Sc 19.5           µg/g Elemental particulates in major Asian rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 21 Sc 26           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Extensions 21 Sc 16           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 21 Sc 19           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Orogens 21 Sc 26           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.2             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.1             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.6             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 14.2           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 15.6           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.57             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Mesozoic & Cenozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.71             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
META 78008 Urelite 21 Sc 8.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on META 78008 Urelite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Kallemeyn 1992
Metafelsic Volcanics 21 Sc 13         41 ppm Average of 38 subsamples and 3 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Metalliferous Clay 21 Sc 34.4         12 ppm Average of 12 metalliferous clays between 10-30 m depth using DCP analyses. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Metapelitic Granulitic Xenolites 21 Sc 23 19       32 ppm Median values are used instead of average values in the model calculations to avoid outlyers of small sample populations. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Mexico Trench 21 Sc 15.74           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 15           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Gao et al. 1998a. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 19   5       µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by This Study (Rudnick and Gao 2004). Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 19           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Middle Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 22           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 5.4           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Shaw et al. 1994. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1994
Middle Continental Crust 21 Sc 22           µg/g Major and Minor element compositional estimates of the Middle Continental crust as given by Rudnick and Fountain 1995. Major element oxides are given in wt.% and trace elements abundances are given in ¿g/g or ng/g. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 4             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 2.1             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 15.8           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 14.1           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.74             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Middle Proterozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.59             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Miles IIE Iron 21 Sc 25           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Miles IIE Iron 21 Sc 24.1           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Miles IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Ebihara et al. 1997
Mincy Mesosiderite 21 Sc 19.8           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Mincy Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Simpson & Ahrens 1977
Mishash Formation 21 Sc 5         3 ppm Calcareous pelletal and bone phosphorite, associated with limestones and cherts of the Mishash Formation Hamakhtesh haQatan carbonate platform, Israel. P2O5: 22-33%. Uranium is average value of 14 samples of P2O5 in excess of 20%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Mazor 1963
Monterey Formation 21 Sc 12         5 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, associated with radiolaran chert and organic-rich bentonic shales of the Monterey formation Tertiary geosyncline in California, U.S.A., P2O5: 15-20%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Moore County Eucrite 21 Sc 19.8           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Moore County Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
N-MORB 21 Sc 33.6           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Mid-Cayman Rise. Glass compositions reported in ReidgePetDB for sample KNO0054-027-005 then augmented with BA, V and Y data on a similar sample reported by Thompson et al. 1980 and the sole isotopic analysis of a Mid-Cayman rise basalt from RidgePetDB. Klein 2004 Thompson et al. 1980
N-MORB 21 Sc 42.3           ppm Analyses on N-MORB from the Northern section of the East Pacific Rise as reported by Niu et al. 1999. Klein 2004 Niu et al. 1999
N-MORB 21 Sc 48           ppm Analyses of Kolbeinsey Ridge N-MORB which is a high F and high P MORB. These analyses were taken from the Ridge PetDB for sample POS0158-404-00 with major and trace elements derived from whole rock powders, Pb, Sr, Rb and isotope ratios derived from glasses. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 21 Sc 44           ppm Compositie analyses on N-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this N-type MORB are taken from the sample EW19309-012-00. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
N-MORB 21 Sc 41.37   4.054     26 ppm Trace element average abundances for N-MORB as taken from analysis of 26 fresh MORB glasses defined N-type by the light-REE depletion.  These values were originally measured by Jochum et al. 1988. All standard deviations were calculated from percent values given in Hofmann 1988 (Table 1). Hofmann 1988 Jochum et al. 1988
N-MORB 21 Sc 41.37           ppm Values of N-MORB taken from varying sources for comparison to 735B gabbro composition analyzed in Hart et al. 1999. Hart et al. 1999 Hofmann 1988
Ito et al. 1987
Smith et al. 1995
Hauri & Hart 1997
Nakhla Meteorite 21 Sc 51   4       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Nakhla meteorite (nakhlite) as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Nankai Trench 21 Sc 14.95           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Nano Ooze 21 Sc 10.5         4 ppm Average of 4 nanno oozes after Peate et al. (1997) that have been diluted by the percentages of pure CaCO3 in the drill cores. The biogenic diluent is 28% CaCO3 in this 114 m deep unit. The average was calculated after renormalizing the analyses on a CaCO3-free basis followed by the dilution appropriate for these drill cores. Core estimates have been weigthed by the height of the drilled intervals. Plank & Langmuir 1998
New Hebrides Islands 21 Sc 38         14 ppm Average major and trace element values for New Hebrides Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
North American Shale Composite (NASC)   La/Sc 2.07             Major ratio compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 21 Sc 15           ppm Major oxide and minor element compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 21 Sc 30           ppm Major, minor and trace element concentrations of eucrites from Ibitira which is a vesicular unbrecciated eucrite sample. The vesicular nature of Ibitira is possibly due to the fact that it crystallzed at a low pressure relative to other eucrites. This sample has been analyzed according to Neutron Activation using a single chip of the Ibitira sample.  Morgan et al. 1978
North American Shale Composite (NASC) 21 Sc 31.5           ppm Element concentrations of the Ibitira eucrite as found by Wanke et al. 1974 which in this case is the only other source that has comparative data on this sample. Morgan et al. 1978 Wanke & Palme 1974
North American Shale Composite (NASC)   Th/Sc 0.82             Major ratio compositions for North American Shale Composite. No source reference found in text.  Condie 1993
North Antilles Trench 21 Sc 11.75           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 2 or high. Plank & Langmuir 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. The middle crust of the North Qinling belt is assumed to consist of the underthrusted South Qinling middle crust (see text for explanation). Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 21           ppm Compostional estimate of the North Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
North Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the Northern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Novo-Urei Ureilite 21 Sc 8.1   0.1       ppm Elemental abundances of the Novo-Urei Meteorite which is a urelite achondrite. Abundances were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and also Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in order to attain more precise data for REEs. Boynton et al. 1976
Nuevo Laredo Eucrite 21 Sc 33.3           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Nuevo Laredo Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Warren & Jerde 1987
Ocean Arc Xenoliths 21 Sc 13 12 5     21   Mean and median whole rock composition of Oceanic Arc Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Crust 21 Sc 41           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1994 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Hofmann 1988
Oceanic Crust 21 Sc 40           ppm Minor and trace element averages for the Oceanic crust based on Hofmann 1988 and Wedepohl 1993 Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1981
Oceanic Island Xenoliths 21 Sc 8 9 2     16   Mean and median whole rock composition of Ocean Island Xenoliths as based on Major/Minor element compositions and specific elemental ratios. Pearson et al. 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 44.4           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample VIJ1. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 27.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR94-35. Values taken from unpublished information. Kerr 2004
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 36.9           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 738, sample 34-1 and 88-92. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1995. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1995
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 38.9           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 750, sample 17-3 and 23-26.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 353           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Ecuador locality, sample EQ1. Values taken from Reynaud et al. 1999. Kerr 2004 Reynaud et al. 1999
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 41.1           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR117. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 335           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau DSDP site 150, sample 11-2 and 63-67. Values taken from Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 34.5           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 749, sample 15-5 and 125-7.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 28.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Gorgona locality, sample GOR160. Values taken from Aitken & Echeverria, Dupre & Echeverria and Jochum et al. 1991. Kerr 2004 Aitken & Echeverria 1984
Dupre & Echeverria 1984
Jochum et al. 1991
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 18.7           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 748, sample 79-6 and 90-4.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 258           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacaolocality, sample CUR20. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 52.3           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 88-3 and 76-79. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 42.2           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample SDB18. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1997 and Hauff et al. 2000b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1997
Hauff et al. 2000
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 45.9           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau ODP site 807, sample 75-4 and 46-48. Values taken from Mahoney et al. 1993a. Kerr 2004 Mahoney et al. 1993
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 50           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Santa Isabel locality, sample I96. Values taken from Tejada et al. 1996. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 30.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Colombia locality, sample COL472. Values taken from Kerr et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 41           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample SG1. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 33.8           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Kerguelen Plateau ODP site 747, sample 16-5 and 103-6.  Information taken from Salters et al. 1992. Kerr 2004 Salters et al. 1992
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 186           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Carribean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau Curacao locality, sample CUR14. Values taken from Kerr et al. 1996b. Kerr 2004 Kerr et al. 1996
Oceanic Plateaus 21 Sc 40           ppm Representative analyses of Cretaceous oceanic plateau lavas from the Ontong-Java Plateau Maliata locality, sample ML407. Values taken from Tejada et al. 2002. Kerr 2004 Tejada et al. 2002
Oceans Surface water 21 Sc       0.4 1   ng/kg Surface or near-surface concentratio. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. All depths. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brewer et al. 1972
ODP Site 735 21 Sc 33.6 33.8       22 ppm Average of 22 composite strip samples as defined in Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Orangeite 21 Sc 18.8         114 ppm Average major and trace element composition and selected isotopic data for Orangeites from Swartuggens, Finisch, Bellsbank and Sover kimberlite localities in South Africa. Farmer 2004 Mitchell 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Al/Sc 0.145   0.005         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ca/Sc 0.156   0.006         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Sc/Yb 37.7   1.9         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Ordinary Chondrites   Ti/Sc 75   3         Element ratios were determined on relatively unaltered chondritic meteorites including L, LL and H. McDonough & Sun 1995
Orgueil Chondrite 21 Sc 5.76         10 ppm Solar system abundances of major and minor elements as based on studies from the Orgueil Meteorite. Abundances in the Orgueil meteorite are adequately close to the C1 chondrite mean except for REE, in which case other studies will yield more preferable results Anders & Ebihara 1982
Orgueil Chondrite 21 Sc 5.3           µg/g Bulk compositions of Orgueil chondrules as measured by INAA. Grossman et al. 1985
Orgueil Chondrite 21 Sc 5.83         12 ppm Orgueil meteorite measurements. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Oulad Abdoun Basin 21 Sc 10         4 ppm Clayey pelletal phosphorites, associated with limestones, cherts and clays of Oulad Abdoun Basin carbonate platform of Morocco; composite samples of mining production in four localities, representing 10,000 tons, P2O5: 33%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Paleozoic Orogens 21 Sc 28           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Orogens 21 Sc 21           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.3             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Cr/Sc 3.2             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.6             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   La/Sc 1.9             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 14.2           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust 21 Sc 15.6           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.57             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Paleozoic Upper Crust   Th/Sc 0.71             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Parana River Particulates 21 Sc 25.4           µg/g Elemental particulates in major South American rivers. Averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 31.1         3 ppm Middle 30 m of a total section that is 335 m thick (Site 581) dominated by pelagic clay. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 12.4         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 15         55 ppm ODP Site through the toe of the accretionary prism into the basement. Only 350 m of sediments underneath the decollement are considered and used in a simple mean for this homogeneous sedimentary section that was sampled 55 times for every 3-13 m of section. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 20.3         8 ppm Average of 8 sediments that are all younger than Campanian-Maastrichtian and are typically Fe-rich clays. The basal sediments may be of hydrothermal origin. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 12.4         56 ppm Average of 56 sediments of Cretaceous age representing a diverse lithology including brown, gray, nanno, radiolarian and streaky clays. This section also includes turbidites and is very similar in composition as Site 765 in the East Sunda trench. This average is therefore based on both Site 261 and 765 data. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 18         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Sc is calculated based on Sc/Al in chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelagic Clay 21 Sc 17.2         6 ppm Average of 6 analyses weighted by depth interval. Sc is calculated based on Sc/Al in chert. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Pelites 21 Sc 15.4         69 ppm Average of 60 subsamples and 9 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pelites 21 Sc 15.9         1341 ppm Average of 1238 subsamples and 103 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Pena Blanca Spring Aubrite 21 Sc 9           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Pe¿a Blanca Spring Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wolf et al. 1983
Lodders et al. 1993
Peninsular Range Batholith 21 Sc 1.8           ppm Analysis of Archean Calc-Alkaline Type 1 & 2 Granite represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Sylvester 1995
Periodotite Section in Ophiolites 21 Sc   14.1         ppm McDonough 1991
Peru Trench 21 Sc 10.56           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Petersburg Eucrites 21 Sc 26.15           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Petersburg Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mason et al. 1979
Buchanan & Reid 1996
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 24.1         7 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalt Gudchikhinsky (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 32.2         9 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Siberian Traps Flood Basalts Nadezhdinsky (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Wooden et al. 1993
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 29         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Urubici (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 42         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Esmeralda (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 40         1 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Parana Flood Basalts in Gramado (Low Ti). Farmer 2004 Peate 1997
Phanerozoic Flood Basalts 21 Sc 34.4         36 ppm Major and trace element compositions as well as selected isotopic composition for Columbia River Flood Basalts NW US (High Ti). Farmer 2004 Hooper & Hawkesworth 1993
Philip Trench 21 Sc 13.19           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Phosphoria Formation 21 Sc 10         60 ppm Dark pelletal shaly phosphorites, average of the Retort (20) and Meade Peak (40) phosphatic shale members of the Phosphoria formation of the North Rocky Mountains, associated with black chert, shale and carbonates of the Permian geosyncline, P2O5 = 23-37%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 21 Sc   10         ppm Rare-metal contents with modes above threshold values in phosphorites. Gulbrandsen 1966
Phosphoria Formation 21 Sc 0.001         61 ppm Average phosphorite of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Precambrian Canadian Shield 21 Sc 7           ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Precambrian Granulites 21 Sc 19         88 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 17           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from W¿nke et al. 1984. McDonough & Frey 1989 Wanke et al. 1984
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 14.8           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Hart and Zindler 1987. McDonough & Frey 1989 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 13           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Taylor and McLennan 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 17           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Sun 1982. McDonough & Frey 1989 Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 15           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Anderson 1983. McDonough & Frey 1989 Anderson 1983
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc   17.3         ppm McDonough 1991 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun 1982
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 19           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from Palme and Nickel 1985. McDonough & Frey 1989 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 17.1           ppm Model compositions for Earth's Primitive mantle as based on analysis from McDonough & Sun 1989 (in prep). McDonough & Frey 1989 McDonough & Sun 1989
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 14.88           ppm Trace element abundances in the Earth's Primitive mantle given in ppm as was first found by Hart and Zindler 1986. The major element factor of 2.51 was used to obtain the mantle values of the refractory trace elements from the abundances of C1 Carbonaceous chondrites. Hofmann 1988 Hart & Zindler 1986
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16.1           ppm The 'Second Approach' to calculate primitive mantle composition (according to Wedepohl & Hartmann 1991) utilizing 97.2% Balmuccia peridotite plus 2.8% bulk crust concentrations of 40 elements. The 2.8% infusing of bulk crust concentrations is due to the 3-6% parital melt loss of MORB-type prior to forming Balmuccia lherzolites. The 3-6% MORB therefore must be replaced in the Balmuccia lherzolite in the form of volatile elements so as to mimic the original concentrations of the primitive mantle. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Wedepohl 1991
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16.9           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16.5           ppm Elemental abundances of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given by various sources. This set of values are given as a comparison to those of the Bulk Continental Crust given by Rudnick & Gao of the Treatise on Geochemistry Chapter 3.1. Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 17           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 19           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 Palme & Nickel 1985
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16           ppm Major and minor element compositional averages in Primitive upper mantle models. Pearson et al. 2004 McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16.5   1.65       ppm Elemental composition of the Primitive Mantle of the Earth as given from this study and other various sources. These elemental values are compared to those of CI Chondrites given by Palme & Jones 2004 Treatise of Geochemistry. Comments given by the authors in reference to these values: RLE Palme & O'Neill 2004
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 16.2   1.62       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 14.9           ppm Minor and trace element concentrations of the Primitive Mantle according to 4 sources (Jagoutz et al. 1979, Hart&Zindler 1986, Morgan 1986, Hofmann 1986) used as balances for calculations. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994 Morgan et al. 1986
Primitive Mantle 21 Sc 18           ppm Primitive mantle 94% Balmuccia and 6% MORB. Primitive mantle concentrations derived from correlations of Li, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Gal, Y, Zr, HREE and Hf with Al2O3 in the peridotites at 4%. Wedepohl & Hartmann 1994
Primitive Mantle   V/Sc 4.7             Selected ratios for Primitive mantle abundances averaged from various sources in an effort to compare and contrast values obtained by McDonough 1990 for spinel peridotite xenoliths and their relative associations with the composition of the Earth's Mantle. McDonough 1990 McDonough & Frey 1989
Sun & McDonough 1989
Sun 1982
Protolith Gabbros at ODP Site 735 21 Sc 48.1         8 ppm Average of 8 protolith samples as defined in the footnote of Table 2 and Table 1. Hart et al. 1999
Pungo River Formation 21 Sc 7         2 ppm Pelletal phosphorites, quartzose and clayey, associated with limestones, sands, and silts of estuarine and near shore coastal plain platform (Pungo River formation, North Carolina, U.S.A.): average of two composites: concentrates from prospecting composites of entire mined zone in two areas; P2O5: 30-33%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980
Qingzhen Enstatite Chondrite 21 Sc 4.4           µg/g Bulk elemental compositions of Quingzhen whole rock as measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Grossman et al. 1985
QUE 94201 Meteorite 21 Sc 48   2       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by QUE94201 meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Radiolarian Clay 21 Sc 17.5         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 21 Sc 17.5         8 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 15% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarian Clay 21 Sc 12.8         2 ppm The bulk composition of the radiolarian clay was calculated by first estimating the composition of the average clay in the region and then diluting it by 30% biogenic SiO2. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 21 Sc 5.9         4 ppm Average of 4 radiolarite analyses that have been corrected using dilution factors based on the down-core logging for SiO2 contents. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Radiolarites 21 Sc 4.9         17 ppm Average of 17 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Retort Phosphatic Shale Member 21 Sc 0.001         20 ppm Average phosphorite of Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of Phosphoria formation.  Modal values used for minor elements. Gulbrandsen 1966
Rifted Continental Margins 21 Sc 21           ppm Rudnick & Fountain 1995
Rifted Continental Margins 21 Sc 33           ppm Lower crustal rocks are combined in proportions as indicated in Figure 2. Average compositions were calculated using mafic granulitic xenoliths since these xenoliths are believed to represent the lowermost continental crust. Rudnick & Fountain 1995
River Particulates 21 Sc 18           µg/g World averages for suspended matter in major world rivers. This particular array of rivers can lead to slightly biased results for certain trace elements since those elements are usually measured in temperate and/or arctic rivers. All averages for major elements are weighted according to the suspended load prior to the construction of dams, as for trace elements the average contents are mean values. Martin & Meybeck 1979
Rivers 21 Sc 0.004           ppb Average concentration of elements in filtered river water.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in unfiltered sea water and then used in equations given in Li 1982 to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Ryuku Trench 21 Sc 24.16           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 4 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sandstones 21 Sc 2.4           ppm Condie 1993
Sandstones 21 Sc 1.6           ppm Condie 1993
Scotia Island Basalt 21 Sc 34.45         11 ppm Average major and trace element values for Scotian Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Seawater 21 Sc 0.0006           ppb Average concentration of elements in unfiltered seawater.  These values are used in conjuction with concentrations taken from the same elements in filtered river water and then used in equations (given in Li 1982) to determine mean oceanic residence time of particular elements.  Problems arise however with the relative pollution found in average river waters, and a lack of adequate data for filtered seawater to make a better comparison to filtered river water (which in this instance is found to be the most ideal comparison, yet the most difficult to perform). Li 1982
Seawater 21 Sc 0.86             Elemental average concentrations of the deep Atlantic and deep Pacific waters summarized by Whitfield & Turner 1987.  Li 1991 Whitfield & Turner 1987
Seawater 21 Sc 15     8 20     Surface depletion. Sc(OH)3[0+] is the probable main species in oxygenated seawater. Range and average concentrations normalized to 35¿ salinity. Bruland 1983
Seawater 21 Sc         1   ng/kg This mean ocean concentratio has been calculated based on the correlation expressions in Table 1, assuming a salinity of 35¿, a nitrate concentratio of 30 ¿mol/kg, a phosphate concentratio of 2 ¿mol/kg and a silicate concentratio of 110 ¿mol/kg. Where possible data is from the Pacific ocean that shows the greates variations; otherwhise data is from the Atlantic ocean. Quinby-Hunt & Turekian 1983 Brewer et al. 1972
Seawater 21 Sc 1.5e-05             Broeker & Peng 1982
Sera de Mage Eucrite 21 Sc 19.2           ppm Major, minor and trace element abundances as found in Eucrites from Serra de Mage (Brazil).  Sample analyzed by INAA at University of Oregon. Serra de Mage has a relatively high, but variable, plagioclase content as compared to other Eucrites.  The calcic nature of this plagioclase makes Serra de Mage perhaps the best meteoric analogue to lunar anorthosites and ancient terrestrial calcic anorthosites. Morgan et al. 1978
Sera de Mage Eucrite 21 Sc 14           ppm Element abundances of the Serra de Mage eucrite as analyzed by various different sources.  These values are placed against the values found in this study (Morgan et al. 1978) according to INAA. Morgan et al. 1978 Schmitt et al. 1972
Serra De Mage Eucrite 21 Sc 23.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Serra de Mage Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Shales   La/Sc 2.37             Condie 1993
Shales   La/Sc 2.22             Condie 1993
Shales   La/Sc 1.5             Condie 1993
Shales 21 Sc 21           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 21 Sc 17           ppm Condie 1993
Shales 21 Sc 16           ppm Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.82             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.84             Condie 1993
Shales   Ti/Sc 0.41             Condie 1993
Shalka Diogenite 21 Sc 9.9           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Shanlka Diogenite. Mittlefehldt 2004 McCarthy et al. 1972
Mittlefehldt 1994
Shallowater Aubrite 21 Sc 6.8           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Shallowater Aubrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Easton 1985
Keil et al. 1989
Shergotty Meteorite 21 Sc 52   7       ppm Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite (basalitc shergottite) as given in Lodders 1988. Mars elemental abundances as given by Shergotty meteorite, which is a basalitc shergottite, as given in Lodders 1988. McSween, Jr. 2004 Lodders 1998
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 16           ppm Composition of the Silicate Earth as given by elemental abundances in ppm (and wt%). McDonough 2004
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 14.88           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Hofmann 1988
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 17.3           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Sun 1982
Sun & McDonough 1989
McDonough & Frey 1989
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 17           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Jagoutz et al. 1979
Wanke et al. 1984
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 16           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 16.2   1.62       ppm Pyrolite model for the silicate Earth composition based on peridotites, komatiites and basalts. Error estimate is subjective. McDonough & Sun 1995
Silicate Earth 21 Sc 13           ppm Abundances of refractory lithophile elements along with K, Rb and Cs for models of the Bulk Silicate Earth. Data taken from various sources that agree Earth experienced some depletion of semi-volatile to volatile elements in relation to refractory lithophile elements during accretion. McDonough et al. 1992 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Silicic Precambrian Granulites 21 Sc 8         23 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Silicified Limestone 21 Sc 2.5           ppm Mixed siliceous and carbonate lithologies including nannofossil and radiolarian oozes, chalk and chert. The average of the Hein et al. (1983) partly silicified chalk has been used after dilution with 50% total CaCO3. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Silty Mud 21 Sc 17         16 ppm The hemi-pelagic clay analyses where averaged over 10 m intervals and then averaged down-unit. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sioux County Eucrite 21 Sc 34.5           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Sioux County Eucrites. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Slope Lisbourne Group 21 Sc 15         4 ppm Dark pelletal phosphorites, muddy and calcareous, associated with black chert, shale and limestone of the Slope Lisbourne group geosyncline, Alaska. P2O5 greater than 10%. Detection Limit = 1 ppm. Altschuller 1980 Patton & Matzko 1959
Solar Corona 21 Sc 4.04   0.4         SEP values corrected for the Q/M-depenent fractionation which depend on the assumed Fe/Si ratio. For the most part these values are quite accurate they generally agree with Solar Wind values and lie within the errors of the specroscopic data. Very Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989 Breneman & Stone 1985
Solar Corona 21 Sc 4.04   0.4         Based on the measurement of solar energetic particles. Adopted solar corona values corrected for residual charge/mass fractionation. Normalized to Log A(Si) = 7.55 based on the photospheric scale. Uncertain data. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar Photosphere 21 Sc 3.17   0.1         Elemental solar photospheric abundances as given by various references. Palme & Jones 2004 Grevesse & Sauval 1998
Solar Photosphere 21 Sc 3.1   0.09         Abundances in Solar Photosphere; in original table: log N(H) = 12.00. Uncertain standard deviation. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 21 Sc 34.2   2.736     18   Solar atomic abundances based on an average of C1 chondrites. Values are not normalised to 100% but they are relative to 10E6 Silica atoms. Anders & Grevesse 1989
Solar System 21 Sc 33.8   3.042     15   Anders & Ebihara 1982
Solar System 21 Sc 31             Anders & Ebihara 1982 Cameron 1982
Solid Earth 21 Sc 10.9           ppm Bulk elemental composition of the Solid Earth with concentrations given in ppm (and wt% where noted). McDonough 2004
Solid Earth 21 Sc 10.9           µg/g Compostioinal models for the bulk Earth, core and silicate Earth are modified after McDonough & Sun (1995). McDonough 1998
South Antilles Trench 21 Sc 13.67           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or low. Plank & Langmuir 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 21 Sc 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 21 Sc 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 21 Sc 18           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 21 Sc 20           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
South Margin of North China Craton 21 Sc 19           ppm Compostional estimate of the south margin of the North China craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the Southern Qinling orogenic belt. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
South Qinling Belt in China 21 Sc 15           ppm Compostional estimate of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Gao et al. 1998
South Sandwich Trench 21 Sc 9.91           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Spinel Peridotites 21 Sc 12.2 12 6.4     220 ppm McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites 21 Sc   12         ppm McDonough 1991 Maaloe & Aoki 1975
Jordan 1979
Boyd 1989
McDonough 1990
Spinel Peridotites   V/Sc 5 4.7 1.1     113   McDonough 1990
Stannern Eucrite 21 Sc 29.4           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Stannern Eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Barrat et al. 2000
McCarthy et al. 1973
Subducted Sediment 21 Sc 13.1   1.03       ppm Global subducting sediment (GLOSS) composition estimate based on DSDP and ODP drill cores for 70% of the worldwide trenches. The average is calculated as a mass-flux-weighted global mean taking into account convergence rates, trench lengths and sediment columns. Includes sediment columns from seafloor that is not currently subducting. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Sumatra Trench 21 Sc 11.99           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 3 or moderate. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 52   2     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 35.4   1.1     16 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 29.3   0.1     86 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 20.4   1     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 31.5   1     17 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of pyroxenites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 21.4   0.9     13 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Intermediate to felsic plutons from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 45   1     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 38.7   1.4     7 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet diorites and tonalites from the Klanelneechina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 39.5   0.5     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 43.7   0.5     31 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of gabbronorites from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 26.9   0.3     42 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of Lavas, tuffs and volcaniclastic samples from the Talkeetna section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Talkeetna Arc Plutonic Rocks 21 Sc 57   2     6 ppm Geochemical data from the Talkeetna Arc Section of the Lower Crust. These particular values are representative of garnet granulites from the Tonsina section. All values for major element oxides are given in wt.% and for trace elements in ppm. Trace elements were gathered via XRF and ICP-MS analysis. Kelemen et al. 2004
Tonalites 21 Sc 11           ppm Total average of group averages from USA, Canada, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Finland, UK and Portugal using an equal statistical weight. Wedepohl 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 12           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 5           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 4.7         355 ppm Analysis of Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) represented in major and minor element abundances as well as slected trace element ratios given by Martin 1995 but plotted in Figure 5 of Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Martin 1995
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 7.4         641 ppm Average of 596 subsamples and 45 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 14           ppm Condie 1993
Tonalites-Trondhjemites-Granodiorites 21 Sc 8.8         553 ppm Average of 502 subsamples and 51 composites. Gao et al. 1998
Tonga Trench 21 Sc 22           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Tongan Basalts 21 Sc 44.58         9 ppm Average major and trace element values for Tongan Arc Basalts given in weight percent and parts per million respectively. Kelemen et al. 2004
Transitional Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts 21 Sc 43           ppm Compositie analyses on T-MORB glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as reported in the RidgePetDB database. Major and most trace elements for this T-type MORB are taken from the sample VEM0025-001-022. Klein 2004 Lehnert 2000
Turbidites 21 Sc 16.48         4 ppm Similar lithologies as for Site 183 but with a greater thickness of the turbidites. Combined 300 m of Site 183 sediments with 480 m of turbidites in Site 178 and two shallow piston cores. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Turbidites 21 Sc 11.6         4 ppm Average of 4 Quaternary turbidites from the Ganges cone after McLennan et al. (1990) assuming that equal proportions of fine (clay-silt) and coarse (silt-sand) units. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Ultrabasic Precambrian Granulites 21 Sc 36         14 ppm Shaw et al. 1986
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/Sc 8.4             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Cr/Sc 7.8             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   La/Sc 2.1             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   La/Sc 2.2             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 13.3           ppm Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 13.4           ppm Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 7           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Wedepohl 1995 and represent a previous estimate. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 7           ppm UCC = Shaw et al. (1967;1976). Wedepohl 1995
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 11           ppm Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 13.6           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Taylor and McLennan 1985 & 1995 and represent estimates derived from sedimentary and loess data. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Taylor & McLennan 1985
Taylor & McLennan 1995
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 15           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Gao et al. 1998 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Gao et al. 1998
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 13.4           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Condie 1993 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 12           µg/g Estimates of trace element composition of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Eade and Fahrig 1973 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Eade and Fahrig 1973
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 10           ppm Upper crust trace element data from Taylor and McLennan 1981. Data used primarily for comparison to Loess data obtained in this study (Taylor et al. 1983) which has some element abundances similar to Upper Crustal values. Taylor et al. 1983 Taylor & McLennan 1981
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 14           ppm Major and minor element composition of the Upper Crust of the Earth with selected trace element ratios as given by Rudnick and Gao 2004. Kemp & Hawkesworth 2004 Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 14           µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004
Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 14   0.9       µg/g Recommended composition of the Upper Continental Crust as given by various sources which are listed in Table 1 and 2 of Rudnick and Gao 2004 as well as in the text. Rudnick & Gao 2004 see text










Upper Continental Crust 21 Sc 7           µg/g Estimates of trace element compositions of the Upper Continental Crust. These values are taken from Shaw et al. 1967 & 1976 and represent averages from surface exposures. Rudnick & Gao 2004 Shaw et al. 1967
Shaw et al. 1976
Upper Continental Crust   Th/Sc 0.68             Restoration model. Concentrations are calculated after restoration of the amount of crust lost be erosion, in particular, important when estimating the composition of juvenile continental crust. The restoration is performed based on geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. In this model 5 and 10 km extra crust is added to the present-day upper-crustal layer for Phanerozoic and Precambrian areas, respectively. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Upper Continental Crust   Th/Sc 0.65             Map model. Concentrations are directly calculated from rock proportions scaled from geologic maps and stratigraphic successions as summarized in Table 2. The UCC is calculated from data in Tables 4-6 with a weight ratio for Archean:Proterozoic:Phanerozoic = 50:30:20 that can be further divided into 10% Early and 90% Late Archean; 50% Early and 25% Middle and 25% Late Proterozoic; and 50% Paleozoic and 50% Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Ratios calculated from weighted arithmetic means of rock types given in Appendix A-H. Condie 1993
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 21 Sc 6.3           ppm Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 21 Sc 4.9           ppm Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Ureilite Primitive Achondrites 21 Sc       3.9 6.9   ppm Elemental abundance range of urelites as taken from all achondritic meteorites as found in Mason 1971. Abundances were obtained by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Boynton et al. 1976 Mason 1971
Vanuatu Trench 21 Sc 11.2           ppm Bulk composition estimate of sediments approaching the trench based on DSDP and ODP drill sites. Confidence level = 1 or highest. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Veramin Mesosiderite 21 Sc 11.15           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Veramin Mesosiderite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Mittlefehldt in press
Powell 1971
Volcanoclastic Sediment 21 Sc 11         15 ppm Average of 15 volcaniclastic sediments using DCP analyses as weighted by the height of each drilled interval. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 21 Sc 10         43 ppm Average of 43 combined analyses weighted by interval height. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Volcanoclastic Turbidites 21 Sc 8.5         13 ppm Average of 13 volcaniclastic turbidites corrected for pure silica using down-core logging for SiO2 contents, in a similar fashion as for the chert sections. Estimated value. Plank & Langmuir 1998
Watson IIE Iron 21 Sc 9.972           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Watson IIE Iron. Mittlefehldt 2004 Olsen et al. 1994
Winonaite Pontlyfni 21 Sc 5.79           µg/g Trace element compositional data on the Pontlyfni Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Graham et al. 1977
Davis et al. 1977
Winonaite Tierra Blanca 21 Sc 8.03           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Tierra Blanca Winonaite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Kallemeyn & Wasson 1985
Jarosweich 1990
Y-74450 Eucrites 21 Sc 30           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Y-74450 eucrite. Mittlefehldt 2004 Wanke et al. 1977
Y-791491 Lodranite 21 Sc 6.07           µg/g Trace element compositional data on Lodranite Y-791491. Mittlefehldt 2004 Weigel et al. 1999
Yangtze Craton 21 Sc 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average composition of granulite terrains. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 21 Sc 13           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 21 Sc 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 21 Sc 11           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Includes sedimentary carbonates. Gao et al. 1998
Yangtze Craton 21 Sc 14           ppm Compostional estimate of the Yangtze craton. Average compostion of granulite terrains and calculated on a sedimentary carbonate rock-free basis. Gao et al. 1998
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